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Published on November 2, 2007

Author: Lucianna

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Framing Food in the Field: An Interactive Workshop:  Framing Food in the Field: An Interactive Workshop Joe Grady, Ph.D., Cultural Logic, LLC Meg Bostrom, President, Public Knowledge, LLC Lynn Davey, Ph.D., National Field Director, FrameWorks Institute Cognitive Perspective:  Issue Visible Attitude Hidden Reasoning Cognitive Perspective Raw Facts vs. Common Sense:  Raw Facts vs. Common Sense “It was tubular object, about 6 inches long and 1/4 inch in diameter, with a part you could pull off and put on either end, and one end was tapered..…” Vs. “It was a black PEN” Schemas are …:  Schemas are … Necessary Shared Transparent Competing alternatives Limiting Slide6:  Consumer View of Health Ins. Included: Fair price? Informed consumer? Choice/variety? Excluded: Role of government Uninsured Citizen responsibility Schemas are …:  Schemas are … Necessary Shared Transparent Competing alternatives Limiting At the level of “Everyday Action” Elicitations:  Elicitations 30 one-on-one in-depth interviews Indiana, North Carolina, California, Rhode Island Diversity: Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Occupation, Education, … Lived Experience and the “Little Picture”:  Lived Experience and the “Little Picture” The “Big Picture” is Crowded Out Experience of Food is cognitively rich, satisfying New info is “translated” E.g. healthy food --> healthy individual food choices Look around you. Everybody who weighs 300 pounds has made an unwise choice. Health stuff is in the media. Nobody doesn’t know that a stick of butter is too much for one day. And a lot of people probably use a stick of butter in a day. Rural female, age 65 Lived Experience and the “Little Picture”:  Lived Experience and the “Little Picture” Emotional pressure not to see the big picture Increasing passivity reinforced by business (Food Receivers stance) Good food reminds me of something. Whether it be a holiday, or something my mom cooks. Often to me good food is comforting. It’s satisfies a desire or craving a lot of times. For me food is a memory thing. Suburban female, age 24 Food Systems and “Modernization”:  Food Systems and “Modernization” A “generic” understanding Some ideas have no place, are “filtered out” E.g. herbicides, soil depletion, overfishing Food Systems and “Modernization”:  Food Systems and “Modernization” Degree of Modernization exaggerated Pretty soon I don’t think they’ll even have to have land. I mean I guess they’re probably going to be able to just do something in a laboratory or something. Urban female, age 37 Modernization seen as unstoppable I look at corporate farming as sort of a necessary … evil? Not even evil. It’s, uh, neutral. It just is what it is. It’s the way food is grown. It’s not good or bad. Suburban male, age 40 Food Systems and “Modernization”:  Food Systems and “Modernization” Problems as the “price of progress” Q: How do you feel about [trying to preserve family farms]? A: If you get to the supermarket you’re always guaranteed that your food’s going to be there. Whereas if you go to a little farm, there’s a limited amount there. People are busy already. So unless they plan on doing all their food shopping on a farm on a weekend, and just taking their time, I don’t think they’ll go for the little farm thing. Rural male, age 25 Limited Educational Value of Food Scares:  Limited Educational Value of Food Scares Confirming the generic Modernization narrative “Healing over” When something seems to disappear from the news, it’s usually because it’s gotten better. Urban male, age 37 Slide15:  What is a Simplifying Model? A simple concrete analogy that conveys the essence of an expert understanding… Why a Unified Conceptual Model for Food Systems?:  Inoculating Against “Consumer Thinking” Making Sense of Advocates’ Communications Unification and Diversity of the Field Creating Broader Constituencies Why a Unified Conceptual Model for Food Systems? Simplifying Models Development:  Many candidate directions/terms/etc. Empirical testing with 600+ subjects Can people remember/use the idea? A component of a larger communication Simplifying Models Development “Runaway Food System”:  Our methods of producing food have become so powerful, and are so uncontrolled, that they are threatening systems that are vital to our wellbeing. Analogy with runaway train, truck, … A single entity that is dangerously out of control Natural systems easiest to convey “Runaway Food System” “Runaway Food System”:  Experts are increasingly concerned about what they call our Runaway Food System. The way we produce food today has radically changed, and now has the power to alter the foundations of life as we know it almost by accident. Farming chemicals like pesticides and weed-killer are permanently altering our soil and water. Genetic engineering is changing the nature of