WorkingSafelyWithChe micals

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Published on January 20, 2008

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Working Safely With Chemicals:  Working Safely With Chemicals Environmental Health & Safety Department 6 Eisenhower Parking Deck 865-6391 www.ehs.psu.edu:  Environmental Health & Safety Department 6 Eisenhower Parking Deck 865-6391 www.ehs.psu.edu Let No Harm Be Done Environmental Health and Safety Department:  Environmental Health and Safety Department Asbestos Abatement Biological Safety Emergency Planning: Oil & hazardous materials Environmental Assessments Ergonomic Assessments Fire Safety Hazardous Material & Oil Storage Management Indoor Air Quality Laboratory Safety Radiation Safety Radiation Safety Waste Management: radioactive, hazardous and biological EHS Safety Policy (SY01): Responsibilities: Supervisor::  EHS Safety Policy (SY01): Responsibilities: Supervisor: All supervisors are familiar with policies and rules and provide for the health and safety of those supervised. They are in a key position in the organizational structure to carry out the department's safety policies and to prevent injuries to their employees. Ensure that required safety equipment, devices and personal protective equipment and apparel are provided and maintained, and are properly used by individuals working in their operations. Provide employees and students with instruction and assistance in the proper operation of equipment or materials involved in any operation which may be potentially hazardous. Provide for health and safety training. Take prompt corrective action when unsafe conditions, practices or equipment are reported or observed. Encourage reporting of concerns. Promptly conduct a thorough investigation in all work-related injuries, illnesses and accidents, submit appropriate recommendations on all accident reports, including the Employer's Reports of Occupational Injury or Illness (page 4.19) or theIncident Report (page 8.05), as appropriate, and follow through to ensure corrective measures have been implemented. Coordinate or conduct inspections to maintain safe and healthful conditions, and address any deficiencies that are identified. EHS Safety Policy (SY01): cont’d Responsibilities: Employee/Student:  EHS Safety Policy (SY01): cont’d Responsibilities: Employee/Student Comply with applicable environmental health and safety policies, standards, rules, regulations and procedures. These include safety-related signs, posters, warnings and written/oral directions when performing tasks. Do not perform any function or operation which is considered hazardous, or is known to be hazardous without proper instructions and authorization. Only use equipment and materials approved or provided by the supervisor or instructor and for which instruction has been provided by this or other experience. Become thoroughly knowledgeable about potential hazards associated with the work area; knowing where information on these hazards is maintained and how to use this information when needed. Wear or use prescribed protective equipment. Report all unsafe conditions, practices, or equipment to the supervisor, instructor or safety officer whenever deficiencies are observed. Inform the supervisor or instructor immediately of all work-related injuries or accidents and obtain prompt medical attention when necessary. Provide information necessary for the supervisor or safety officer to adequately and thoroughly complete the Employer's Report of Occupational Injury and Illness and any other associated accident/illness reports Working Safely with Chemicals:  Working Safely with Chemicals Chemical Safety Concepts Safe Use and Storage Disposal Emergencies Radiation Safety Chemical Safety:  Chemical Safety TOXICITY -- the ability of a chemical substance to cause harm HAZARD -- likelihood a material will cause harm under the conditions of use With proper handling, even highly toxic chemicals can be used safely Less toxic chemicals can be extremely hazardous if handled improperly. Exposure to Toxic Chemicals:  Exposure to Toxic Chemicals Exposure to toxic agents can have severe consequences, including death These injuries can occur in any area where toxic chemicals are handled Most chemical injuries could have been avoided If these people had had the proper equipment, if they had been using the proper techniques and if they had had adequate knowledge, such as exposures probably would not have occurred. Chemical Safety:  Chemical Safety Keep worker’s exposure below the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) PEL’s are regulatory limits set by OSHA on the amount or concentration of a substance in the air. Plan in advance for potential hazards Designate a person to manage chemical safety Train and inform workers Label ALL chemical containers Keep file of MSDS for all chemicals used (EHS) Have a Plan that includes: :  Have a Plan that includes: Standard operating procedures (SOP) Exposure control measures Fume hood & personal protective equipment