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Writing And Implementing Standard Operating Procedures

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Information about Writing And Implementing Standard Operating Procedures

Published on October 19, 2008

Author: guest3bd2a12

Source: slideshare.net

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Writing and Implementing Standard Operating Procedures Richard Stup Penn State Dairy Alliance (814) 652-6430 [email_address]

Top 10 reasons why I need SOPs? Because they help relief workers to do the job right. Because some jobs are dangerous. Because training is much easier with SOPs than without. Because people need direction and order to be happy. Because they help people to focus on specific activities that lead toward goal achievement. Because you can’t really make changes until you have control of the system.

Because they help relief workers to do the job right.

Because some jobs are dangerous.

Because training is much easier with SOPs than without.

Because people need direction and order to be happy.

Because they help people to focus on specific activities that lead toward goal achievement.

Because you can’t really make changes until you have control of the system.

Top 11 reasons why I need SOPs? Because variation costs you big buck$. Because they improve communication and teamwork among workers, management, and advisors. Because many workers today have previous farm experience. Because many workers today don’t have previous farm experience. Because it’s tough to give good feedback when it’s not clear what you want.

Because variation costs you big buck$.

Because they improve communication and teamwork among workers, management, and advisors.

Because many workers today have previous farm experience.

Because many workers today don’t have previous farm experience.

Because it’s tough to give good feedback when it’s not clear what you want.

The Performance Triangle Training/Coaching Feedback Standard Systems Great Performance

Program Learning Objectives Define the two types of variation and how SOP’s may be used to control special cause variation. Write an SOP using an appropriate format, identify important steps and sub-steps, and choose a workable level of detail. Develop a plan to generate buy-in from the dairy’s workers, managers, and advisors.

Define the two types of variation and how SOP’s may be used to control special cause variation.

Write an SOP using an appropriate format, identify important steps and sub-steps, and choose a workable level of detail.

Develop a plan to generate buy-in from the dairy’s workers, managers, and advisors.

Part One Systems, Procedures, Steps, and Variation

Milking Equipment System

Old-fashioned Chocolate Cake Prep Time: 20 min. Start to Finish: 2 Hrs. 50 min. 3/4 cup (1-1/2 sticks) butter or margarine, softened 1-2/3 cups sugar 3 eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 cups all-purpose flour 2/3 cup HERSHEY'S Cocoa 1-1/4 teaspoons baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon baking powder 1-1/3 cups water 1/2 cup finely crushed hard peppermint candy (optional) 1. Heat oven to 350°F. Grease and flour two 9-inch round baking pans or one 13x9x2-inch baking pan. 2. In large mixer bowl, combine butter, sugar, eggs and vanilla; beat on high speed of electric mixer 3 minutes. Stir together flour, cocoa, baking soda, salt and baking powder; add alternately with water to butter mixture, beating until blended. Add candy, if desired. Pour batter into prepared pans. 3. Bake 30 to 35 minutes or until wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool 10 minutes; remove from pans to wire racks.Cool completely. Frost as desired. 10-12 servings.

3/4 cup (1-1/2 sticks) butter or margarine, softened

1-2/3 cups sugar

3 eggs

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

2 cups all-purpose flour

2/3 cup HERSHEY'S Cocoa

1-1/4 teaspoons baking soda

1 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon baking powder

1-1/3 cups water

1/2 cup finely crushed hard peppermint candy (optional)

1. Heat oven to 350°F. Grease and flour two 9-inch round baking pans or one 13x9x2-inch baking pan.

2. In large mixer bowl, combine butter, sugar, eggs and vanilla; beat on high speed of electric mixer 3 minutes. Stir together flour, cocoa, baking soda, salt and baking powder; add alternately with water to butter mixture, beating until blended. Add candy, if desired. Pour batter into prepared pans.

3. Bake 30 to 35 minutes or until wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool 10 minutes; remove from pans to wire racks.Cool completely. Frost as desired. 10-12 servings.

