Published on December 31, 2007
Slide1: GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU WATER RESOURCES ORGANISATION Water Resources Management By Er.Deenadayalan, Engineer –in-Chief (Rtd.) State Planning Commission Slide2: TAMIL NADU 2 MAP OF INDIA Slide3: Total Geographical Area : 13.01 M Ha. (4.0% of India) Water Resources : 4.49 M.Ha.m (3.0% of India) Population as on 2001 : 62.11 M (6.4% of India) Districts : 29 Taluks : 206 Blocks (Revenue) : 385 Villages : 17,273 River Basins : 17 TAMIL NADU STATE Geographical Area 0.13 million sq.km Length of Coast line 980 KMPopulation 1991 2001 55.9 Million 62.1 MillionDensity 429 / sq.km 477 / sq.kmRural Population 36.8 Million 34.9 Million Urban Population 19.1 Million 27.2 Million : Geographical Area 0.13 million sq.km Length of Coast line 980 KM Population 1991 2001 55.9 Million 62.1 Million Density 429 / sq.km 477 / sq.km Rural Population 36.8 Million 34.9 Million Urban Population 19.1 Million 27.2 Million TAMIL NADU Area and Population (1991 and 2001 Census) Surface Water 853.0 TMCGround Water 733.4 TMCTotal 1586.4 TMCSurface Water Utilized 95%Exploitation of Ground Water 78%Average Rainfall 979 mm: Surface Water 853.0 TMC Ground Water 733.4 TMC Total 1586.4 TMC Surface Water Utilized 95% Exploitation of Ground Water 78% Average Rainfall 979 mm WATER POTENTIAL Slide6: Net Annual Groundwater available : 733.4 TMC Groundwater Draft for all uses : 608.5 TMC Net Groundwater available for future irrigation development : 124.9 TMC * Under Approval by G.O.I. GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT * (AS ON JANUARY 1998) Slide7: CHANGE IN AVAILABILITY OF GROUNDWATER IN TAMIL NADU Slide8: Sectoral Water Demand in TMC Slide9: Supply-Demand Gap in 2001 and 2050 in TMC Slide10: Reduction in Per Capita Availability of Water in Tamil Nadu Minimum requirement as per World Standards : 1000 M3/Year Indian Average for 2001 : 1820 M3/Year Slide11: Source-wise Net Area Irrigated in Tamil Nadu 11 Slide12: WATER MANAGEMENT IN TAMIL NADU - LAND MARKS Slide13: WATER RESOURCES ORGANISATION RECENT PERFORMANCE Slide14: WATER RESOURCES ORGANISATION FUTURE CHALLENGES AND PLAN OF ACTION Integrated Multi sectoral approach with Basin Concept Rehabilitation of left over portion of Reservoirs & Canals Rehabilitation of about 6000 Nos. of System / Non-System Tanks and other irrigation structures in all basins except Cauvery Farmers Organization and Turnover Formation of River Basin Organization in other Basins of Tamil Nadu Strengthening of River Basin Organization Implementation of new irrigation schemes to utilize leftover potential Water Planning at micro level Research and Development by formation of research foundation Documentation of memoirs for all water resource structures Strengthening quality control and designs organization Conjunctive use of ground & surface water in selected basins Optimizing the productivity of water involving agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries etc Sectors Project Concept Document under discussion stage for the successor Project with World Bank assistance Slide15: REFORMS IN WATER POLICY & PLANNING IN TAMIL NADU. Institute for Water Studies established in 1974 to Plan, assess and manage water resources in Tamil Nadu in a scientific manner. It is a multi-disciplinary applied research organization headed by the Director in the rank of a Chief Engineer OBJECTIVES To Develop broad principles for Planning and Management of Water Assistance in the formulation of Water Management Policies. Undertaking research and development in Planning and Policy besides co-ordinating the efforts that is already underway. Development of training programmes in Water Planning and Policy making. Advise on specific policy matters referred such as Water allocation principles, merits of water utility schemes to Government. FUNCTIONS Assessment of Water potential Evaluation of water needs, present and future Preparation of master plans for Water usage river basin wise Effective dissemination of information to user institutions. Slide16: 16 RIVER BASINS IN TAMIL NADU PALAR TAMBARAPARANI Slide17: River Boards Act 1956, Revised National Water Policy 2002 Revised State Water Policy 2002 River Basin Management and Development Boards for Palar and Tambaraparani Basins were constituted in line with the State Water Policy Boards will be formed for other basins in due course. Organizational and functional aspects of first two River Basin Management and Development Boards follow. River Basin Management