wspa07 17

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Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Candelora

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Commercial exploitation of wildlife 野生動物的商業剝削:  Commercial exploitation of wildlife 野生動物的商業剝削 Module 17 模組 17 Module 17 Learning objectives 學習目標:  Learning objectives 學習目標 To learn more about the commercial exploitation of certain wild animal species 某些野生動物物種的商業剝削 To learn more about the international trade in these species and their products 學習有關這些野生動物物種之國際買賣與其產品 To understand the welfare and conservation implications of these industries 了解這些企業對動物福利與保育的影響 To learn about the humane alternative products available 了解既有的相關人道替代品 Module 17 Summary of content 綱要:  Summary of content 綱要 Introduction to commercial exploitation 介紹商業剝削 CITES, AATA and IATA 三個相關的國際組織 Bear farming 熊的農場化飼養 Bushmeat trade 野生動物當作食用肉用的買賣 Civet farming 麝香貓的農場化飼養 Exotic pet trade 外來寵物的商業買賣 Fur trade and fur farming 皮草貿易與農場化飼養 Turtle trade 烏龜貿易 Conclusions 結論 Module 17 Introduction 前言:  Introduction 前言 Several factors drive the commercial exploitation of wild animal species 有很多因子導致野生動物之商業剝削 Different types of exploitation have various effects on the welfare of animals不同之剝削對動物福利有不同之影響 Animals may be wild caught or captive bred 動物可能來自於野外捕捉動物或籠飼生產 They may be traded alive or dead (whole, in parts or in processed products)被活或死(整體,部份或加工品)的出售 There are both animal welfare and conservation implications 同時有動物福利與保育之問題 Module 17 International situation 國際狀況:  International situation 國際狀況 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES) 「華盛頓公約---瀕臨絕種野生動植物國際貿易公約」,公約的目的在藉由管制國際貿易來保護野生動植物物種,以免因大量之貿易使其從地球上消失。 Animal Transportation Association (AATA) 「動物運輸協會」 舊名是: The Animal Air Transportation Association International Air Transport Association (IATA)「國際航空運輸協會」,於一九四五年由各飛航國際航線之航空公司聯合組成,該組織與國際民航組織(ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization)互動密切,為一個半官方之國際機構,IATA總部設於加拿大蒙特婁,另在瑞士日內瓦設有辦事處。 Module 17 CITES – background 「華盛頓公約---瀕臨絕種野生動植物國際貿易公約」背景:  CITES – background 「華盛頓公約---瀕臨絕種野生動植物國際貿易公約」背景 International agreement to control the international trade of endangered species of animals and plants 管理瀕臨絕種動植物國際貿易之國際協定 The text of the convention was passed in 1973 and it entered into force in 1975. Originally 25 member countries in 1973, there are now 169 countries party to the Convention. These are called ‘Parties to the Convention’. 協定內容在1973年通過,在1975年執行. 最初是25個會員國(1973),目前有169個國家會員. 稱為會議締約國(Parties to the Convention) Module 17 CITES – overview 華盛頓公約概述:  CITES – overview 華盛頓公約概述 Species are categorised according to the level of threat imposed on them by international trade – there are three Appendices 按照國際貿易對其威脅,將物種分成三組,三個附錄 A species in CITES status affects the ability to trade in that species (CITES Appendix I affords the greatest protection)物種在公約內之地位影響該物種之貿易能力(公約附錄一提供最高程度之保護物種) Strength of the Convention depends on the introduction and enforcement of laws by the member Parties (countries)公約效力靠締約國之立法與執法。 Module 17 CITES – structure 華盛頓公約之組織架構:  CITES – structure 華盛頓公約之組織架構 Original Convention text 創會之組織章程 Resolution and Decision documents 按照會議之決議執行 CITES meetings: Conference of the Parties, Standing Committee, Animals Committee, Plants Committee 會議: 締約國大會、常務委員會、動物委員會、植物委員會 The Decision documents instruct the Parties and the various CITES committees to carry out certain actions between the Conference of the Parties meetings.大會決議文件指示會員國及各委員會休會期之工作 Species Appendices I, II & III 根據貿易壓力調整物種附錄別 Module 17 CITES – decision making 華盛頓公約決策過程:  CITES – decision making 華盛頓公約決策過程 CITES Secretariat – coordination 秘書處---協調 CITES Committees: Standing, Animals, Plants – voting power 常務,動物,植物三個委員會---有投票權 Parties to CITES – voting power 會員國---有投票權 Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) – present findings, lobby Parties 非政府組織---蒐證,遊說 Module 17 CITES – conservation and welfare 華盛頓公約:保育與動物福利:  CITES – conservation and welfare 華盛頓公約:保育與動物福利 CITES is primarily concerned about the effects of trade on species population levels – conservation 公約主要是關心貿易對物種族群之影響(保育) BUT animal welfare is covered in the original text of the Convention (Articles III, IV and V) and in the ranching and captive breeding resolutions 但是動物福利也包含在大會原初之組織章程(第III, IV, V條) ,在有關牧場與籠飼動物繁殖之決議方面。 