World War I and the Russian Revolution

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Information about World War I and the Russian Revolution

Published on March 25, 2008

Author: vtucker

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presentation on the events leading up to WWI, the war itself, and the peace settlement afterwards. Also included is the Russian Revolution, the disposal of the Romanov and the rise of Lenin and the Bolshevik.

1914-1919 WWI & Russian Revolution

I. Build Up to War National Rivalry and Nationalism Intense rivalries over colonies and trade Triple Alliance and Triple Entente divided Europe into two camps Germany felt that the Entente was an Anti-German coalition Entente formed for fear of increasing German military/industry Growth of nationalism by Slavs in the Balkans and Austria-Hungary Austria felt Serbian nationalism was a threat

National Rivalry and Nationalism

Intense rivalries over colonies and trade

Triple Alliance and Triple Entente divided Europe into two camps

Germany felt that the Entente was an Anti-German coalition

Entente formed for fear of increasing German military/industry

Growth of nationalism by Slavs in the Balkans and Austria-Hungary

Austria felt Serbian nationalism was a threat

I. Build Up to War Russia supported the Serbians Socialist labor movement strikes increased tension Some thought external trouble would help stop internal trouble Increased Militarism Increase in military size and armaments Led to the feeling in other countries to arm faster and more to protect themselves

Russia supported the Serbians

Socialist labor movement strikes increased tension

Some thought external trouble would help stop internal trouble

Increased Militarism

Increase in military size and armaments

Led to the feeling in other countries to arm faster and more to protect themselves

Map: Entente & Alliance

II. Mobilization to War June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian terrorist in an organization, the Black Hand Germany encouraged Austrian action against Serbia July 23, 1914- Austria delivers an ultimatum to Serbia, which Serbia did not accept July 28, 1914- Austria declares war on Serbia July 30, 1914- Russia orders full mobilization to support Serbia against Austria and Germany

June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian terrorist in an organization, the Black Hand

Germany encouraged Austrian action against Serbia

July 23, 1914- Austria delivers an ultimatum to Serbia, which Serbia did not accept

July 28, 1914- Austria declares war on Serbia

July 30, 1914- Russia orders full mobilization to support Serbia against Austria and Germany

II. Mobilization to War August 1, 1914- Germany declares war on Russia because Russia would not demobilize August 3, 1914- Germany declares war on France General Alfred von Schlieffen devised Schlieffen Plan to deploy most of the troops to France, knock them out before Russia fully mobilized and then redeploy to Russia and take them out

August 1, 1914- Germany declares war on Russia because Russia would not demobilize

August 3, 1914- Germany declares war on France

General Alfred von Schlieffen devised Schlieffen Plan to deploy most of the troops to France, knock them out before Russia fully mobilized and then redeploy to Russia and take them out

Map: Schlieffen Plan & Plan XVII

II. Mobilization to War Belgium refused Germany entrance to march through to France and Germany invaded, violating Belgian neutrality August 4, 1914- Britain enters the war

Belgium refused Germany entrance to march through to France and Germany invaded, violating Belgian neutrality

August 4, 1914- Britain enters the war

III. The Great, Quick, and Righteous War The war began with everyone optimistic that the war would last only weeks Each side was convinced of the rightness of their cause and charged with national passion Many of the young felt that the war was a break from a modern age preoccupied with money, work, and material goods

The war began with everyone optimistic that the war would last only weeks

Each side was convinced of the rightness of their cause and charged with national passion

Many of the young felt that the war was a break from a modern age preoccupied with money, work, and material goods

Britain Germany Primary Source: Recruitment Posters

Britain

Germany

The beginning… The reality of war… “ The entire campaign a resounding march of victory- “We’ll be home at Christmas,” the recruits shouted laughingly to their mothers in August of 1914 . . .” - Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday “ The wall of the trench is plastered with smoking splinters, lumps of flesh, and bits of uniform. . . The first recruit seems actually to have gone insane. ” - Erich Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front Primary Source: Views of the War