Information & Training Chemicals that require prior planning & approval Working with Particularly hazardous substances Emergencies Key to Working Safely ….. Understand the Hazards!:  Key to Working Safely ….. Understand the Hazards! Know and prepare for hazards in advance Review Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Physical and Health Hazards Exposure signs and symptoms Protective measures Emergency procedures Read all labels Know your protocol / procedures Remember, some chemicals may have delayed toxic effects on the body Physical Hazard ….. Hazards due to physical characteristics of a chemical:  Physical Hazard ….. Hazards due to physical characteristics of a chemical Flammable - catches fire easily and burns rapidly Combustible - will burn under most conditions Explosive - will explode / detonate releasing hot gases Oxidizer - yields oxygen to enhance combustion, may cause ignition of combustibles with no external source Organic peroxide - uniquely hazardous, potentially explosive Unstable - tends to decompose during normal handling and storage Water reactive - reacts with water to release flammable gas, causes fire or presents a health hazard Health Hazard …… Produces acute or chronic effects in exposed workers:  Health Hazard …… Produces acute or chronic effects in exposed workers Carcinogen - cause cancer or suspected to cause cancer Toxic Agent - poisonous / cause acute or chronic effects Reproductive toxin (teratogen) - could have harmful effect on male or female reproductive system or on developing fetus Irritant - can cause inflammation of skin or eyes Corrosive - cause irreversible damage to living tissue Sensitizer - cause exposed person to develop allergies to the substance Target organ-specific agents - hazardous to specific organs in body (e.g., lungs, liver, blood, kidneys, nervous system) Route of Entry…. For a chemical to have an effect on a worker, s/he must be exposed to it and some of it must get into his/her system:  Route of Entry…. For a chemical to have an effect on a worker, s/he must be exposed to it and some of it must get into his/her system Inhalation / breathing - most common route, gases / vapors can pass to blood, solid particles inhaled into lungs Absorption through the skin - many solids, liquids, vapors and gases can be absorbed through the skin Ingestion / swallowing - while not intentional, failure to wash hands, eating in contaminated lab, etc. Injection - accidents handling glass, sharps, etc. Eye Contact - either physical damage or absorption The route of entry dictates selection of protective equipment Signs & Symptoms …. How will you know if you have been exposed?:  Signs & Symptoms …. How will you know if you have been exposed? Dose - Amount of chemical absorbed depends upon chemical strength / concentration, exposure duration, frequency of exposure In general, the greater the dose, the more severe the health effects Acute effects - occurs rapidly following brief exposure (e.g., acid burn) Chronic effect - develops/recurs slowly, over long period following repeated, long-term, low-level exposure (e.g., benzidine linked to bladder cancer) Individual variability - not all people exhibit the same signs and symptoms (especially to chronic effects) Working Safely with Chemicals:  Working Safely with Chemicals Chemical Safety Concepts Safe Use and Storage Disposal of Chemicals Emergencies Radiation Safety Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Always wear PPE: Good lab practice Eye protection for workers Wear enclosed goggles or face shield over safety glasses if chance of splashing or shattering Shoes, lab coat, long pants (gives protection from falling objects and spills/splatters) Plastic/rubber apron for caustics/corrosives Correct gloves for chemical Never reach into liquids, use tongs for retrieval (Chemical) Fume Hood:  (Chemical) Fume Hood Ventilated enclosure that protects you from being exposed to chemical fumes, gases and aerosols generated within the hood Room air drawn into the hood is vented out the stack Hood should always be ON during use Lower sash to marked (< sash level >) position Fume Hood Inspection Program:  Fume Hood Inspection Program Regular inspection Tested for adequate flow Results labeled on hood Safe sash level marked (< sash level >) Never use an unsafe fume hood Fume Hood Considerations:  Fume Hood Considerations Turbulence caused by: Rapid hand movements in / out of hood Obstructions at airfoil Persons walking by creating disturbance Limit Sash Area Performance improves as sash opening decreases Keep at or below the “safe” (< sash level>) level Labels:  Labels NFPA Diamond - used by fire / rescue personnel Flammable Reactivity Health Special hazard Chemical Storage Considerations …..:  Chemical Storage Considerations ….. Dry Chemical Storage Keep organic and inorganic separated Liquid Chemical Storage Determine major storage groups (acid, base, etc.) Designate separate storage for highly toxic chemicals Store only cleaning materials under sink Chemical storage requirements:  Chemical