and Development Boards Slide18: River Basin Management Boards headed by the Minister for Water Resources are to address issues on allocation and management of water among sectors & stakeholders besides approval of new schemes. A Basin Management Committee headed by the Minister WR consisting of Line Departments, elected representatives of Public and key Stake Holder Representatives. Technical Secretariat in Chennai headed by the Director, Water Institute, initially, so as to act independently till the infrastructure facilities are created at the Basin Headquarters The River Basin Management and Development Board with Basin Management Committees and Technical Secretariat for Palar and Tambaraparani River Basins formed on 12.01.2001. FORMATION OF RIVER BASIN ORGANISATIONS 18 Slide19: Introduce water resources planning by river basins across all uses of water. Improve agricultural productivity through modernization and completion of irrigation systems, upgraded water management and farmer participation. Assure sustainability of water infrastructure and the environment. Improve institutional and technical capability for managing the state’s water resources. Tamil Nadu Water Resources Consolidation Project – 1995 to 2004 OBJECTIVES Slide20: 1965 Water Users’ Associations (WUAs) were formed out of which 1566 WUAs grouped for conducting elections and elections completed. TNFMIS Act enacted and rules framed. National level workshop conducted on FOT in August 2001 at Madurai Irrigated Agriculture Intensification Programme (IAIP) carried out in coordination with DOA, AED and TNAU Drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, cropping pattern changes, marketing facilities, increasing fish culture etc., were advocated with multi sectoral approach. IMPROVE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY TROUGH MODERNIZATION Slide21: Agriculture Pumpset Efficiency Study taken up through Tamil Nadu Electricity Board. Analytical procedure and sample finalisation for estimation of energy consumption by unmetered consumers. A feasibility study on improving efficiency in Agricultural pumpsets. TNEB is taking follow up action based on the recommendation of the above studies with the Central Assistance Relevant Research Studies related to Agriculture Productivity and Water Management undertaken under WRRF. IMPROVE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY TROUGH MODERNIZATION ……. (Contd,,) Slide22: b) Environment Environmental Planning Framework developed. Three Environmental Cell Divisions and an unit are exclusively created to look after the activities on environmental issues. The incremental cost for these Cells are to be reimbursed to encourage the State Government to continue the environmental activities Environmental Planner and Economist were engaged in Environmental Cells for guiding Environmental activities. Environmental Economist is now working in Technical Secretariat of River Basin Boards to look after the Environmental issues in assessing basin planning. Environmental Sub Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary, PWD is often meeting to share others experiences. Micro level and macro level studies for river basins (except Cauvery) formulated, through consultancy services in coordination with cell divisions. ASSURE SUSTAINABILITY OF WATER INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Slide23: b) Environment (Contd..) Pilot studies on various environmental issues (water hyacinth, sago industry, Tannery, Textile effluents etc) undertaken to evolve various suggestions and remedial measures. Research studies like weed growth, reuse of treated water, role of citizens etc., were also taken up under WRRF. Studies were carried out for enhancing the application of modern equipments like GIS/Remote Sensing etc in Water Planning and adequate training imparted to core group Environmental Impact Assessment Studies were also done. (Shenbagathope Reservoir, Malattar Anicut etc) ASSURE SUSTAINABILITY OF WATER INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT (Contd..) Slide24: IMPROVE INSTITUTIONAL AND TECHNICAL CAPABILITY FOR MANAGING THE STATE’S WATER RESOURCES Bifurcated PWD into WRO and B.O., WRO is headed by Engineer-in-Chief. Management of field activities are decentralised through establishment of 4 Regional Chief Engineers. (Basin Managers) with boundaries of River Basin or Group of Basins. (Chennai, Trichy, Madurai and Pollachi) Specialised Units each headed by Chief Engineer on the fields Plan Formulation, Design