The beginning…

The reality of war…

“ The entire campaign a resounding march of victory- “We’ll be home at Christmas,” the recruits shouted laughingly to their mothers in August of 1914 . . .” - Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday

“ The wall of the trench is plastered with smoking splinters, lumps of flesh, and bits of uniform. . . The first recruit seems actually to have gone insane. ” - Erich Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front

IV. Western Stalemate Europe unprepared for the war- fought a modern war with modern weapons as if they were fighting a 19 th century war Trench Warfare Schlieffen Plan unsuccessful- Germany and France frozen and dug into trenches for almost four years Trenches full of mud, rats, rotting bodies, and disease- no access to medical care Wet feet led to Trench Foot and the rotting of the feet

Europe unprepared for the war- fought a modern war with modern weapons as if they were fighting a 19 th century war

Trench Warfare

Schlieffen Plan unsuccessful- Germany and France frozen and dug into trenches for almost four years

Trenches full of mud, rats, rotting bodies, and disease- no access to medical care

Wet feet led to Trench Foot and the rotting of the feet

Primary Source: Trench Warfare

Primary Source: Trench Warfare

Primary Source: Trench Foot

IV. Western Stalemate Men who rushed out of the trenches were quickly cut down by machine gun power or heavy artillery Tanks devised at the time to be heavy armored vehicles to run over trenches and avoid gun fire Germans began to use poison gas in 1915 Generals ordered attacks hoping to wear the opposite side out – not successful

Men who rushed out of the trenches were quickly cut down by machine gun power or heavy artillery

Tanks devised at the time to be heavy armored vehicles to run over trenches and avoid gun fire

Germans began to use poison gas in 1915

Generals ordered attacks hoping to wear the opposite side out – not successful

Machine Gun Tank Primary Source: WWI Weapons

Machine Gun

Tank

IV. Western Stalemate Russia quickly defeated by the Germans Italy betrayed the Triple Alliance by attacking Austria in May, 1915 – promised Austrian land Battle of Verdun, February, 1915- Germany attacked Verdun (France) hoping to devastate France out of the war – causalities were more than a million with 300,000 dead – Britain turned to the offense and pulled Germany out 1917- Russia pulls out of the war due to revolution

Russia quickly defeated by the Germans

Italy betrayed the Triple Alliance by attacking Austria in May, 1915 – promised Austrian land

Battle of Verdun, February, 1915- Germany attacked Verdun (France) hoping to devastate France out of the war – causalities were more than a million with 300,000 dead – Britain turned to the offense and pulled Germany out

1917- Russia pulls out of the war due to revolution

V. The True World War The Ottoman Empire November, 1914- Entente declares war on Ottoman Empire Germany, Austria, Ottoman make up the Central Powers Italy joins France and Britain

The Ottoman Empire

November, 1914- Entente declares war on Ottoman Empire

Germany, Austria, Ottoman make up the Central Powers

Italy joins France and Britain

Map: Europe At War

V. The True World War Africa Allied and Central Powers fought in Africa, taking colonies from each other Lawrence of Arabia fought against Ottoman in Middle East in 1917; destroyed the Ottomans by 1918 African troops used on the fields of North Africa and Western Europe; also laborers

Africa

Allied and Central Powers fought in Africa, taking colonies from each other

Lawrence of Arabia fought against Ottoman in Middle East in 1917; destroyed the Ottomans by 1918

African troops used on the fields of North Africa and Western Europe; also laborers

Primary Source: African Troops

V. The True World War East Asia Japan joined the Allies in 1914 because they wanted German territory in Asia The U.S. U.S. attempted neutrality 1915- Naval war between Britain and Germany led to Germany sinking the passenger ship Lusitania, on which Americans were boarded – agitated U.S. and Germany stopped submarine warfare

East Asia

Japan joined the Allies in 1914 because they wanted German territory in Asia

The U.S.

