Published on February 20, 2014
WWI Americans on the Home Front
• Liberty Bonds • • • • • • • Redeemed for original value + interest More than $20 billion raised Boy and Girl Scouts sold them to public Artists and actors also helped sell bonds Paid for ¼ of U.S. war costs ―Buy Bonds Till It Hurts‖ ―The Soldier Gives—You Must Lend‖ • Taxes led to $10 billion Financing the War
• Industry switched from commercial to war goods • War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch • Decide which factories would switch to war materials • Handed out raw materials, told what and how much to produce, and how much to sell them for (fixed prices) • ―Dollar-a-year-men‖ Managing the Economy
Government manages production and distribution of food and fuels necessary for war effort • Increased farm output, price controls on food, and rationing • Herbert Hoover—U.S. Food Administration • ―Food will win the war‖ • Daylight Savings Time – more sunlight during the day for work and less fuel used • Still have this today, should we? Managing the War
• Much division prior to entry in to war; unification & patriotism after U.S. enters war • Government censorship on press and banning of publications from mail • Committee on Public Information (CPI) • George Creel • Rally support for war Enforcing Loyalty
• National Security League preached ―100% Americanism‖ • Fear of Foreigners • Literacy tests for immigrants • German hate • ―Salisbury steak,‖ ―liberty cabbage,‖ & ―police dogs‖ • Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917 & 1918) • Broke 1st amendment rights • Over 1000 convictions • Eugene Debs arrested, Big Bill Haywood forced to flee Enforcing Loyalty
• After the War • Slowed flow of immigrants from Europe • Business needed workers – African Americans, Mexican Americans& Women take on new roles • 400K women w/ in industrial jobs during war • Increased social & economic power • Only temporary change • African American ―Great Migration‖ to North during war • African American population of Chicago doubled between 1910 & 1920 • Omaha’s black population went from 4K to 10K over same time period • Race riots, summer of 1919=―Red Summer‖ • Riots in Tulsa; Chicago; Washington, DC; St. Louis; Omaha • http://plainshumanities.unl.edu/encyclopedia/doc/egp.afam.032 • Resurgence of the KKK Changing People’s Lives
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