The Dairy Farm Consists Of Systems Feeding Milking Waste Management Herd Health & Reproduction

Systems Consist of Procedures Feeding Waste Management Herd Health Milking Preparing equipment Moving cows Milking Clean-up

Preparing equipment

Moving cows

Milking

Clean-up

Systems Consist of Procedures Mixing & distributing feed Measuring intake Maintaining feeding area Ordering supplies Waste Management Herd Health Milking Feeding

Mixing & distributing feed

Measuring intake

Maintaining feeding area

Ordering supplies

Procedures Consist of Steps Dry wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder. Predip all 4 teats with the green dip cup. Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk. Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3 with the second and third cows on the same side. Return to the first cow and thoroughly wipe with a clean towel. Attach unit to first cow and adjust. Danger! Variation Zone

Dry wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder.

Predip all 4 teats with the green dip cup.

Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk.

Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3 with the second and third cows on the same side.

Return to the first cow and thoroughly wipe with a clean towel.

Attach unit to first cow and adjust.

When can SOP’s help improve a system? When variation must be controlled When safety risks are present When numerous people perform the same procedure When outside advisors’ input is needed When management wants to create a “culture of improvement” When objective feedback on performance is desired When steps and decisions can be standardized

When variation must be controlled

When safety risks are present

When numerous people perform the same procedure

When outside advisors’ input is needed

When management wants to create a “culture of improvement”

When objective feedback on performance is desired

When steps and decisions can be standardized

So what is the big problem with variation?

High Variation

Lower Variation

Common Cause Variation Common cause variation is the result of the myriad imperceptible changes that occur in the everyday operation of a process (Farnum, 1994). Common causes of variation produce points on a control chart that over a long period all fall inside the control limits. Common causes of variation stay the same day to day, lot to lot (Deming, 2000).

Common cause variation is the result of the myriad imperceptible changes that occur in the everyday operation of a process (Farnum, 1994).

Common causes of variation produce points on a control chart that over a long period all fall inside the control limits. Common causes of variation stay the same day to day, lot to lot (Deming, 2000).

Special Cause Variation Special cause variation is variation for which one can find definite causes. Ordinarily special cause variation will fall further from the mean than common causes. A special cause of variation is something special. Not part of the system of common causes. It is detected by a point that falls outside the control limits (Deming, 2000).

Special cause variation is variation for which one can find definite causes. Ordinarily special cause variation will fall further from the mean than common causes.

A special cause of variation is something special. Not part of the system of common causes. It is detected by a point that falls outside the control limits (Deming, 2000).

Dealing With Variation Mistake 1 : To react to an outcome as if it came from a special cause, when actually it came from common causes of variation Mistake 2 : To treat an outcome as if it came from common causes of variation, when actually it came from a special cause.

Mistake 1 : To react to an outcome as if it came from a special cause, when actually it came from common causes of variation

Mistake 2 : To treat an outcome as if it came from common causes of variation, when actually it came from a special cause.

Increased Yield from Standardized Milking Routine* * Rasmussen, 1990. J. Dairy Science

Value of Increased Milk Yield Average increased milk yield X Milk price/lb Value of increased milk X 100 cows 811 lbs $.12 $97.32 $9732

Part 2 SOP Formats and Writing

SOP Formats Simple Steps Hierarchical Steps Graphic Enhanced Graphic Flowcharts Flowchart/Stepwise Hybrid

Simple Steps

Hierarchical Steps

Graphic

Enhanced Graphic

Flowcharts

Flowchart/Stepwise Hybrid

Simple Steps Wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder. Pre-dip all 4 teats with the green dip cup. Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk. Repeat steps 1,2,and 3 with the second and third cows on the same side. Return to the first cow and thoroughly wipe with a clean towel. Attach unit to the first cow and adjust. (Continues)

Wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder.

Pre-dip all 4 teats with the green dip cup.

Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk.

Repeat steps 1,2,and 3 with the second and third cows on the same side.

Return to the first cow and thoroughly wipe with a clean towel.

Attach unit to the first cow and adjust.