Research and Construction Support, Operation and Maintenance, State Ground and Surface Water Resources Data Centre, Water Planning and Training Activities as functional unit have been established to strengthen the respective activity effectively. Special unit for LAER programme formed in PWD Secretariat headed by a Special Officer exclusively to deal L.A. and R.R. activities. Slide25: Concepts bringing in revolutionary and sweeping reforms are to be developed based on State Framework for Water Planning, and the need and the role of the Stakeholders. Framework for new project with this concept including Social and Environmental Assessment is being prepared to improve the water sector. Irrigation efficiency is to be enhanced from 40% to 60% and productivity increased in all River Basins including Cauvery Basin. FUTURE VISION Evolution of MDP: Evolution of MDP Multi Disciplinary Project (MDP) with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Concepts involving the following Departments Water Resources Organisation Agricultural Engg Agriculture TNAU. Agri Marketing Horticulture Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Environment & Forests Social Welfare has been formulated and executed at a cost of around Rs.50 Cr. Slide27: River basins of Tamilnadu Hanumandhi river POTENTIAL AVAILABLE IN GROUND WATER & PRESENT EXTRACTION: POTENTIAL AVAILABLE IN GROUND WATER & PRESENT EXTRACTION Potential Extraction (in mcft) (in mcft) Shencottah Block 1700 75 Tenkasi Block 2200 125 3900 200 Options : Options To go for rain water harvesting To introduce micro irrigation with fertigation in a larger scale To introduce high tech farming with post harvest techniques To ensure protection of farm produce till it reaches the consumers. Consumption of Water for Agriculture is 80% This has to be reduced by adopting conveyance efficient techniques. Like Micro irrigation, Pressure irrigation and flow irrigation using pipes Increase the storage condition of aquifer by providing farm ponds and rejuvenation of wells etc Using cropping practices, tilling practices, to reduce water consumption Increasing the yield per ha by using less water. Slide34: 2119 200 2319 2770 2319 451Or 0.451 TMC Total with Drawal Surplus Deficit Total water Available Through surface Inflow Irrigation Requirement conjunctive Use of Ground water WATER BALANCE - PRE PROJECT WORKING TABLE(Figures in Mcft) Introduction of crop diversification by intensity and pattern has been done and productivity increased while ensuring equity for the entire ayacut under 14 anicuts. Slide35: Pre Project Post Project Remarks 70% 90% 20% Increased by the Remodelling the system and conveyance of water through pipes 55% 75% 20 % Increased by adopting modern techniques like Drip and sprinkler Irrigation 38.50% 67.50% Overall Irrigation efficiency increases by 29% Overall Irrigation Efficiency (conveyance* field application ) Field Application efficiency Irrigation Efficiency Conveyance Efficiency Slide36: CROP WATER REQUIREMENT (POSTPROJECT) Classification and crops Extent Acre Rate of requirement or (Duty) Ac/ Mcft Requiremenmt Mcft Coconut 1500 6.4 234.38 Sugarcane 500 6.4 78.13 Banana 1500 6.4 234.38 Turmeric (intercrop) 1500 10 150.00 Paddy 3250 8 406.25 Onion 1500 20 75.00 Chilly 1000 20 50.00 Vegetable 750 20 37.50 Pulses 5500 20 275 Vegetables 1000 10 100 Paddy 6500 8 812.50 1. Banana 500 6.4 78.13 2. Grass 1000 10 100.00 3. Nelli 500 10 50.00 4.Suppottah 500 10 50.00 Total 2731.26 Mcft or 2.731 TMC ft. Annual (Jan-Dec) Annual crop III CROP in the existing ayacut(Feb-April) Kar (May-Sep) New Extent Pisanam (Oct-Jan) Slide37: Pre-project Post-project Increase IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY 38.50% 67.50% (+) 29% INTENSITY OF IRRIGATION 210% 312% (+) 102% FOOD PRODUCTION (in tonnes) 62700 97300 (+) 34600 AYACUT BENEFITTED in Ha. 4000 5000 (+) 1000 VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 2331 6354 (+) 4023 COST OF CULTIVATION 1141 2748 (+) 1607 NET VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 1190 3608 (+) 2418 Cropping Intensity increases from 185% to 315% Economical Rate Of Return - 25% BENEFITS Slide38: ACHIEVEMENTS The overall Irrigation Efficiency increased. Socio-economic status of the farmers improved by means of increasing the farm productivity & marketing facilities. Farm pump sets efficiency increased Poverty alleviation & improved Social status The 5 tail end anaicuts get assured water and equity ensured in the basin while increasing efficiency of 9 upstream