storage requirements Inventory chemicals annually (see SY24) Dispose of old and unused chemicals through EHS following chemical waste requirements. Segregate chemicals according to hazard, i.e. flammables separate from oxidizers, acids separate from bases Chemical Storage cont’d:  Chemical Storage cont’d Keep containers closed unless you are working with container - do not store waste containers open with funnels in opening, do not evaporate solvents as a means of disposal. Ensure all containers are labeled - no abbreviations or formulae Safe Storage ….:  Safe Storage …. Flammable Liquids Corrosive Materials Reactive (Oxidizers and Reducers) Cryogenics Gas Cylinders Flammable Liquid Storage …..:  Flammable Liquid Storage ….. Keep quantities below allowable storage limits (SY08 Storage, Dispensing and Use of Flammable Liquids) UL-approved safety cans Store flammable liquids in an approved storage cabinet (combined total volume of liquids not greater than 120 gallons with no more than 60 gallons of Class I or II). No more than 3 storage cabinets per fire area. Corrosive Material Storage …..:  Corrosive Material Storage ….. DO NOT store acids and bases together Material should be stored in cabinets Store heavy containers on lower shelves Store on shelves with raised edges Do not store liquids above eye level Glacial acetic acid has special storage requirements-store with flammable liquids Reactive …. :  Reactive …. Oxidizer: Chemicals that react with other substances; can result in fire or explosion Oxidizers supply oxygen to a fire Water-Reactive: Chemicals that react with water, water vapor or moist air Produces a flammable or toxic gas Pyrophoric: Chemicals that ignite on contact with air Flame may often be invisible Reactive Storage ….:  Reactive Storage …. Segregate: Acids from Bases Acids and bases from flammables Pyrophoric compounds from flammables Perchloric acid from reducing agents Water from water reactive chemicals Sodium/phosphorus & aqueous material - fire Acid with cyanide compounds - toxic gas Chlorine & ammonia - toxic chloramines Store thermally unstable materials in approved refrigerator Chemicals Requiring Special Precautions….:  Chemicals Requiring Special Precautions…. For chemicals with high degree of acute toxicity, select carcinogens & reproductive toxins: Establish designated area Proper storage and management Use engineering controls (e.g., fume hood) Use appropriate PPE Waste removal Decontamination procedures Emergency planning and response Cyrogenic Materials …..:  Cyrogenic Materials ….. Cold (e.g., Ar (-302oF), H2 (-423oF), N2 (-320oF), O2 (-297oF)) vapors can rapidly freeze human tissue Produces large volumes of gas that can displace breathable oxygen Materials can be embrittled Boiling/splashing occurs when charging or filling a warm container Wear face shields during transfers, loose fitting, dry leather or cryogenic gloves and long pants w/o cuffs Gas Cylinders ….(SY30):  Gas Cylinders ….(SY30) Chain or strap cylinder to wall/bench Always use a cart & safety chain when transporting cylinder Store flammable gas lecture bottles in flammable storage cabinet Keep non-compatible gases separate Store multiple cylinders by “nesting” Store oxidizers 20 ft. from flammable gases Electrical Safety:  Electrical Safety Fires are often caused by damaged electrical equipment and the misuse of such equipment. check all equipment for damaged and worn insulation on wiring connect ground wires to clean metal keep wires and other electrical equipment away from water & hot surfaces avoid use of extension cords,(designed for temporary use only) avoid homemade/makeshift wiring (use approved wiring methods) never touch a switch/outlet with wet hands do not use electrical equipment in a flammable atmosphere (I.e. electrical plug strip in a fume hood) Pollution Prevention:  Pollution Prevention Buy Less, Use Less, Store Less! keep volatile chemical containers capped. store chemicals in vented cabinet, don’t use fume hood for storage keep waste solvent containers capped when not using substitute less hazardous chemicals avoid mercury, EHS exchanges thermometers redistribute surplus chemicals through EHS Provide secondary containment for 55 gallon drums of potentially polluting materials that are located in areas where they could leak into a drain or escape to the environment. Working Safely with Chemicals:  Working Safely with Chemicals Chemical Safety Concepts Safe Use and Storage Disposal of Chemicals Emergencies Radiation Safety Disposal of Unwanted Chemicals …..:  Disposal of Unwanted Chemicals ….. Chemical Disposal Methods…. In-Lab Chemical management On-Site Hazardous Materials Management - OSHMM Redistribution of Unwanted Chemicals - ITS FREE!!!! In-Lab Chemical Management :  In-Lab Chemical Management Flushing down the sanitary sewer (limited to chemicals on drain disposal guideline SYG01) Neutralization Normal Trash If you have questions or are uncomfortable with steps outlined for in-lab management, please call EHS at 814-865-6391 Acid Neutralization (hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric, [<50%] acids):  Acid Neutralization (hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric, [<50%] acids) Use fume hood & wear PPE Dilute acid with cold water to 1:10 (always add acid to water) Slowly add sodium carbonate or calcium carbonate until pH between 5 & 10 Allow solids to settle Decant solution to drain with at least 50 times the volume of water Allow solid to dry and package for disposal in normal trash On-Site Hazardous Materials Management:  On-Site Hazardous Materials Management Annual review of chemicals Removal of surplus chemicals and chemical waste Evaluate gas cylinders, unknowns & potential explosives Laboratory and Stockroom cleanouts Request a chemical waste pick-up by contacting http://www.ehs.psu.edu Chemical Disposal:  Chemical Disposal Complete Chemical p-u request prior to pick up Download from web: http://www.ehs.psu.edu All containers must be labeled with red tags Mixtures, solutions and powders must be in chemically compatible containers No beakers, flasks, leaking containers or bottles without caps. It’s free!!!! Waste accumulation cont’d:  Waste accumulation cont’d Labeling - each container of waste must be labeled with a red tag (supplied by EHS) Waste accumulation areas must be under the oversight of someone who works in that area Oversight requirements:  Oversight requirements Check area once a week sign and date check list back-up overseer for times of illness or vacation post accumulation area with sign Designated waste accumulation area or Where should I put waste before you pick it up?:  Designated waste accumulation area or Where should I put waste before you pick it up? An area close to the point of generation and under the oversight of the person generating the waste Secondary containment must be used for waste storage - EHS provides 2 sizes of containment bins: one large enough for 5 gallon containers and one for smaller bottle sizes. Where does chemical waste go when it leaves my area?:  Where does chemical waste go when it leaves my area? Fill out Chemical Waste pick-up request form on web (www.ehs.psu.edu) EHS staff picks up waste in less than a week Waste is stored at central facility for less than 90 days and picked up by Hazardous waste Company Internal Audit:  Internal Audit Audit your waste program once a year to verify compliance Supervisor and Dept. head must sign audit Documentation:  Documentation Waste Management Manual available on web, www.ehs.psu.edu Manual must contain location of accumulation area form documenting waste area oversight form documenting annual inventory of chemicals copies of training records audit form Wastes with added precautions...:  Wastes with added precautions... Toxic - lead acetate, mercuric chloride, mixtures containing > 0.5 ppm benzene Reactive - sodium metal, extremely dry picric acid, some organic peroxides Corrosive (pH < 2 > 12.5) - nitric acid, aqueous sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid Ignitable (flashpoints <140o) - acetone, xylene, and acetonitrile Dioxins, PCBs, etc. Laboratory & Stockroom Cleanouts:  Laboratory & Stockroom Cleanouts Call EHS to do walk through if PI is leaving Someone from area must assist EHS will sort, categorize, sewer, bulk & neutralize Remaining chemicals entered on p-u request Form Redistribution of Surplus Chemicals:  Redistribution of Surplus Chemicals Sealed Containers Unsealed Containers Age Expiration Date Usable by Others Good Shape Past History Usable by Others Quality not Assured Pure Products If you would like to get on our mailing list or have questions, please contact Kevin Myers at 814-865-6391 Disposition of Wastes …..:  Disposition of Wastes ….. Halogens, flammables, bulked into 55-gallon drums and shipped Waste Chemicals - packaged and shipped for disposal Surplus Chemicals - labeled, put on shelves, advertised for redistribution ~$250,000 annual disposal costs SHARPS ….:  SHARPS …. What is a Sharp? Device that can cut or easily puncture the skin Unused, disinfected/contaminated: hypodermic needles, razor blades, scalpel blades, lancets, syringes and Pasteur pipettes Other contaminated infectious wastes: broken glass vials, lab slides or fragile glass Disposable Lab Glass? empty bottles, test tubes, uncontaminated broken glassware, uncontaminated glass pipettes, other plastic labware Sharps Disposal ….:  Sharps Disposal …. Segregate from other wastes Place in rigid plastic boxes with tight-fitting lids maroon 5 gallon barrels for non hazardous glass. Sharps containers for infectious materials. Fill container only 3/4 full Materials must be autoclaved User/Lab takes infectious material containers to building’s collection site (autoclave room) Infectious Wastes ….:  Infectious Wastes …. Nothing that contains pathogens/human blood can go to a landfill!!!! Infectious or biologically contaminated material Materials that have been used for recombinant DNA work 2 Disposal Methods: 1. Autoclave and place in infectious waste barrel 2. For liquids, add bleach to 10% of total volume, incubate 