U.S. attempted neutrality

1915- Naval war between Britain and Germany led to Germany sinking the passenger ship Lusitania, on which Americans were boarded – agitated U.S. and Germany stopped submarine warfare

V. The True World War 1917- Final straw, Germany reassumes submarine warfare Zimmerman Telegram- Germany promises Mexico previous territory now owned by U.S. to keep U.S. occupied Entrance of the U.S. in 1918 gave a morale boost to the demoralized Allied troops fighting in Europe

1917- Final straw, Germany reassumes submarine warfare

Zimmerman Telegram- Germany promises Mexico previous territory now owned by U.S. to keep U.S. occupied

Entrance of the U.S. in 1918 gave a morale boost to the demoralized Allied troops fighting in Europe

VI. The Homefront Countries at war had to begin conscription for men and to avoid bringing skilled men into the military Economic changes Price, wage, and rent control Regulation of imports and exports Rationing of food Nationalization of transportation and industry

Countries at war had to begin conscription for men and to avoid bringing skilled men into the military

Economic changes

Price, wage, and rent control

Regulation of imports and exports

Rationing of food

Nationalization of transportation and industry

Britain The U.S. Primary Source: Food Shortages

Britain

The U.S.

VI. The Homefront Patriotism dissolved into political discontent British Defense of the Realm Act allowed for the trying of dissenters as traitors Censorship of newspapers and publicized information In 1917, France suspended civil liberties Propaganda increasingly important

Patriotism dissolved into political discontent

British Defense of the Realm Act allowed for the trying of dissenters as traitors

Censorship of newspapers and publicized information

In 1917, France suspended civil liberties

Propaganda increasingly important

Zimmerman Telegraph U.S. Patriotism Primary Source: Propaganda

Zimmerman Telegraph

U.S. Patriotism

VI. The Homefront As men went away to war, there were more jobs available and unemployment declined Women also entered the workforce in large numbers, working formerly male dominated jobs like truck driving and heavy industry – women demanded equal wages (France made strides to equalize pay) Women’s roles in the workforce seen as temporary – would give up jobs when men returned Led to a new awareness of women in their own independence and livelihood apart from men – led to women in Germany and Austria gaining the right to vote

As men went away to war, there were more jobs available and unemployment declined

Women also entered the workforce in large numbers, working formerly male dominated jobs like truck driving and heavy industry – women demanded equal wages (France made strides to equalize pay)

Women’s roles in the workforce seen as temporary – would give up jobs when men returned

Led to a new awareness of women in their own independence and livelihood apart from men – led to women in Germany and Austria gaining the right to vote

Primary Source: Women in WWI

VII. The Russian Revolution Russia was ill-equipped to fight the war and suffered great losses – between 1914-1916 over 6 million casualties - Russia also suffering inflation and hunger Tsarist regime led by Nicholas II pulled away from affairs – a supposed Holy Man named Rasputin became influential to the Tsar, which upset many in Russia – Tsar tried to hold onto autocratic rule

Russia was ill-equipped to fight the war and suffered great losses – between 1914-1916 over 6 million casualties - Russia also suffering inflation and hunger

Tsarist regime led by Nicholas II pulled away from affairs – a supposed Holy Man named Rasputin became influential to the Tsar, which upset many in Russia – Tsar tried to hold onto autocratic rule

Primary Source: Romanov & Rasputin

VII. The Russian Revolution March, 1917, “Peace and Bread” protests in Petrograd Soldiers meant to disperse crowd joined in Duma assumed responsibility and Tsar abdicated New provisional government decided to carry on war to preserve Russian pride Opposed by soviets who wanted to end the war – soviets largely workers and soldiers