the plants and animals we eat. And mile-long fishing nets are dragging the ocean floor and altering ecosystems. America needs to retake control of this runaway food system before it does more damage to the foundations we depend on. “Runaway Food System” “Runaway Food System”:  You’re talking the environment and the economy and just the whole process, the farming, the fishing and the big companies [that] have kind of been destroying the environment, the fishing -- they use the big nets that wipe out the ecosystems underwater. The big companies, they have the one idea and that could set off a chain reaction from other businesses. Q: What do you think is one thing that could be done about all of this? A: Full disclosure and better regulation. Conservative man from Georgia, age 34 “Runaway Food System” “Runaway Food System”:  Because of the way food is actually being grown and harvested, including within the ocean -- 40-foot nets and the genetics they’re applying and the pesticides. [These] are not healthful ways of farming and harvesting; we are producing a situation where we’re not producing stability in foodstuffs. We’re actually creating a problem. Conservative woman from North Carolina, age 55 “Runaway Food System” Reframing the Food System: Focus Group Findings:  Reframing the Food System: Focus Group Findings By Meg Bostrom Public Knowledge Method:  Method Twelve focus groups with engaged citizens (registered to vote, read the newspaper frequently, involved in community, etc.) Locations: NM: women, men SC: non-college, college educated MI: women, men MD: non-college, college educated CA LA: African American, Latino Stockton: women, men What is a focus group?:  What is a focus group? CT Connection focus group facility Why conduct focus groups?:  Why conduct focus groups? SFA Orientation Generate ideas Projective techniques, such as collaging, personification, analogy, word association Test hypotheses Framed conversations, i.e. creating a lens through which people see a topic Understand nuance/details/interactions Frame delivery, i.e. testing frame elements in vehicles such as news articles, brochures, etc. Focus Groups with a SFA Orientation:  Focus Groups with a SFA Orientation Elements of the Frame Context Values Stories Metaphors and Models Numbers/Social Math Messengers Visuals Tone Focus Groups with a SFA Orientation:  Focus Groups with a SFA Orientation Designed to identify frames and develop reframes Listen for the “public” conversation and how that may differ from the “private” conversation L1s, L2s, L3s, frame elements, carefully imbued into texts Vary frame elements in familiar “news” formats Analyze how the shape of the conversation changes Not about “liking” or “disliking” the message Not about reinforcing existing perceptions What happens in the group dynamic, the “public” debate? Do people reconsider the issue? What is the colloquial language? Food System Tensions:  Food System Tensions Old-fashioned Future Backward Progress Taste Choice Small Large Old-fashioned Future:  Old-fashioned Future “Food may be more prevalent today than it ever has been but the food that we are eating doesn't have the nutritional level as the food 25 years ago.” (NM man) “I think you are going to compress everything into a little pill and get your lettuce and that's your tomato.” (NM woman) Backward Progress:  Backward Progress “There was a period of time in this country where you sort of ate whatever was fresh at the time or what you could can.” (CA man) “You have say generally an agrarian society to an industrial age type society to a service industry society, and that is -- I think I view that as a progression... It's like the advent of the automobile effectively destroyed the carriage industry.” (College-educated man from SC) Taste Choice:  Taste Choice “We have maybe fewer choices but boy it tastes a lot different.” (NM man) “This is just not an environment that is conducive to mango production. Only recently in the last decade has this city been exposed to pomegranates on a regular basis or all the other foods.” (College-educated man from SC) Small Large:  Small Large “Perhaps nostalgia plays a little part and maybe misplaced trust. I don't know. I just think that they would be more careful than an industrial farm. It's their land; they need to take care of it. They don't want to pollute their own rivers. That's their family they're feeding.” (MI woman) “There is a point of supply and demand. These smaller farms just can't produce enough to support the communities and they don't have the labor to do it.” (College-educated woman from MD) Consumer perspective leads to individual choice as the only solution.:  Consumer perspective leads to individual choice as the only solution. Choices already exist. “You've got regular; you've got diet; you've got your options.” (California Latino) Framing the Problem:  Framing the Problem In which issue arena does it reside; is it about health, environment, or the