1 hour and pour down drain Hazardous Glass Disposal ...:  Hazardous Glass Disposal ... Disinfect ALL infectious waste Empty any hazardous chemicals/drain liquids Dispose in glass disposal maroon barrel. Working Safely with Chemicals :  Working Safely with Chemicals Chemical Safety Concepts Safe Use and Storage Disposal of Chemicals Emergencies Radiation Safety Chemical Emergencies:  Chemical Emergencies Classification Simple Spill -- one which you can safely clean up yourself Major Emergency or High Hazard Spill -- one which you can not safely clean up yourself Chemical Emergency Response:  Chemical Emergency Response To Clean Up a Simple Spill Notify your fellow workers and supervisor Control Access to the area, prevent contact or spread of spill Call EHS for advice and to report as soon as possible EXAMPLE: 500 ml of a dilute acid Chemical Emergency Response:  Chemical Emergency Response Major Emergency Call 911 for Fires (even if you extinguish it yourself) Explosions Injuries Unknown vapors, fumes or smoke Spills that threaten human health or the environment Incidents which you can not deal with safely Contact EHS as soon as emergency has been addressed. 911 Emergency Information:  911 Emergency Information Provide the following: Name Building and Room number Address Type of Emergency (i.e, Fire, Spill, Explosion) Any Injuries DO NOT HANG UP!!!!!! Emergency Eyewash / Safety Shower:  Emergency Eyewash / Safety Shower Keep area around safety equipment clutter free Portable squeeze bottles are NOT acceptable Flush affected area for at least 15 minutes For spill on clothing / skin: Remove clothes Wash with soap and water Follow info on MSDS for decon steps Seek medical advice Prepare for Chemical Emergencies :  Prepare for Chemical Emergencies Know where fire extinguishers, emergency showers and eyewash stations are located and how to use them Your unit should : have reviewed MSDS Sheet prior to beginning work have PPE (I.e, gloves, goggles) for spill cleanup Have updated Emergency phone numbers posted PPC PLAN:  PPC PLAN Preparedness Prevention and Contingency Plan: 25 Pennsylvania Code and Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of the Environmental Emergency Response Plans. PPC PLAN CONT’D:  PPC PLAN CONT’D The PPC plan is intended to serve as a tool for planning to prevent a hazardous materials or oil release through training and contingency planning. It also provides information on what to do, who to call and responsibilities of those people working with large quantities of hazardous materials if there is a release. There are 21 locations that store large quantities of single chemicals on the University Park campus that are covered by the plan and a separate plan for each non-University Park campus. Fire Safety :  Fire Safety Utilize Fire Prevention Measures at all times If a fire occurs: FIRST!! Pull fire alarm or Call 911 Evacuate the building if you are not trained in fire extinguisher use or are unable to otherwise extinguish the fire. Report all fires no matter how minor Know locations and types of fire extinguishers! Class ABC - normal combustibles, flammable liquids, electrical fires Class D - Combustible metals Fire Safety ….:  Fire Safety …. Fire Extinguisher Training Free to PSU Employees $ cost for refilling fire extinguisher On-Site “How To” demos Contact: Steve Triebold 814-865-6391 Working Safely With Chemicals:  Working Safely With Chemicals Chemical Safety Concepts Safe Use and Storage Disposal of Chemicals Emergencies Radiation Safety Radiation Safety:  Radiation Safety Radioactive material may only be used in rooms posted with Caution signs No food or drinks allowed in posted rooms PIs must have University Isotopes Committee approval prior to use Persons working with radioactive material or x-rays must have additional EHS training Radiation Safety:  Radiation Safety Do not handle items labeled as radioactive or move containers labeled as containing radioactive material without proper training Security Requirements: Do not let people in whom you don’t know If you go through a locked door, lock it behind you Safety Department Contacts ….:  Safety Department Contacts …. Director: Maurine Claver Chemical Safety Kate Lumley-Sapanski, Manager Environmental Protection & Health Kevin Myers, Hazardous Materials Program Manager Nate Black, Environmental Health and Safety Specialist Les Gordon, Special Waste Technician Radiation Safety Eric Boeldt, Manager Radiation Protection Mark Linsley, Assoc. Radiation Safety Officer Dave Bertocchi, Health Physicists Greg Herman, Health Physicists James Wiggins, Health Physicist Specialist Suzanne Morlang, Health Physicist Assistant Safety Department Contacts ….:  Safety Department Contacts …. Biological Safety Occupational Safety Curt Speaker - Biosafety Officer Steve Triebold - Fire Protection Engineer Environmental Protection Bill Dreibelbis - Industrial Hygienist Lysa Holland - Compliance Engineer Asbestos / Lead Abatement Mike Burke - Industrial Hygienist

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