Module 17 動物運輸協會:  The Animal Air Transportation Association (AATA) was organized in 1976 in response to the concerns of industry leaders, government officials, and humane association representatives. 動物空運協會(AATA)是在1976年因企業領袖、政府官員、與人道組織代表之關懷而成立 In 1989, the name was changed to “The Animal Transportation Association” to emphasize that sea, air and land transport are of equal importance in the safe and humane transport of animals.在1989年更名為動物運輸協會,強調動物在海、空、陸運輸中安全與人道具有同等之重要性 AATA disseminates information and encourages collaboration to ensure safe and humane transport of animals 動物運輸協會散播資訊鼓勵合作以確保動物運輸之人道與安全 AATA members include airlines, truckers and shipping firms, government agencies 協會會員有航空業,貨運業,海運業,與政府機關 Module 17 動物運輸協會 IATA 國際航空運輸協會:  IATA 國際航空運輸協會 International Air Transport Association. Originally formed in 1919, IATA aims to ensure that people, cargo and mail are easily transported around the globe.確保人員貨物郵件順暢 IATA Live Animals Regulations are the worldwide standards for transporting live animals by commercial airlines. 活物的商業運輸規則 These regulations provide specific guidelines on the container size requirements for transporting animals. 此規則提供動物運輸的裝載需求規範 Module 17 Species examples 物種舉例:  Species examples 物種舉例 Bear farming 熊的農場化飼養 Bushmeat trade 野生動物肉的貿易 Civet farming 麝香貓的農場化飼養 Exotic pet trade 外來寵物的貿易 Fur trade and fur farming皮草貿易與毛皮獸農場化飼養 Turtle trade 烏龜的貿易 Module 17 Bear farming 熊的農場化飼養:  Bear farming 熊的農場化飼養 Bear gall bladders and bile are used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)熊膽與熊膽汁用在中醫 Bear farming was initially started in China in the early 1980s as one farmed bear, in one year, would be the equivalent to killing 40 wild bears for their gall bladders.在中國熊之量產從1980年代開始,1隻1年有40隻野熊之產量 However, there are both animal welfare and conservation concerns associated with the bear farming industry 熊的農場化飼養問題涉及動物福利與生態保育 In addition to China, bear farming is also practised in Korea and Vietnam 除中國外韓國越南都有熊農場化生產 Module 17 Bear farming熊的農場化飼養:  Bear farming熊的農場化飼養 Module 17 Bear farming – concerns 熊的農場化飼養 – 關切:  Bear farming – concerns 熊的農場化飼養 – 關切 Confined barren housing 熊關在單調的籠舍內 Behavioural abnormalities 熊行為異常 Poor reproductive success 熊的生殖力很差 Early weaning and maternal separation提早斷奶,與母親分離 Inadequate veterinary support 獸醫照顧不合宜 Bears suffering from a variety of health problems 熊因為各式各樣的健康問題而受苦 Captive populations supplemented with wild caught bears 由野外捕捉的熊補充籠舍內數量不足的生產族群 Module 17 Bear farming熊的農場化飼養:  Bear farming熊的農場化飼養 Module 17 Bear farming熊的農場化飼養:  Bear farming熊的農場化飼養 China produces huge quantities of bear bile – over 7000 kg per year中國大量生產熊膽汁每年7,000公斤 Only 4000 kg are used – the rest is stockpiled or illegally exported 僅使用4,000公斤,剩餘的貯存或非法外銷 Bear bile is now used in many non-traditional products such as wines and tonics目前許多非傳統產品之熊膽汁使用在製酒或滋補等用途 Bear bile products are being illegally exported to many countries around the world in contravention to CITES 熊膽汁產品被非法外銷到世界許多國家, 違反CITES規章 Module 17 Bear bile products 熊膽汁產品:  Bear bile products 熊膽汁產品 Module 17 Bear farming and CITES 熊的農場化與華盛頓公約:  Bear farming and CITES 熊的農場化與華盛頓公約 The Asiatic black bear is listed on Appendix I of CITES 亞洲黑熊已列在華盛頓公約之附錄一內 Resolution Conf. 10.8 – Conservation of and trade in bears 在10.8之決議案指出熊屬於保育與貿易之列 Resolution Conf. 12.10 – Registration of facilities breeding Appendix I species for commercial purposes附錄壹的動物禁止任何形式之貿易,本決議同意在遵奉人道規定下仍可進行貿易,但抽取膽汁絕對不符。 Resolution Conf. 10.19 – Traditional medicines 本決議特別要求中醫要盡快找到取代之醫療方式。 