WWI--The War & Aftermath

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Information about WWI--The War & Aftermath

Published on February 20, 2014

Author: kbeacom

Source: slideshare.net

WWI The War and Aftermath

Spark  Franz Ferdinand:  Assassinated by a Bosnian student in June, 1914  Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia  Declared war on July 28

This led to…  Russia had a secret alliance with Serbia, they were ready to fight  Germany declared war on Russia  Germany declared war on France by invading neutral Belgium  Britain declared war on Germany on Aug. 4, due to invasion of Germany on Belgium

Taking Sides  Allied Powers:  Britain, France, Japan, Russia, later Italy  Central Powers:  Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, later Bulgaria

War in Other Areas  Spread to other areas in the world such as the Middle East, China, Africa  Due to imperial competition for land  This worldwide scope was the reason the war was called the “Great War” &“The War to End All Wars”  Additionally, the devastation that was caused to civilian populations


Why Not There?  Americans saw no reason to involve themselves in the struggle among Europe’s imperialistic powers  No vital US interests were at stake  US had positive relationships on both sides  US was able to provide war materials for both sides (weaponry and transportation)  Good for our economy!

Neutrality: Would it last?  Wilson called for it to continue: …“neutral in fact as well as in name, impartial in thought as well as action”  Difficult to do though; most favored one side or the other  Wilson wanted to be the chief negotiator after the end of the war

Immigrants: What Did They Think?  Divided among their loyalties  Most Americans believed that we should side with Britain or France  Some Irish resented the British  10 million German immigrants sided with the Central Powers to some extent  Other Americans took no side at all  It was NOT a partisan issue

Biggest Issue: Trade  US wanted to trade with both sides  August 1914: Britain imposed a naval blockade on Central Powers  Intent was to cut off supplies and starve Germany into submission  US thus did not trade with Germany either  Didn’t affect economy, as trade with Allied Powers was up due to war production needs

U-Boats  Germany warned that Allied Powers or anyone who would side with them could be subject to being fired upon  May 7, 1915: U-Boat fired on Lusitania  1,198 killed; included128 Americans  Munitions on board  Fueled anger of Americans  Sept. 1915: Germany said they would no longer fire on unarmed ships without warning

Wilson’s War Feelings  Wanted to negotiate the end of the war  Nobody was serious about it  Wilson felt that war was inevitable  He began to strengthen army and navy  National Defense Act of 1916 passed  Created Council of Defense  Planned industrial mobilization in event of war  Still was elected in 1916 for 2nd term on neutrality stance…but it looks like he was far from neutral!

Entry of US Into War  January 1917: Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare  US broke off diplomatic relations with Germany  Germany tried to get Mexico to join Central Powers  Promised Mexico would get back TX, NM, and AZ from US

Entry of US Into War  March 18, 1917: U-Boats attacked 3 American ships with no warning  By April 2, Wilson asked Congress to declare war  Stated that it was the role of the US to be “champions of the rights of mankind”

War Mobilization  US did not have a large peacetime army  Conscription into effect  Selective Service Act of 1917 passed to get civilians registered to enter the military  4.4 million troops called to duty

American Expeditionary Forces (AEF)  American troops nicknamed “Doughboys”  Boosted Allies’ morale  John J. Pershing led forces into war  First task was to secure safety of the seas  American troops arrived on Western Front by mid-1918  They were fresh and outnumbered German troops  Battle of Chateau-Thierry—American/French force stopped Germans from taking Paris  WWI ended on November 11, 1918  This allows US to emerge as THE world power

Facts about WWI:  48,000 servicemen died in action or being wounded  27,000 died from influenza alone  8 million Allied and Central Powers died  25% of all Native Americans served in military (12,000)  20% of those who served were born elsewhere  400,000 African Americans served (13% of force)  Early post-war feelings were positive, romantic?

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