economy? What values are most relevant? Where does responsibility lie for solving the problem? Health and nutrition are motivational.:  Health and nutrition are motivational. Worry about long-term consequences: “I'm certainly as a grandmother concerned that the pesticides end up in human breast milk.” (MI woman) “I've got three kids and ours tend to get sick and I just kind of wonder what is contributing. I know kids are going to get sick but is it the food we're eating?” (College-educated man from SC) Begins to change the reasoning about why we eat: “I want some vitamins. I want all the things I'm supposed to be getting. And now that I find this out -- it loses its vitamin C, come on, out of broccoli, the calcium, potassium. We're not getting anything.” (African American man from CA) Can easily get distracted by obesity and animal cruelty. Environment also makes some advances.:  Environment also makes some advances. Environmental and health concerns are closely related. But environment also causes most to think of land, air, and water. It is difficult for people to think of farms as environmentally harmful. If it is harming the environment, that goes back to the food being harmed. So therefore, we're not eating good food if it is harming the environment. (College-educated man from SC) Well the plants help clean out some of the impurities in the air. They filter through their leaves and that kind of thing. (NM woman) Economic argument is more challenging.:  Economic argument is more challenging. International economics and outsourcing is a particularly difficult message. “It's just not food that is being outsourced; it's everything.” (MI woman) “It's just another indication of our consumer, materialistic society. We want things cheap; we want them fast; we want as much as we want it and we want it right now…We have nobody to blame but ourselves.” (MI man) Domestic economics sounds like an effort to save the family farm. “That's the real point is the family farmer is already a myth.” (CA man) Frame Requirements:  Frame Requirements Shift from consumer to system orientation Connect consequences to system flaws Avoid overwhelming the public Highlight solutions, particularly the role for the public sector Advance legacy, stewardship, reciprocity and protection as relevant values Reframing the Food System: Priming Survey Findings:  Reframing the Food System: Priming Survey Findings By Meg Bostrom Public Knowledge Method:  Method 3,300 adults interviewed via phone Prescriptive, not descriptive 8 survey versions Each represents national sample Each version cues different frames By comparing experimental surveys with a control group we can determine: the influence of reframes on attitudes and policy support the frames that will create new public understanding that leads to policy support Research with a SFA Orientation:  Research with a SFA Orientation Elements of the Frame Context Values Stories Metaphors and Models Numbers/Social Math Messengers Visuals Tone Experiments:  Experiments Three Values-based Frames The Legacy Frame The Protection Frame The Reciprocity Frame A Simplifying Model The Runaway Food System Legacy Example:  Legacy Example We expect our food system to produce what we need now and for generations to come, but it is becoming increasingly clear that decisions are being made in food production that will affect the food system far into the future. Experts say that the pesticides and hormones that are used in growing food, and the distance that food travels, have long-term consequences on the food system’s viability. Some experts are particularly concerned about food that is produced halfway across the country, or across the globe, which weakens farm economies and puts at risk our ability to produce food in years to come because more and more farmers quit farming. Other experts focus more on the pesticides and chemical fertilizers that can have long-term consequences for human health and the environment. Most experts agree that short-term decisions made by food producers in our food system have long-term consequences, and there are changes we can make now that will ensure we have a stable, healthy food system for our children and grandchildren. Address Food System (% Priority) :  69 75 76 80 82 79 Control Model Protection Protect/ Model Legacy Legacy/ Model Address Food System (% Priority) All experiments result in increased policy support.:  All experiments result in increased policy support. Of 12 policies, significant increases in support occur in every experiment: Model only: 3 policies Protection: 8 Protection/Model: 4 Legacy: 10 Legacy/Model: 10 Average Policy Support (% Strongly Favor):  54 57 64 60 65 63 Control Model Protection Protection/Model Legacy Legacy/ Model Average Policy Support (% Strongly Favor) Shift in Responsibility Compared to Control:  0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Protection Protect/Model Legacy Legacy/ Model Gov. farming policies State/ local gov. planning Multinational corporate farms Manufacturers Shift in Responsibility Compared to Control Shift in Purchase Compared to Control:  Shift in Purchase Compared to Control 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Protection Protect/Model Legacy Legacy/ Model Organic No chemicals Local Conclusions:  Conclusions There is an incredible opportunity to shape public debate with strategic framing that includes: a demonstration that it is possible to improve the system, a chain of connections between choices in food production and consequences in nutrition, food safety, and so on, motivational values such as legacy, protection, stewardship a role for government and citizen action that will result in change, and a simplifying model to make the food system more visible for the public. This strategy results in stories that are dramatically different from the dominant food-health or family farm stories that exist in today’s media environment. Framing a Message: Perspectives from Communications:  Framing a Message: Perspectives from Communications Lynn Davey, Ph.D. National Field Director FrameWorks Institute What shapes public opinion on social issues?:  What shapes public opinion on social issues? Is it real world conditions? “There is no such thing as a social problem, until enough people, with enough power in the society, agree that there is. Social problems are produced by public opinion, not by particular social conditions, undesirable or otherwise.” Armand Mauss and Julie Wolfe, This Land of Promises: The Rise and Fall of Social Problems, 1977. “A real world indicator is neither a necessary nor a sufficient cause for an issue to climb the (public) agenda.” Ray Funkhouser in Dearing, J. and Rogers, E., Agenda-Setting, 1996. What Communications Is Good For :  What Communications Is Good For Agenda setting: News media influence which issues people think are important for government to address Framing: News media influence how people think about and interpret ideas and issues, particularly how they think about solutions to problems Persuasion: News media influence the attitudes and behaviors people think they need to adopt to enhance individual well-being or prevent loss The Power of Agenda-Setting:  The Power of Agenda-Setting An issue is by definition a social problem that has received mass media coverage. Issues salient in the media correlate to those expressed by public opinion. If the issue is not in the mainstream media, it is unlikely to be deemed worthy of public action. When issues fall off the media agenda, they fall off the public agenda. “Policy is explained by pointing at specific images in the press.” But Volume is Not All that Matters:  But Volume is Not All that Matters Media doesn’t simply tell us what to think about but also how to think about issues How the media frames public issues is critical to the resolution of public problems Different Kinds of Stories Set up Different Policy Solutions :  Different Kinds of Stories Set up Different Policy Solutions EPISODIC FRAMES Individuals Events Psychological Private Appeal to consumers Better information Fix the person THEMATIC FRAMES Issues Trends Political/environmtl Public Appeal to citizens Better Policies Fix the Condition Slide57:  Smoking: Old Frame Choice/freedom Individuals Drug addiction (personal vice) Responsibility of parents Bad behavior (teens’) Vital industry Protection (Just say no) Smoking: ReFrame Defective Product BigTobacco Manipulation of drug addiction Responsibility of government Big $ in politics/corruption Deviant industry Protection from advertising CHANGE BEHAVIOR CHANGE PUBLIC POLICIES Two Ways of Framing Tobacco Frame Contents in the News Who is Responsible?:  Frame Contents in the News Who is Responsible? “The debate is all about personal responsibility…It’s hard to believe that trial lawyers want to make the claim that ‘Ronald McDonald made me do it.’ If you eat too much, you will gain weight.” House Majority Leader Tom DeLay “Americans need to understand that overweight and obesity are literally killing us…To know that poor eating habits and inactivity are on the verge of surpassing tobacco use as the leading cause of preventable death in America should motivate all Americans to take action to protect their health.” Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy G. Thompson Frame Contents in the News Who is Responsible?:  Frame Contents in the News Who is Responsible? “The Administration should take more aggressive steps to encourage more healthful diets, and force the food industry to improve its products and stop advertising junk food to children. The Department of Agriculture has the power to get rid of soft drinks and snack foods in the schools, and they’re not. The FTC could deal with the tidal wave of unhealthy food advertising aimed at children. The government could change agriculture policy to subsidize the industry making healthy foods instead of unhealthy ones.” Richard L. Atkinson, President, American Obesity Association Slide60:  “Frames are, on the one hand, part of the world, passive and structured; on the other, people are active in constructing them. Events are framed, but we frame events. The vulnerability of the framing process makes it a locus of potential struggle, not a leaden reality to which we all must inevitably yield.” Gamson and Meyer, “Framing Political Opportunity,” in McAdam, McCarthy and Zald, Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, Cambridge University Press, 1996. Frame Contests: Katrina:  Frame Contests: Katrina Laura Bush in New Orleans: I’m sorry it’s taking so long to get you help. That’s the way government works. Local Democratic official: It didn’t work that way for LBJ. Communications Approaches:  Communications Approaches Focus on individual behavior and consumers of communications – public relations, advertising, social marketing Focus on mass culture and citizens – grassroots social mobilization, policy campaigns, media advocacy, strategic frame analysis Important Distinctions:  Important Distinctions Marketing is about a point-of-purchase decision between brands Electoral politics is about establishing a preference among parties and candidates Both operate on short time-lines Both are zero-sum propositions Social issues are about admitting a problem to the public arena and prioritizing it for public solutions Social issues are on long time-lines Social issues require compromise Different Schools of Thought Promote Different Narratives About the Way the World Works:  Different Schools of Thought Promote Different Narratives About the Way the World Works Halloween is Marketed to Youth as Party Time for Alcohol Social Marketing: Tell/teach/empower parents and kids to just say no, use peer pressure, etc. Strategic Frame Analysis: Expose the system of distribution that targets youth and explain the need for laws to protect young people from exploitation by irresponsible industries What Does It Mean to Campaign Effectively for Social Issues?:  What Does It Mean to Campaign Effectively for Social Issues? Goal is to put the issue on the public agenda by getting it in the news And by framing it in such a way that it defines the issue as public And builds a bigger constituency for policies While constraining the social control options and marginalizing the narratives of opponents Creative Brief: Definition:  Creative Brief: Definition An outline of strategic recommendations that helps to ensure that a campaign incorporates framing research into its messaging and tactics and avoids narrative traps. What Was Highlighted in this Creative Brief?:  What Was Highlighted in this Creative Brief? Get people’s attention Make the problem big enough to matter Show consequences What is the problem? Who is responsible? What is the solution? Children’s Oral Health The Problems for Policy:  Children’s Oral Health The Problems for Policy No link between children’s oral and physical health No link between children’s oral health and community responsibility No link between children’s oral health and consequences (achievement) How Do We Get Them There? Reframing Lessons:  How Do We Get Them There? Reframing Lessons Link children’s oral health to overall health Define dental decay as disease. Surface consequences for achievement/educational progress 4. Underscore the efficacy of prevention in solving the problem 5. Assign responsibility to community ADS = MESSAGE PLATFORM You Can’t Have a Healthy Body Without a Healthy Mouth. :  ADS = MESSAGE PLATFORM You Can’t Have a Healthy Body Without a Healthy Mouth. It’s Just Common Sense (TONE) Dental decay is a serious medical condition that can undermine a child’s healthy development. Because dental disease is caused by a bacterial infection, it has been linked to life-long health problems like heart and lung disease. Today, oral disease is the most common chronic childhood disease in America, five times as common as asthma.   It’s time for our healthcare policies to recognize that children’s oral health is part of overall health. If oral health screenings were included as part of regular check-ups, we could reach thousands of kids who aren’t getting the dental care they need. To learn what you can do, visit our website. We have the cures – we just need the clout to make them available to all kids. So let’s watch our mouths and use them to speak up for the children of New England. Exercise:  Exercise Help Colleagues Frame A Food Campaign by Comparing their Ad Ideas to the Message Memo Criteria Slide73:  www.frameworksinstitute.org ( c ) FrameWorks Institute 2006 This presentation was developed for individual use and cannot be represented, adapted or distributed without the express written permission of the FrameWorks Institute. All images in this presentation are licensed for the purpose of this presentation only and may not be reproduced elsewhere.

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