Module 17 Alternatives to bear bile 熊膽汁取代品:  Alternatives to bear bile 熊膽汁取代品 Bear farming should end on the grounds of: extreme animal cruelty; the negative effects on wild bear conservation; and the existence of suitable herbal TCM and synthetic alternatives to bear bile熊農場應該停止:極度慘忍、破害野熊保育、以及既有之適當中醫草藥與熊膽汁之合成之取代品。 Consumer demand for bear bile products needs to be stopped – the alternatives to bear bile need to be actively promoted. This work can be initiated by NGOs working with national governments熊膽產品之消費需要停止:相關之取代品需要積極推動。這件工作需要由NGO與政府合作。 Module 17 Bushmeat trade 野肉貿易:  Bushmeat trade 野肉貿易 Module 17 Civet farming 麝香貓農場:  Civet farming 麝香貓農場 Module 17 Civet farming 麝香貓農場:  Civet farming 麝香貓農場 Module 17 Exotic pet trade 外來寵物貿易:  Exotic pet trade 外來寵物貿易 Module 17 Unau (樹懶)=An Unau is a sloth with two toes on each of its front feet. Capture and transport 捕捉與運輸:  Capture and transport 捕捉與運輸 Module 17 Sale and ownership 販賣與擁有:  Sale and ownership 販賣與擁有 In shops: 寵物店 Lack of knowledge of exotic animal needs 缺乏外來動物需求之知識 Spread of diseases and parasites散佈疾病與寄生蟲 Overcrowded stressful situations in shops寵物店密飼緊迫 Following sale:售後 Housing, feeding and care can be inadequate due to lack of knowledge of needs 房舍、餵飼、 照顧等會因缺乏知識而疏失 There may be neglect or abandonment once novelty has worn off 一旦新鮮感消失就可能丟棄 Continued inability to express natural behaviour 長期不能有機會表現自然行為 Module 17 Fur trade: General overview 皮草:一般情況:  Fur trade: General overview 皮草:一般情況 Fur is used for economic necessity and also in the high fashion industry皮草係經濟之必然性且式樣經常翻新 The latter is completely non-essential, and there are many alternative and fake fur products available 後者完全沒有必要,有許多替代品,與仿冒品 There are severe animal welfare and conservation implications associated with both wild caught and farmed fur animals有嚴重違反動物福利與保育情形,無論是野外捕捉或農場飼養 Module 17 Fur trade: Wild caught animals 皮草貿易:野外捕捉:  Fur trade: Wild caught animals 皮草貿易:野外捕捉 Module 17 Fur trapping 捕捉皮草獸:  How many dead animals does it take to make a fur coat? 生產一件外套需要多少隻動物? Fur trapping 捕捉皮草獸 Module 17 Fur trade: Farmed species 皮草貿易:農場物種:  Fur trade: Farmed species 皮草貿易:農場物種 Module 17 Turtle trade 烏龜之貿易:  Turtle trade 烏龜之貿易 Module 17 Turtle trade 烏龜之貿易:  Turtle trade 烏龜之貿易 Module 17 Conclusions 結論:  Conclusions 結論 Commercial exploitation of wild animals has led to animal suffering with negative effects on wild populations 野生動物的商業剝削讓動物受苦並傷害族群 Commercial exploitation needs to be strictly controlled 商業剝削需要嚴格控制 Additional animal welfare regulations are needed 需要更多動物福利的規定 Alternative products and ways of commercialisation should be investigated and actively promoted 需積極推動研究尋找商業性之取代產品與方案 Module 17 Conclusions (cont’d) 結論(續):  Conclusions (cont’d) 結論(續) Where applicable, additional animal welfare regulations should be introduced to prevent animal suffering. If the animal suffering cannot be alleviated, the commercial exploitation should cease在可實施地點,需要進一步引進動物福利規範以防止動物受苦。如果動物無法避免受苦,應終止商業剝削。 Alternative products should be actively promoted 應該積極尋求替代方案 Alternative, non-invasive forms of commercialisation, such as eco-tourism, should be investigated取代性, 非侵入性之商業形式,如生態旅遊業等應予思考 Module 17 References:  References Bushmeat: Africa’s conservation crisis, WSPA 2000. Civet Farming: An Ethiopian investigation, WSPA 1999. Fashion Victims: An inquiry into the welfare of animals on fur farms, WSPA 1998. The Bear Bile Business , WSPA 2002. The Fur Inquiry: What you should know about the trapping, rearing and killing of fur animals, WSPA 1995. The Illegal Trade in Hawksbill Turtles: Case studies from Indonesia and Japan, WSPA 2003. Turtle Alert: How the world’s biggest industry can help save one of the world’s oldest species, WSPA 1997. Animal Transportation Association (AATA): www.aata-animaltransport.org/ International Air Transport Association (IATA): www.iata.org/ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES): www.cites.org/ Module 17

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