(Continues)

Simple Steps Strengths Easy to write Easy to follow Logical flow Weaknesses Lack of detail Tends to get long if detail is included Keeps all steps at same level Does not handle decisions well

Strengths

Easy to write

Easy to follow

Logical flow

Weaknesses

Lack of detail

Tends to get long if detail is included

Keeps all steps at same level

Does not handle decisions well

Hierarchical SOP Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk. Squirt milk onto black surface of strip cup. Abnormal milk may appear watery, bloody, or have clots or flakes. If any abnormal milk is found refer to Parlor SOP #2 “Dealing With Cows Showing Abnormal Milk.” Predip all 4 teats with the green dip cup. Squeeze dip up from bottom reservoir so that teat chamber is 3/4 full. Wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder. Use your gloved hand to remove dry dirt and bedding. Use a clean paper towel to dry the teats and udder if they are wet.

Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk.

Squirt milk onto black surface of strip cup.

Abnormal milk may appear watery, bloody, or have clots or flakes.

If any abnormal milk is found refer to Parlor SOP #2 “Dealing With Cows Showing Abnormal Milk.”

Predip all 4 teats with the green dip cup.

Squeeze dip up from bottom reservoir so that teat chamber is 3/4 full.

Wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder.

Use your gloved hand to remove dry dirt and bedding.

Use a clean paper towel to dry the teats and udder if they are wet.

Hierarchical Steps Strengths Easy to write Easy to follow Logical flow Handles details very well Allows different levels of steps Weaknesses Does not handle decisions well

Strengths

Easy to write

Easy to follow

Logical flow

Handles details very well

Allows different levels of steps

Weaknesses

Does not handle decisions well

Graphic Format

Graphic Format Strengths Easy to write Easy to follow Logical flow Handles long procedures well Weaknesses Does not handle decisions well

Strengths

Easy to write

Easy to follow

Logical flow

Handles long procedures well

Weaknesses

Does not handle decisions well

The Enhanced Graphic Format

Dip 1. Dip teats with dipping tool. Make sure that every teat is entirely covered with dip.

1. Dip teats with dipping tool. Make sure that every teat is entirely covered with dip.

Strip 2. Strip 3 squirts of milk from each teat. Observe for clotting, flakes, or any other unusual appearance.

2. Strip 3 squirts of milk from each teat.

Observe for clotting, flakes, or any other unusual appearance.

Dry 3. Clean and dry all teats using a clean paper towel for each cow. Be sure to remove all dirt, especially around the end of the teat.

3. Clean and dry all teats using a clean paper towel for each cow.

Be sure to remove all dirt, especially around the end of the teat.

Apply 4. Attach milking unit and adjust.

4. Attach milking unit and adjust.

Flowchart Format Abnormal milk detected. Perform CMT test for mastitis. Record, date, time, Cow ID, affected quarter/s, and severity on milker report Collect sterile samples from affected quarters, label, and store in refrigerator. No Yes Yes (Continues off page.) Is milk bloody or watery? Is mastitis present? Parlor SOP: Cows with Abnormal Milk

Flowchart Strengths Easy to follow Logical flow Handles decisions very well Weaknesses More difficult to write Does not handle details well

Strengths

Easy to follow

Logical flow

Handles decisions very well

Weaknesses

More difficult to write

Does not handle details well

Standard Flowchart Symbols Decision Start/End Record or document Action Direction Arrows Yes No

Hybrid Flowchart/Steps Format

Which format should I use? Flowchart Yes Yes Flowchart No Yes Hierarchical or Graphic Yes No Simple Steps No No Best SOP format More than 10 steps? Many decisions?

Level of Detail: Criteria for Including a Step or Sub step Is the step essential to completing the activity? Are there safe and unsafe says of completing the step? Will variation in how the step is completed affect animal health or well-being? Will variation in how the step is completed affect performance results? Will variation in how the step is completed significantly affect efficiency? Is there another significant reason why the step must be completed in a particular way?

Is the step essential to completing the activity?

Are there safe and unsafe says of completing the step?

Will variation in how the step is completed affect animal health or well-being?

Will variation in how the step is completed affect performance results?

Will variation in how the step is completed significantly affect efficiency?

Is there another significant reason why the step must be completed in a particular way?

