World War One Summary

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Information about World War One Summary
Education

Published on February 11, 2009

Author: tomgriffith

Source: authorstream.com

WORLD WAR ONE : WORLD WAR ONE A SUMMARY OF THE SYLLABUS... 1. War on the Western Front : 1. War on the Western Front The area of trench warfare and offensives between Belgium and Switzerland The reasons for the stalemate on the Western Front : The reasons for the stalemate on the Western Front Failure of the Schlieffen Plan – modified as it was implemented Russia mobilised in two weeks, not six BEF held up Germans in Belgium (Mons) New technology e.g. Machine guns Battle of the Marne – Paris saved Both sides dug in by September 1914 The nature of trench warfare and life in the trenches : The nature of trench warfare and life in the trenches Trenches extended 700km along the Western Front German trenches better than Allied ones Weapons used - artillery, gas, machine guns Frontline, support, reserve and communications trenches Boredom, poor hygiene and rations, death and disease Main features – sandbags, barbed wire, dugouts, duckboards, ‘saps’ Overview of strategies and tactics to break the stalemate : Overview of strategies and tactics to break the stalemate Gas, machine guns, mines, barbed wire Tanks – new invention Artillery – ‘creeping barrage’ Large offensives – Verdun, Somme, Passchendaele Key battles : Key battles Verdun: Feb-Dec 1916 German offensive vs France Over 300,000 casualties on both sides Petain: ‘They shall not pass’ Falkenhayn: ‘Bleed France white’ ¾ of French army served here in 1916 Offensive failed Key battles : Key battles Somme: Jul-Nov 1916 British offensive vs Germany Aim was to relieve France and break through Casualties 600,000 (Brit) 450,000 (Germ) Haig accused of wasting men’s lives Day one was worst in British military history Offensive failed Key battles : Key battles Passchendaele: July-Nov 1917 Aim was to seize German-held Channel ports and break through 4 million shells fired before attack Mud and rain was awful British gained 8kms of land 250 000 casualties one each side Offensive failed Changing attitudes of Allied and German soldiers to the war over time : Changing attitudes of Allied and German soldiers to the war over time 1914 – Enthusiastic and excited – war over by Christmas 1915 – Stalemate and casualties = loss of enthusiasm; disappointment 1916 – Slaughter = total disenchantment, fear and anger 1917 – No end in sight = despair, mutiny and misery 1918 – Breakthrough for allies = Glad it is all over, collapse of German morale 2. The home fronts in Britain and Germany : 2. The home fronts in Britain and Germany The political, social and economic stuff happening back in the home country... Total war and its social and economic impact on civilians in Britain and Germany : Total war and its social and economic impact on civilians in Britain and Germany Total war = conflict which mobilises all parts of society Social impact – propaganda, involvement of civilians, increased government powers, changes in roles of women, peace movements, changes to class structure, recruitment and conscription, war weariness Economic impact – jobs, food/fuel shortages, reduced wages/increased prices, blockade of Germany, high cost of war Recruitment, conscription, censorship and propaganda in Britain and Germany : Recruitment, conscription, censorship and propaganda in Britain and Germany Recruitment: Germany = none, Britain = 1 million enlisted 1914, 3 million by 1916. Propaganda, patriotism and peer pressure Conscription: Germany = approx 4 million reserves 1914, Britain = conscription from Jan 1916 (unmarried 20-41), May 1916 (all men 18-41). Reserved occupations, some ‘conchies’ Censorship: Germany = very strict control, Britain = some controls under DORA Propaganda: Information designed to change people’s views. Used by both sides. Posters, newspapers, music, postcards The variety of attitudes to the war and how they changed over time : The variety of attitudes to the war and how they changed over time Early attitudes: POSITIVE = enthusiastic, spiritual renewal, adventure, courage, sacrifice, superiority, patriotism, glorious, over by Christmas, very limited opposition Later attitudes: NEGATIVE = wasteful, senseless, slaughter, grief, personal loss, acceptance, opposition to demands, revolutionary ideas, anger, frustration, stoicism The impact of the war on women’s lives and experiences in Britain : The impact of the war on women’s lives and experiences in Britain War work – factories, transport, clerks, farming - 60% of munitions workers were female Volunteer work – helping sick and wounded Nursing and auxiliary armed forces Politics – women’s suffrage, women’s peace groups Social changes – reduction in class barriers, more independence, vote for women 1918, marriage patterns changed, more relaxed social behaviour 3. Turning points : 3. Turning points 1917 was the year that saw the war finally turn Impacts of the entry of the USA and of the Russian withdrawal : Impacts of the entry of the USA and of the Russian withdrawal USA entered war in April 1917 as a response to unrestricted submarine warfare and Zimmermann Telegram Americans were arriving in large numbers by 1918, tipping the balance towards the Allies Russia was on the verge of military and social collapse by 1917. The Tsar was very unpopular There were 2 revolutions – March (overthrew the Tsar) and November (installed communism) The Bolsheviks made peace at Brest-Litovsk, freeing up some German forces for the Western Front. Ludendorff’s Spring Offensive and the Allied response : Ludendorff’s Spring Offensive and the Allied response Ludendorff saw the need for a final breakthrough in early 1918 This was called the Ludendorff Offensive or Operation St Michael 3.75 mill Germans vs 3.2 mill British/French + USA 5 main attacks forced the Allies back towards Paris Allies unified all forces under Foch and counter-attacked in July German morale and nerve collapsed and the Allies were clearly winning by September 4. Allied Victory : 4. Allied Victory Victory was assured by late 1918 thanks to the collapse of German morale at home, and of the German military in France Events leading to the Armistice, 1918 : Events leading to the Armistice, 1918 29 Sept – Ludendorff asked German Chancellor to arrange an armistice 3 October – Germany requested peace based on Wilson’s 14 Points Allies accepted but on condition that Germany restore all captured territory and pay compensation. Germany reluctant. 9 November – Kaiser abdicates due to unrest 11 November – Germany accepts and war ends Reasons for the Allied victory and German collapse : Reasons for the Allied victory and German collapse Allies: Moral effect of US involvement, tanks, failure of Schlieffen Plan, blockade of Germany, military victories in mid-1918, cracking of German morale, leadership of Haig-Foch in 1918 Germany: failure of Ludendorff Offensive, famine and revolution at home, weakening of German military, collapse of political support and monarchy, surrender of the German High Command The roles and differing goals of Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Wilson at Versailles : The roles and differing goals of Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Wilson at Versailles Clemenceau – wanted revenge, weakening of Germany, compensation, buffer zone in Rhineland, blame on Germany, power and colonies for France Wilson – wanted peace, fair punishment for Germany, freedom to Eastern European peoples, League of Nations, democracy Lloyd-George – wanted punishment of Germany, colonies for Britain, trade with Germany, weaker Germany, no one country to dominate Europe

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