March, 1917, “Peace and Bread” protests in Petrograd

Soldiers meant to disperse crowd joined in

Duma assumed responsibility and Tsar abdicated

New provisional government decided to carry on war to preserve Russian pride

Opposed by soviets who wanted to end the war – soviets largely workers and soldiers

VII. The Russian Revolution The Bolsheviks Marxist Social Democrats led by Vladimir Lenin – dedicated to violent revolution – Lenin was in hiding until the provisional government came to power, then he was secretly shipped back to begin revolution and to seize power Promised: end to war, redistribution of land, transfer of industries to worker councils, and government power to the soviets – gained popularity among the soviet groups

The Bolsheviks

Marxist Social Democrats led by Vladimir Lenin – dedicated to violent revolution – Lenin was in hiding until the provisional government came to power, then he was secretly shipped back to begin revolution and to seize power

Promised: end to war, redistribution of land, transfer of industries to worker councils, and government power to the soviets – gained popularity among the soviet groups

VII. The Russian Revolution Took control of the government on November 6, 1917 with the help of the Petrograd soviets led by Leon Trotsky Lenin the head of the new Council of People’s Commissars - communist

Took control of the government on November 6, 1917 with the help of the Petrograd soviets led by Leon Trotsky

Lenin the head of the new Council of People’s Commissars - communist

Primary Source: Lenin

VII. The Russian Revolution Civil War in Russia Not everyone was happy with the new communist government and Allies wanted Russia back in the war The Bolshevik Red Army fought anti-Bolshevik forced known as the White Army – White Army defeated Red Army a disciplined unit while White Army was disorganized and not unified – wanted different ends Red secret police, the Red Terror known as the Cheka, stopped any opposition

Civil War in Russia

Not everyone was happy with the new communist government and Allies wanted Russia back in the war

The Bolshevik Red Army fought anti-Bolshevik forced known as the White Army – White Army defeated

Red Army a disciplined unit while White Army was disorganized and not unified – wanted different ends

Red secret police, the Red Terror known as the Cheka, stopped any opposition

VII. The Russian Revolution “ War communism” – nationalized banks and industries, grain from peasants, and state centralization Against the foreign invaders of the Japanese, French, British, and American who were stationed in Russia – appealed to Russian patriotism Tsar and his family murdered and burnt down in a mine shaft

“ War communism” – nationalized banks and industries, grain from peasants, and state centralization

Against the foreign invaders of the Japanese, French, British, and American who were stationed in Russia – appealed to Russian patriotism

Tsar and his family murdered and burnt down in a mine shaft

VIII. The War Weakens Germany had renewed hope of winning when Russia left the war Second Battle of Marne, July 18, 1918, Germans were defeated and Allies advanced towards Germany September 29, 1918- German leaders begin to call for an armistice and liberal reforms – also wanted to shift blame from military/Kaiser to civilian leadership

Germany had renewed hope of winning when Russia left the war

Second Battle of Marne, July 18, 1918, Germans were defeated and Allies advanced towards Germany

September 29, 1918- German leaders begin to call for an armistice and liberal reforms – also wanted to shift blame from military/Kaiser to civilian leadership

VIII. The War Weakens In November, mutinies by the navy and workers and discontent of hungry Germans led to the abdication of Kaiser William II New Socialist republic under Friedrich Ebert November 11, 1918- Germany calls for an armistice – the war is over

In November, mutinies by the navy and workers and discontent of hungry Germans led to the abdication of Kaiser William II

New Socialist republic under Friedrich Ebert

November 11, 1918- Germany calls for an armistice – the war is over

Statistics: WWI Casualties

Primary Source: Before and After French hotel before the war

French hotel before the war

Primary Source: Before and After French hotel after the war

French hotel after the war

Primary Source: Before and After European village before the war

European village before the war

Primary Source: Before and After European village after the war

European village after the war

IX. Peace Making and Peace Settlement Paris Peace Conference – January, 1919 Three important men: Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), David Lloyd George (Britain), and Georges Clemenceau (France) [Vittorio Orlando of Italy less important] - no mutual responsibility Wilson wanted the peace settlement to: Open discussion, not secret diplomacy Democracy Freedom of nations and people, eradication of colonies Reduction in arms France (and Britain less so) wanted to punish Germany for the war and make them pay – wanted a demilitarized Germany and German reparations