Activity Divide up into teams of two. Select a procedure and draft a simple steps or hierarchical steps SOP. Select a procedure and draft an SOP in flowchart format.

Divide up into teams of two.

Select a procedure and draft a simple steps or hierarchical steps SOP.

Select a procedure and draft an SOP in flowchart format.

Part 3 SOP Implementation and Improvement

Overcoming Resistance Attitude: “We’ve done it just find the old way up to now!” Problem: Fear of change Solution: Explain need for change and listen to concerns. Overcome with communication.

Attitude: “We’ve done it just find the old way up to now!”

Problem: Fear of change

Solution: Explain need for change and listen to concerns. Overcome with communication.

Overcoming Resistance Attitude: “This is n o benefit to me, just extra work !” Problem: WII-FM (What’s In It For Me) Solution: Share mission and values of the business. Explain how improvement benefits everyone.

Attitude: “This is n o benefit to me, just extra work !”

Problem: WII-FM (What’s In It For Me)

Solution: Share mission and values of the business. Explain how improvement benefits everyone.

Overcoming Resistance Attitude: “ The boss wants to micro-manage everything we do.” Problem: Lack of empowerment. Solution: Encourage people to take an active role in shaping change and improving quality.

Attitude: “ The boss wants to micro-manage everything we do.”

Problem: Lack of empowerment.

Solution: Encourage people to take an active role in shaping change and improving quality.

Seven Steps to Successful SOPs Plan for results Design SOPs with definite results in mind. Improves communication and cooperation with stakeholders Leads to appropriate monitors Write a first draft Gives a basis for discussion Reduces excessive speculation about how to begin Internal review Access ideas Build commitment and buy-in

Plan for results

Design SOPs with definite results in mind.

Improves communication and cooperation with stakeholders

Leads to appropriate monitors

Write a first draft

Gives a basis for discussion

Reduces excessive speculation about how to begin

Internal review

Access ideas

Build commitment and buy-in

Seven Steps to Successful SOPs External Review Access ideas and expertise Build commitment and buy-in Testing Let someone unfamiliar with the job try to follow the procedure Post In workplace and employee information

External Review

Access ideas and expertise

Build commitment and buy-in

Testing

Let someone unfamiliar with the job try to follow the procedure

Post

In workplace and employee information

Seven Steps to Successful SOPs Train Define the learning objective Explain and demonstrate both why and how each step is done Give opportunity for learner to practice Observe and make key corrections Provide appropriate feedback Be patient, follow up as needed with coaching

Train

Define the learning objective

Explain and demonstrate both why and how each step is done

Give opportunity for learner to practice

Observe and make key corrections

Provide appropriate feedback

Be patient, follow up as needed with coaching

The Simple S-T-P Problem Solving Model S = Situation (problem) Clearly define the problem Seek to clarify all points of view T = Target (ideal) Clearly define the target Clarify all aspects of the ideal situation P = Plan Don’t rush to plan until S and T are thoroughly defined and understood by all parties. Each part must be developed in order.

S = Situation (problem)

Clearly define the problem

Seek to clarify all points of view

T = Target (ideal)

Clearly define the target

Clarify all aspects of the ideal situation

P = Plan

Don’t rush to plan until S and T are thoroughly defined and understood by all parties.

Each part must be developed in order.

Procedural Drift Caused by a lack of buy-in or lack of feedback Critical to get buy-in from staff and encourage everyone to take “ownership” of procedures Critical to set up a monitoring system and keep it going Important to assign responsibility for collecting information and providing feedback

Caused by a lack of buy-in or lack of feedback

Critical to get buy-in from staff and encourage everyone to take “ownership” of procedures

Critical to set up a monitoring system and keep it going

Important to assign responsibility for collecting information and providing feedback

In Conclusion Plan SOPs for specific results Use an inclusive process, everyone really needs to buy in to them Monitor performance and provide feedback to everyone Create a “culture of continuous improvement”

Plan SOPs for specific results

Use an inclusive process, everyone really needs to buy in to them

Monitor performance and provide feedback to everyone

Create a “culture of continuous improvement”

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