anaicuts. WELL CENSUS UNDER GROUNDWATER (DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT) ACT 2003 : WELL CENSUS UNDER GROUNDWATER (DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT) ACT 2003 TO CREATE A DATABASE OF ALL THE WELLS (Domestic & Agriculture) IN THE STATE, FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TAMILNADU GROUNDWATER (DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT) ACT 2003 THROUGH THE PROPOSED TAMILNADU GROUNDWATER REGULATORY AUTHORITY. TO FACILITATE DECISION MAKING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF THE GROUNDWATER RESOURCES OF THE STATE. Slide40: STATUS OF WELL CENSUS IN HANUMANNADHI SUB BASIN Slide41: UTILITY OF WELL CENSUS IN HANUMANNADHI SUB BASIN DATA ARE BEING ENTERED IN THE INHOUSE DEVELOPED DATA ENTRY SOFTWARE, WELLIS, AT FIELD OFFICES. THE DATA WILL BE STORED IN THE CENTRAL DATA STORAGE CENTRE, AT TARAMANI, CHENNAI. WELL DATA WILL BE STUDIED IN CONJUCTION WITH DATA OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES. THE INFORMATION WILL BE SHARED WITH LINE DEPARTMENTS AND USED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUB BASIN. Slide42: WELL DATA ENTRY FORM IN WELLIS Slide43: DRIP IRRIGATION LAY OUT Slide44: ADVANTAGES : Low Application Rate Uniformity of Water Application Precision Placement of Water Efficient Fertilizer and Chemical Application Better Control of Root Zone Environment Crop Yield Enhancement Quality Improvement of Produce Improved Disease Control Discourages Weed Growth Effective Saving of Irrigation Water Lesser use of Power Reduced Labour Costs Suitable for Difficult Land Terrain Ideal for Marginal Lands Maintains Soil Health Suitable for inferior quality water. Advantages of Micro Irrigation Slide45: Water Savings - Comparison Conveyance efficiency : Open field channels 70% Piped distribution 80 - 85% Field application efficiency : Surface methods 50 (Irrigation Efficiency) Sprinkler 70% Micro-Irrigation 80 - 90% Overall efficiency : Surface methods 35% Sprinkler 57% Micro Irrigation 70% Slide46: Drippers/ Emitters Emitting Pipes & Fittings. Micro Sprinkler & Sprayers. Impact & Floppy Sprinklers. Filtration Units. Fertigation Equipments. Control Valves. Poly Tubes & Fittings. PVC Pipes & Fittings. Quick Release Coupling (QRC) Pipes & Fittings. HDPE Pipes & Compression Fittings. Components of an Irrigation System Rain Water Harvesting: Rain Water Harvesting Rain water harvested per pond 30mx30mx1.5m 2700 cu m (in two fillings) 300 ponds Total water harvested in the field 0.81 MCM. The benefit of recharging ground water spread to 300 sites at Rs 90 lakhs to harvest rain water in the command area. Recharging of Wells: Recharging of Wells Increases ground water potential. Water available for pumping for more no. of days Improves the aquifers of near by wells also. The works are: Raising the bund height across the slope, Provide farm pit/ check dam to store water near well, Allow surface run-off to enter the well through field channels to enter the well from the filter pit. Renovation of side walls if they are badly damaged Boring in wells horizontal or vertical holes to tap the water from the weathered zone to improve the water level,this ensures less pumping hours and thus reduction in consumption of electricity. 200 wells are suggested at Rs 40 lakhs @ Rs.20000/well Slide49: PROMOTING TISSUE CULTURE BANANA - 75 Ha. @ Rs.25,000 per Ha. - Rs.18.75 lakhs Slide50: PROMOTION OF HYBRID/HIGH YIELDING VEGETABLES - 400 Ha. @ Rs.4000/Ha. - Rs.16 lakhs Goat rearing by SHG Women : Goat rearing by SHG Women Leaf Stretching by SHG Women: Leaf Stretching by SHG Women Flower cultivation by SHG Women: Flower cultivation by SHG Women Coconut thatch - leaf making : Coconut thatch - leaf making Paddy planting by SHG Women: Paddy planting by SHG Women Vegetable cultivation by SHG Women: Vegetable cultivation by SHG Women Vegetable plucking by SHG Women: Vegetable plucking by SHG Women CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION All the Line Departments in Water Sector were co-ordinated and the Project executed in all disciplines simultaneously. The much awaited crop diversification by way of improved water efficiency and conjunctive use achieved. Equity in utilising the water resources has been ensured for the entire basin. The GOI Consultant visited the Project Area and complimented it as an excellent job. The follow on Project for all the river basins is contemplated for execution in the above lines.
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