Yuan and Ming Dynasties

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Information about Yuan and Ming Dynasties
Education

Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Reginaldo

Source: authorstream.com

Ancient China: The Yuan and Ming Dynasties:  Ancient China: The Yuan and Ming Dynasties Mr. Collins 7th Grade World History Quibbletown Middle School What You Will Learn About…:  What You Will Learn About… Yuan Dynasty “Dynasty of the Mongols” Empire stretched from Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Marco Polo’s Visit to China Ming Dynasty Rulers strengthened China’s government and brought peace and prosperity China sent a fleet of ships to explore Asia and East Africa The Forbidden City Background:  Background For most of human history, China was one of the most (and at times the most) advanced civilization on the planet China was always a land of wonder to others in ancient history, as it was located far away from many of the civilizations you’ve previously studied… they only knew of China through word of mouth! Background:  Background The Chinese were able to make luxury goods that nobody else in the world had in the ancient world The Chinese also were the first to invent lots of new technologies that became very useful to humans in history! China ruled by dynasties Dynasty - a line of rulers from the same family Background:  Background Luxury Goods Silk Spices like Cinnamon Rhubarb Technologies Gunpowder Compass Paper Iron Plows Horse harnesses Printing using blocks Ship rudders Background:  Background China had cross-cultural exchange with Asia and Europe via the “Silk Road” Merchants didn’t cross the whole Silk Road They traded goods along this route that crossed Asia in the ancient world The spread of goods and ideas passed along with the merchants Tales of China’s riches spread, too! The Mongols:  The Mongols The Mongols were nomads that lived on the steppes to the north of China Were very advanced in war, especially with fighting on horses using bows and arrows Great Wall of China was built in the 600s BCE to keep the Mongols out of China The Mongols:  The Mongols The Mongols:  The Mongols Genghis Khan In 1209, a man named Temujin united the different Mongol tribes together under his rule Temujin was renamed Genghis Khan, which stood for “ruler of the universe” Genghis Khan went on to form a giant empire in his life The Mongols:  The Mongols Genghis Khan organized an army of 100,000 warriors He led his warriors off to war and was successful in adding much land throughout Asia to his empire (including part of northern China) The Mongols eventually ruled, more than 100 million people (1 thousand people ruled for each warrior). How did they do it? The Mongols:  The Mongols The Mongols were great warriors They were known for their cruelty and use of terror Terror refers to the use of violent actions that are meant to scare people into surrendering They would attack, rob and burn down cities They were so feared that many people would surrender to them without fighting The Mongols:  The Mongols The Mongols:  The Mongols “Man’s highest joy is in victory: to conquer one’s enemies, to deprive them of their possessions, to make their beloved weep, and to ride on their horses.” -Genghis Khan The Mongols:  The Mongols In 1260, Genghis Khan’s grandson becomes ruler of the Mongol Empire His name was Kublai Khan He went on to do what Genghis Khan could not… Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368):  Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Kublai Khan focuses on conquering all of China After 20 years, he is successful For the first (and only) time in its long history, China was ruled by foreigners The Yuan Dynasty was established, with Kublai Khan as its leader Slide17:  4 times the size of the United States! Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368):  Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) The Chinese resented foreign rule They thought the Mongols were rude and uncivilized and resented being forced to adopt Mongol traditions Mongols worshipped different gods, wore different clothing, and had different customs Kublai Khan saw a problem How do you think he dealt with this? He didn’t force the Chinese to adapt to the Mongol customs Instead, he adapted some Chinese customs Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368):  Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Kublai Khan taxed the Chinese heavily Most of the money went to improving China They extended the Grand Canal, which linked the major rivers of China Built new palaces Moved capital to Peking (Beijing) Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368):  Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368):  Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) The Mongols also improved the roads and created the first all-paper money system… why might they have done this? They needed to collect taxes from a large area so good transportation by horse was needed Why carry coins or valuables when you can carry paper money? Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368):  Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Marco Polo’s Voyage Kublai Khan was also famous for meeting with Marco Polo He was a merchant from Venice who traveled to China Met with Kublai Khan and kept a record of his travels Worked for Kublai Khan Became a best-seller in Europe Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368):  Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) “The palace wall encloses and encircles fully sixteen miles of parkland well watered with springs and streams… Into this park there is no entry except by way of the palace. Here the Great Khan keeps game animals of all sorts… to provide food for the gerfalcons [large arctic falcons] and other falcons which he has here in an enclosure.” Marco Polo c. 1275 What does this tell you about how Kublai Khan lived Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) A hundred years passed… Kublai Khan died The Chinese people rebelled against the Mongols ruling them and won their freedom The Ming Dynasty began Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) The Ming Dynasty leaders stressed a return to traditional Chinese values These values were those taught by Confucius hundreds of years earlier Confucianism - a philosophy based on the ideas of Confucius that focuses on morality, family, social harmony, and government Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) The Forbidden City Built by the Ming in the capital city of Beijing Only top officials in government could enter Huge gardens and palaces inside Emperor and others lived there in luxury for 500 years Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) Early Ming emperors wanted to expand China’s power They built a large fleet of ships that were able to travel in the open seas The most advanced ships in history to that point (100 years ahead of the Europeans) Leader of these voyages was named Zheng He Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) Zheng He Took his ships all the way to Mecca and the Swahili coast Established trade relations with the peoples he met Spread the “wonder” of China and its advanced ways increased the desire for its goods Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) One of those goods desired was porcelain vases Called Ming Vases Extremely valuable art, even today! Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) Lots of officials in the Ming Dynasty didn’t like the effect of the voyages They said that the ideas brought from the outside were bad for China’s way of life Also believed that merchants were going against Confucian teachings by gaining money for themselves instead of working for the betterment of China! Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644):  Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) After Zheng He died… The emperor destroyed ships Followed a policy of isolationism Isolationism - a policy of avoiding contact with other countries How might isolationism affect a society if it goes on for a long time? 100 years later, Europeans arrive on coast of China…

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