wright brothers

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Information about wright brothers
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Published on November 21, 2008

Author: etomsio

Source: authorstream.com

The Wright Brothers : The Wright Brothers Edward Tomsio Advanced Aerodynamics Before The Wrights : Before The Wrights Otto Lilienthal Built and flew gliders. Conducted his own lift tests through trial and error. Had cambered wings with a fixed tail surface. Discovered to fly better over flat surfaces by Sir George Cayley. Supported himself with upper arms. Control by shifting weight and swinging legs. Before The Wrights : Before The Wrights Otto Lilienthal Designed and built a small engine. Custom glider for engine 1896 Death due to gusty day Control System was too limited Death sparked the Wrights interest in powered manned flight Wrights Inspiration : Wrights Inspiration "In 1896 we read in the daily papers, or in some of the magazines, of the experiments of Otto Lilienthal, who was making some gliding flights from the top of a small hill in Germany. His death a few months later while making a glide off the hill increased our interest in the subject, and we began looking for books pertaining to flight." - Orville Wright, 1920 (McFarland, p. 3) Otto Lilienthal's 1896 glider following his fatal crash The Wrights : The Wrights Problem with Lilienthal’s glider was control system Set to try to master control problems Wilbur observed how bird’s turn Concluded that they change the angle of the ends of their wings Puzzled how to incorporate this into a flying machine. Wing Warping : Wing Warping When twisting a cardboard box, Wilbur discovered wing warping First tested this idea of control on a biplane kite. Wing Warping and Biplane Kite Wing Warping : Wing Warping The first longitudinal (roll) control Principles led to the development of ailerons Hip cradle control Would change the angle of attack of wingtips creating a lift differential the same way ailerons do. When satisfied with the performance of the biplane kite, they applied it to their first glider. 1900 Glider : 1900 Glider 1900 Glider : 1900 Glider Used mainly as a kite Winds either too light or too strong Further tested wing warping through cords operated by pilot or from ground. Prone Position Reduced drag 1 sq. ft. exposed instead of 5 Would add a full ½ HP when they tried for powered flight. Wilbur incorrectly believed that a tail was not necessary. 1900 Glider : 1900 Glider Incorporated a horizontal operating rudder (horizontal elevator) Placed in front of pilot Counterbalanced the movements of the center of pressure on the wings. Also believed it would prevent a nosedive and crash like the one that killed Lilienthal. First canard design Labeled canard by French newspapers in 1906 due to resemblance of a duck. Used cambered wings as well Borrowed concept from Lilienthal and other predecessors. 1901 Glider : 1901 Glider 1901 Glider : 1901 Glider Built with much larger wing span and wing area Due to 1900 glider producing less lift than expected. Stalled a few times Canard created a parachute effect allowing for safe landings. Strengthened Wilbur’s idea to use the canard design. 1901 Glider Problems : 1901 Glider Problems Sometimes failed to respond properly to wing-warping Turned opposite the direction intended and went into descending spiral. Wrights called it “well digging” Later cause became known as adverse yaw Increase in lift also creates induced drag Produced only about 1/3 the lift calculated. Up till now, used lift calculations from Lilienthal. Believed calculations were wrong so as a result… Wind Tunnel : Wind Tunnel Created their own wind tunnel Conducted their own lift tests. Found discrepancies with Lilienthal’s data. Tested dozens of miniature wings. Discovered that a long, narrow wing provides more lift than a short, wide one (larger aspect ratio). Incorporated this into third glider. Also, discovered they needed less camber. 1902 Glider : 1902 Glider 1902 Glider : 1902 Glider 32 ft wing span Narrower and longer that predecessors At first had dual fixed rear rudders Attempt to prevent adverse yaw Worked, but when attempting to level off from a turn, rudders caused turn to tighten and would also cause “well digging” Orville visualized solution and decided on a single vertical rudder that was movable Connected to the wing warping system First coupled ailerons and rudder system First successful glider with control of all three axes Control Problem Solved : Control Problem Solved Forward elevator controlled pitch Rear rudder controlled yaw Wing warping controlled roll Since they solved the problem of control they decided it was time to add an engine Wright Engine : Wright Engine No engine light enough back then Designed their own Charles Taylor machinist Four stroke 4 cylinder 12 HP Wright Flyer I : Wright Flyer I Designed and cut their own wooden propellers Had no data on propellers Determined that a propeller is essentially a wing rotating in the vertical plane. More wind tunnel tests Decided on twin “pusher” propellers. Counter-Rotating Props To cancel torque First Powered Man Sustained Flight : First Powered Man Sustained Flight Used wooden rail system for launches Dec. 17 2003 Later used weight-power catapult Made takeoffs easier and shorter Reenactment of one of the Flyer’s flights References : References Warlick, David (2000, October 29). Retrieved November 14, 2008, from Landmarks Son of Citation Machine Web site: http://citationmachine.net/ A&E Television Network. (Director). (1994). Wilbur & Orville Wright: Dreams of Flying [Motion Picture]. American Heritage. (1962). The History of Flight. New York: Golden Press, Inc. . Brown, C. A. (1980). A History of Aviation . Florida: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University . Combs, H. (1979). Kill Devil Hill: Discovering the Secret of the Wright Brothers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company . Renstrom, A. G. (2002). Wilbur & Orville Wright: A Bibliography Commemorating the One-Hundredth Anniversary of the First Powered Flight. Washington, D.C. : National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of External Relations, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters. Wright Brothers. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wright_brothers Wright, Orville (1988). How We Made the First Flight. Washington D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Public Affairs, Aviation Education Program.

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