wspa07 23

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Travel-Nature

Published on March 26, 2008

Author: Janelle

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Working animals 役用動物 Module 23 模組23 Module 23 Learning objectives 學習目標:  Learning objectives 學習目標 To identify different species of working animals and their working conditions 闡明不同的役用動物物種和他們的工作狀況 To identify problems affecting welfare 闡明影響福利的問題 To suggest short-term and long-term improvements and alternatives 建議短期和長期的改進措施和替代方案 To understand benefits of increased working animal welfare to owner and environment 暸解動物福利工作的增加對飼主和環境的好處 Module 23 Summary of content 內容摘要:  Summary of content 內容摘要 Species of working animals 不同的役用動物物種 Husbandry 飼養業 Health and welfare problems 健康和福利的問題 Possible solutions 可能的解決辦法 Animal welfare and human welfare 動物和人的福利 Module 23 Introduction 簡介:  Introduction 簡介 About 300 million draught animals 大約3億頭役用動物 Used by 2 billion people in about 30 countries 分佈在大約30個國家供給20億人使用 Saving 20 billion tons of petrol 節省200億公噸的汽油 Purpose of working animals 役用動物的用途 Agriculture 農業 Hauling carts 拖曳動物運貨車 Power to devices 為設備提供動力 Carrying loads on back 在背上裝載運送貨物 Herding, guarding, hunting 放牧,守衛,狩獵 Module 23 Slide5:  1 2 4 5 3 Module 23 Ruminants 反芻動物:  Ruminants 反芻動物 Water buffalo 水牛 Cattle 牛 Mithan/Gayal Mithan 米山牛/大額牛 Bali cattle 巴里島牛 Yak 犛牛 Module 23 Water buffalo 水牛:  Water buffalo 水牛 Main purposes 主要目的 Milk 牛奶 Work 勞動 Meat 肉 Humid tropics 潮濕的熱帶 Access to water necessary 接近生活所必需的水源 Long hooves well suited for work in wet conditions 長的蹄很適合在潮濕的條件下工作 Slow animal 行動緩慢的動物 Module 23 Cattle 牛:  Cattle 牛 Non-humped: Temperate regions 無瘤的溫帶地區 Humped/Zebu: Warm climate 有瘤的/犛牛溫暖的氣候 Multipurpose animals, therefore high demands on nutrition 多種用途的動物,因而在營養上有較高的需求 Common use of oxen 牛隻的一般使用 Lameness 跛 Sores from wooden yokes 木製牛軛造成的疼痛 Module 23 Slide9:  Yak 犛牛 Module 23 Used for milk, hair, riding and as pack animal in high mountain regions of Asia 在亞洲的高山地區用於供應牛奶、毛,騎乘和當馱獸 Steep terrain 陡峭的地形 Coldness – long hair 寒冷- 長毛髮 Crossed with cattle for lower regions 與牛橫渡到更低的地區 Camelidae 1 駱駝科 1:  Camelidae 1 駱駝科 1 Camels 駱駝 One-humped dromedary 單峰駱駝 Two-humped bactrian 雙峰駱駝 Extreme temperatures 極端溫度 Cutaneous pads 皮膚肉墊 Hump 駝峰 Physiology 生理學 Llamas 美洲駝 Pack animals 馱運貨物的動物 Module 23 Camelidae 2 駱駝科 2:  Camelidae 2 駱駝科 2 Used for 用途 Transport of goods and people 運輸貨物和人 Draught 拉車 Milk, meat, hides, hair 牛奶,肉,皮革,毛髮 Welfare problems 福利問題 Harness and saddle wounds 挽具和馬鞍造成的創傷 Nose injuries 鼻子傷害 Module 23 Horses 馬:  Horses 馬 Problems: 問題 Lameness 跛 Sores from harnesses, saddles 來自挽具的疼痛,馬鞍 Open grassland開放的牧場 Social species 社會性的物種 Flight instinct 逃跑的本能 Module 23 Donkeys驢&Mules騾 (Donkey x horse) ( 驢x馬):  Donkeys驢&Mules騾 (Donkey x horse) ( 驢x馬) Module 23 Elephant 大象:  Elephant 大象 Trained wild animals 訓練野生的動物 Breeding 繁殖 Training 訓練 Ceremonial/tourist/ timber