Paris Peace Conference – January, 1919

Three important men: Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), David Lloyd George (Britain), and Georges Clemenceau (France) [Vittorio Orlando of Italy less important] - no mutual responsibility

Wilson wanted the peace settlement to:

Open discussion, not secret diplomacy

Democracy

Freedom of nations and people, eradication of colonies

Reduction in arms

France (and Britain less so) wanted to punish Germany for the war and make them pay – wanted a demilitarized Germany and German reparations

Primary Source: Peace Making Reality

IX. Peace Making and Peace Settlement League of Nations Purpose Disarmament Collective security Disputes solved by negotiation and diplomacy Weaknesses No military – lacked enforcement power

League of Nations

Purpose

Disarmament

Collective security

Disputes solved by negotiation and diplomacy

Weaknesses

No military – lacked enforcement power

IX. Peace Making and Peace Settlement Depended on mutual agreement, which was hard to secure from nations all with differing interests Weak and small France felt secure under promise of ‘collective security” but larger countries like Britain did not like the idea of having to protect Europe Enforcement by economic sanction only U.S. did not join - isolationism League became more of an advisory council

Depended on mutual agreement, which was hard to secure from nations all with differing interests

Weak and small France felt secure under promise of ‘collective security” but larger countries like Britain did not like the idea of having to protect Europe

Enforcement by economic sanction only

U.S. did not join - isolationism

League became more of an advisory council

IX. Peace Making and Peace Settlement A continuation of “secret diplomacy” Russia and France made agreements behind Britain’s back, feeling Britain had succeeded in the war by using them Austria made secret negotiations with France, no longer willing to depend on Germany – a strain on their relationship

A continuation of “secret diplomacy”

Russia and France made agreements behind Britain’s back, feeling Britain had succeeded in the war by using them

Austria made secret negotiations with France, no longer willing to depend on Germany – a strain on their relationship

IX. Peace Making and Peace Settlement The Treaty of Versailles, June 28, 1919 Article 231- War Guilt Clause – Germany (and Austria) to blame for the war Germany had to pay reparations Reparation amount never set, leading to disputes over how much Germany should pay – Germany defaulted – Dawes Plan called for U.S. loans and investments

The Treaty of Versailles, June 28, 1919

Article 231- War Guilt Clause – Germany (and Austria) to blame for the war

Germany had to pay reparations

Reparation amount never set, leading to disputes over how much Germany should pay – Germany defaulted – Dawes Plan called for U.S. loans and investments

IX. Peace Making and Peace Settlement Germany had to decrease its military size and had demilitarized zones to ‘protect’ neighboring countries Loss territory of Alsace Lorraine back to France and parts of Prussia to Poland

Germany had to decrease its military size and had demilitarized zones to ‘protect’ neighboring countries

Loss territory of Alsace Lorraine back to France and parts of Prussia to Poland

Primary Source: Germany at Fault

IX. Peace Making and Peace Settlement End of Old Empires Austria-Hungary Broken up into states loosely based on ethnicity Germany and Russia lost territory New states such as Finland, Latvia, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia Ottoman Empire Promise kept to Arab supporters by breaking up Ottoman Empire Europeans took “mandate” control over old Ottoman lands – suspiciously like colonies

End of Old Empires

Austria-Hungary

Broken up into states loosely based on ethnicity

Germany and Russia lost territory

New states such as Finland, Latvia, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia

Ottoman Empire

Promise kept to Arab supporters by breaking up Ottoman Empire

Europeans took “mandate” control over old Ottoman lands – suspiciously like colonies

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