logging 禮儀/旅遊/木材砍伐 Problems 問題 Skin 皮膚 Feet 腳 Nutrition/teeth 營養/牙齒 Module 23 Dogs 狗:  Dogs 狗 Herding 放牧 Guarding 守衛 Hunting 狩獵 Draught 拉曳 Other: Guide, police, rescue 其他:嚮導,守衛,援救 Module 23 Husbandry assessment 飼養業評估:  Husbandry assessment 飼養業評估 Broad range of species, climate, traditions and resources 廣泛的物種,氣候,傳統常規和資源 Module 23 Good husbandry practices 1 良好的飼育實施方法 1:  Good husbandry practices 1 良好的飼育實施方法 1 Social behaviour 社會性行為 Keeping of social animals in groups 成群社會動物的保存 Ensure adequate mother-offspring contact 保證足夠的母親子女間的接觸 Locomotory behaviour 移動的行為 Limited tethering 有限的拴繩 Housing in pens, paddocks 住居在圍欄小牧場 Comfort behaviour 舒適的行為 Provide wallows – elephants, buffaloes 提供打滾的地方─大象,水牛 Allow grooming behaviour 允許修飾行為 Groom animals 照料動物 Module 23 Good husbandry practices 2 良好的飼育實施方法 2:  Good husbandry practices 2 良好的飼育實施方法 2 Feeding behaviour 飼養行為 Adequate quality and quantity of food and water 食物和水有足夠的質量和數量 Adequate access to food (trough length, no bullying) 足夠的靠近食物(飼料槽的長度,沒有恃強欺弱的行為) Resting behaviour 休息行為 Shade, shelter 陰涼處,遮蔽處 Soft lying area 柔軟的橫臥地區 Adequate space 足夠的空間 Module 23 Problems when working 工作時的問題:  Problems when working 工作時的問題 Overworking/insufficient rest 工作過度/不足的休息 Overloading/inadequate loading technique 超載/不適當的裝貨技術 Inadequate equipment (cart, harness) 不適當的裝備〈馬車,挽具〉 Inhumane handling 無人情味的管理 Working whilst in poor health, too young 健康不佳的情況下工作,太年輕 Road accidents 道路事故 Seasonality of work 工作的季節性 Lack of health care 缺乏保健 Module 23 How to assess problems 如何評估問題:  How to assess problems 如何評估問題 Questioning the owner 詢問飼主 Assessment of harness and cart 挽具和馬車的評估 Assessment of the animal 動物的評估 Module 23 Harness 挽具:  Harness 挽具 Ideal attachment 理想的附件 Saddle plus girth 馬鞍加上肚帶 Collar 馬軛 Breeches 馬褲 Four-wheeled and two-wheeled vehicles 四輪和兩輪的運載工具 Modifications for improvement 為改善而進行修改 Swingle tree Wheels slightly forward, weight further back 車輪移稍微向前一點,載重則在往後移一些 Collar 馬軛 Saddle馬鞍 Breeches 馬褲 Module 23 Animal-based parameters 動物的參數:  Animal-based parameters 動物的參數 Behavioural parameters, e.g. 行為的參數,例如: Dragging of feet, staggered walking 拖著腳走,難以相信的步行 Dull behaviour 遲鈍的行為 Increased avoidance distance to humans 增加能躲避人類的距離 Pathological parameters, e.g. 病理學的參數,例如: Skin lesion score 皮膚損害的傷痕 Nasal/ocular discharge 鼻/眼睛流出分泌物 Physiological parameters, e.g. 生理學的參數,例如: Pulse rate 脈搏比率 Respiration 呼吸 Rectal temperature 直腸的溫度 Module 23 Health and welfare problems 健康福利問題:  Health and welfare problems 健康福利問題 Lameness 跛 Body sores 身體的疼痛 Body condition 身體的狀態 Heat stress 熱緊迫 Infectious diseases 傳染病 Disposal when old/diseased 當年老/害病時的處置 Module 23 Lameness: Foot care 跛:足部的照護:  Lameness: Foot care 跛:足部的照護 Lameness assessment Hoof 蹄 Overgrown 生長過快 Too short 太短 Cracks 裂縫 Thrush/Canker 蹄叉腐疽/潰瘍 Arthritis/Tendonitis 關節炎 Injuries 傷害 Farriery – shoeing 給動物釘蹄鐵 1 3 4 2 Module 23 Slide25:  Skin lesions 皮膚損害 Common causes 常見的原因 Harness 挽具 Saddle 馬鞍 Tether/hobble 拴繩/跛行 Beating 鞭打 Prevention 預防 Treatment 對待 saddle harness tether beating Module 23 Tethering and hobbling 繫拴和捆綁兩腳:  Tethering and hobbling 繫拴和捆綁兩腳 Definitions 定義 Health and welfare problems 健康和福利問題 Pain 痛苦 Lesions 損害 Infections 傳染 Fractures 骨折 Restricted behaviour 受限制的行為 Reasons 原因 Material 物質的 Location of tether/hobble 拴繩/馬鞍的位置 Lack of supervision 缺乏管理 Module 23 Body condition 身體狀況:  Body condition 身體狀況 Quantity of food 食物的數量 Quality of food 食物的品質 Access to food 取得食物的方式 Endoparasites 體內寄生蟲 Teeth 牙齒 Other disease 其他疾病 Assess here 由此評估 Module 23 Heat stress 熱緊迫:  Heat stress 熱緊迫 Signs of heat stress 熱緊迫的跡象 Panting, laboured breathing 氣喘,吃力的呼吸 Wide open nostrils, droopy lowered head 完全打開鼻孔,頭垂的很低 Dull behaviour 遲鈍的行為 Higher heart rate and increased body temperature更高的心率和增加的體溫 Less elastic skin – ‘pinch test’ 皮膚彈性差─‘夾痛測試' Prevention 預防 No overworking in hot conditions 在熱的情況下不工作過度 Access to water 取用水的方式 Shady resting places 遮蔭休息的地方 Treatment 處理 Pouring buckets of water over animal 在動物的上方傾倒大量的水 Module 23 Infectious diseases 傳染性的疾病:  Infectious diseases 傳染性的疾病 Tetanus 破傷風 Rabies 狂犬病 Trypanosomiasis 錐蟲病 Module 23 Disposal of old/sick animals 年老/生病動物的處裡:  Disposal of old/sick animals 年老/生病動物的處裡 Old and sick animals unable to work 年老和生病的動物不能工作 Poverty, so hope it might recover 貧困,因此希望它可以恢復健康 Cultural objection to euthanasia 對安樂死的道德異議 No value 沒有價值 Lack of alternatives 缺乏選擇 Lack of knowledge about alternatives 對其他的選擇缺乏足夠知識 Indifference 冷漠 Alternatives? 有無其他替代方案? Left to die 讓它自然老死 Dealer – transport – slaughter 經銷商 - 運送 - 宰殺 Module 23 Underlying causes of welfare problems 福利問題的潛在原因:  Underlying causes of welfare problems 福利問題的潛在原因 Poverty – only source of income 貧困 - 唯一的收入來源 Lack of knowledge/awareness 缺乏知識/體認 New systems/species 新的系統/物種 Attitude 態度 Lack of responsibility 缺乏責任感 Module 23 Short term solutions 短期的解決方法:  Short term solutions 短期的解決方法 Treat lesion/animal 治療傷口/動物 Trim feet 修剪足部 Rest animal 讓動物休息 Take the animal to hospital 帶動物到醫院 Make immediate improvements to equipment 對裝備做立即的改善 Make vehicles more visible 讓運輸車輛更顯而易見 Euthanasia 安樂死 Module 23 Long term solutions 長期的解決方法:  Long term solutions 長期的解決方法 Owner education and attitude 飼主教育和態度 Training of farrier 訓練蹄鐵匠 Field-based veterinarians and animal health technicians 以田野為主的獸醫師及動物健康技師 Health care programmes, e.g. deworming 福利照護計畫,例如驅蟲 Change of whole system 改變整個系統 Improved designs, such as head tethers, new harnesses 改善設計,例如頭套繩,新的挽具 Four-wheel carts, improved carts 四輪的牛車,已改進的牛車 Optimal adapted species/breed 最適應的種類/物種 Education of children 教育小朋友 Module 23 Working animals versus mechanisation 役用動物 對比 機械化:  Working animals versus mechanisation 役用動物 對比 機械化 Module 23 Case 1: Design of a participatory extension programme in South Africa 案例1: 設計一個在南非可供人們參予的延伸性計畫:  Case 1: Design of a participatory extension programme in South Africa 案例1: 設計一個在南非可供人們參予的延伸性計畫 Before intervention 在介入之前 Situation analysis using rapid appraisal and/or animal-based approach 應用快速的估量以及/或者以動物-為基礎的方法來分析情勢 Cost/benefit analysis 費用/獲益分析 Ranking of welfare objectives 為福利目標訂定順序 Intervention 介入 Participatory and proactive 參予和活動前 Extension message: Motivational aspect specific for target group 延伸的訊息: 目標族群所特有的誘導動機觀點 After intervention 介入之後 Direct evaluation of ongoing project 直接評估現行的計畫 Review after a while 過一陣子後在進行回顧 Module 23 Slide36:  Case 2: Mobile donkey clinic in west Kenya 案例2:肯亞西部的移動式驢子診所 Significantly fewer donkeys with severe foot lesions and more without any lesions seen at locations which were visited before 在探訪過地區發生爐子足部嚴重受傷的案例顯著減少,甚至沒有發現任何驢子足部有傷口 No significant difference in body condition was found沒有發現任何顯著的身體狀況變化 Health care project 健康照護計畫 Worming of all donkeys 將所有驢子的驅蟲計劃 Owner education: 飼主的教育: Head instead of foot tether 使用頭部頸栓(頭套)而不是足部頸栓(腳鏈) Module 23 Case 3: Ox carts in Madagascar 案例3: 馬達加斯加的牛車:  Rural transport programme: 農村的運輸計畫 ‘Ban traditional ox carts - pneumatic tyres’ ‘禁止傳統的牛車(牛或馬拉的運貨車) – 充氣的輪胎’ Protect roads 保護道路 Improve animal welfare 改善動物福利 Local people: Traditional carts because: 當地人:傳統的牛車因為: Cheaper, more easily available 便宜,更容易取得 Puncture-free, long lasting 輪子不易被戳破,使用時限很長 Very good braking system 煞車系統非常好 High clearance for poor roads 行駛在品質不良的道路也能保持的很乾淨 They make ‘the right sound’, people can hear them 它們能發出’正確的聲音’,讓民眾很容易能聽見它們 People can push wooden spokes 人們能推的動木製的輪輻 Case 3: Ox carts in Madagascar 案例3: 馬達加斯加的牛車 Module 23 Summary 總結:  Summary 總結 Special needs of species 物種的特殊需求 Common problems 一般性問題 Prevention and treatment 預防和處理 Human – animal – environment 人類 – 動物 –環境 Module 23 Bibliography 參考文獻:  Bibliography 參考文獻 Draught Animal News, Edinburgh, UK, http://www.vet.ed.ac.uk/ctvm/Welcome%20page/Publications/DAN/DANFP.HTM www.atnesa.org RAMASWAMY, N.S., 1998: Draught Animal Welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59, 73-84 DE ALUJA, A.S., 1998: The Welfare of Working Equids in Mexico. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59, 19-29 KAUSHIK, S.J., 1999: Animals for work, recreation and sport. Livestock Production Science 59, 145-154 HOVELL, G.J.R., 1998: Welfare considerations when attaching animals to vehicles. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59, 11-17 HADRILL, D., 2002: Horse Health Care. ITDG Publishing, UK LEGEL, S., 1989: Nutztiere der Tropen und Subtropen, Hirzel, Leipzig, Germany MCCRINDLE, C.M.E. & MOOROSI, L.E. 1999: Extension to improve the welfare of traction animals. In: STARKEY, P. AND KAUMBUTHO, P. (Eds.) Meeting the challenges of animal traction. IT Publications, UK SHERMAN, D.M., 2002: Tending Animals in the Global village: A Guide to International Veterinary Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA Module 23

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