Published on January 8, 2009
Quality of Work and Employment in Europe Working time and work-life balance in European companies David Foden Research Manager Eurofound 18/12/2008 1
Some general info on the survey Coverage: - 15 ‘old’ MS of the European Union - 6 NMS (Czech Republic, Cyprus, Latvia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia) Telephone interviews in over 21,000 workplaces Establishments with 10 or more employees, across all economic sectors : random selection personnel managers and – where available – employee representatives 18/12/2008 2
What do we want for work-life balance? Introduction or extension of flexi-time or working-time accounts A general reduction in weekly working hours Introduction or extension of opportunities for phased retirement Introduction or extension of opportunities for early retirement Reduction of overtime or introduction of time-off in lieu Introduction or extension of opportunities to work part-time No action needed Better possibilities to change from un- usual hours to normal working hours Introduction or extension of long-term leave options 18/12/2008 3 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%
Flexible time arrangements Flexible working time arrangements exist in almost half (48%) of companies with 10 or more employees in Europe A larger proportion of companies in the services sector (50%) than in industry (43%) report the existence of some form of flexibility 18/12/2008 4
Flexi-time arrangements in Europe LV SE FI UK PL IE CZ AT DE DK ALL 21 FR LU NL ES IT SI BE HU Possibility to use accumulated hours for longer periods of leave EL Possibility to use accumulated hours for days off Possibility to accumulate hours, but no full days off PT Possibility to vary start and end of daily work, no accumulation of days CY 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 18/12/2008 5
Flexible time arrangements The two main reasons cited by managers for introducing flexible working arrangements were ‘enabling employees to better combine work and family (or personal) life’ (68%) and ‘better adaptation of working hours to the establishment’s workload’ (47%) Both managers and employee representatives report higher job satisfaction as the main outcome of the introduction of flexible working times, followed by a better adaptation of working hours to the workload 18/12/2008 6
The effects of flexitime 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Reduction of paid Better adaptation Lower Higher job Other positive Communication Rise of costs Other negative overtime of workloads absenteeism satisfaction effects problems effects All Managers Managers with corresponding Employee-Representative-Interview Employee Representative 18/12/2008 7
40% UK NL s aeo p r - i esp r e t bs mn ( a e e t whp r - i ee p y e ) h r f at tmr e sa l h e t b s : s. i at tm ml e s o DE SE IE t DK LV BE AT FI FR ES CY i PL IT HU LU EL CZ PT SI 0% 100% % establishments w ith any part-timers (base: A ll establishments) 18/12/2008 8
Forms of part-time work 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% A verage Scandinavia Western Europe A nglo-Saxonia Mediterranean Eastern Europe Som e fixed hours every day Other fixed cycles Flexible hours on dem and Other form s /DK/NA 18/12/2008 9
Switching to part-time (skilled) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% United Kingdom Sweden Netherlands Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Austria France EU21 Ireland Germany Latvia Spain Poland Finland Luxembourg Italy Slovenia Hungary Cyprus Portugal Greece 18/12/2008 Easy to switch Possible, after some time Possible, only exceptionally Practically no chance Never happened 10
Part-time work A significant proportion of both employee representatives (41%) and managers* (27%) stated that working part-time had a negative impact on career prospects * 34% of managers in establishments whre an employee representative was interviewed 18/12/2008 11
Career prospects of part-timers compared to full-timers with comparable qualifications 70% 61% 60% 57% 49% 50% 40% 30% 25% 22% 20% 16% 16% 12% 11% 11% 10% 9% 10% 1% 1% 0% 0% All managers Managers with corresponding employee- Employee representatives representative interview 18/12/2008 12 Better than those of full-timers About the same Slightly worse Significantly worse Don't know/No answer
Family-related leave In half of all companies (51%) in the survey, at least one employee has availed of parental leave in the three years preceding the interview On average, 30% of the establishments with recent experience of parental leave reported that one or more male employees took parental leave 18/12/2008 13
Family-related leave National systems/ culture : very important here Possibility / length / generosity Training programmes to facilitate the re-integration of employees returning to work after an extended period of leave are offered by about 22% of all companies 18/12/2008 14
Companies in which fathers taking parental leave 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 18/12/2008 SI SE FI PT NL BE UK LU DK IE FR EU21 EL IT ES DE LV AT PL HU CZ CY15
Long term leaves 80% 71% 70% 60% 55% 53% 51% 50% 47% 38% 40% 37% 36% 32% 32% 30% 26% 22% 20% 10% 0% Total leaves* For the care of elderly, ill or disabled For further education For any other purpose relatives 18/12/2008 16 Average Private sector Public Sector * without parental leave
Retirement Phased retirement schemes are offered in about 37% of companies in the survey Phased retirement is more likely to be found in countries that have broad experience of part-time employment than in countries with little experience of such work Early retirement schemes are more widespread: 48% of companies surveyed offer this The incidence of early retirement is particularly high in the education sector (72% of establishments), in financial intermediation (63%) and healthcare (61%) 18/12/2008 17
Typology of working time flexibility Type of WT-flexibility % of organisations 14% 22% 18% 7% 18% 21% Indicators part-time workers (>20%) + + + + - - irregular hours - + - + - flexible working hours (>20%) + - + - - overtime (>20%) + + - + - parental leave + + - - - - long-term leave available + + + - - - early retirement option + + + - - - facilities for work-life balance + + + + - - + + - - - flexible contracts See also Table A in handout 18/12/2008 18
High flexibility, worker oriented % o f e s ta b lis h me n ts 1 7 .0 to 3 3 . 0 (6 ) 1 0 .5 to 1 7 . 0 ( 1 0 ) 2 .9 to 1 0 . 5 (5 ) 18/12/2008 19
High flexibility, firm oriented % of es tablis hments 25.2 to 28.6 ( 6) 20.8 to 25.2 ( 8) 12.8 to 20.8 ( 7) 18/12/2008 20
Intermediate flexibility: life-course % of es tablis hments 19.8 to 35.0 (9) 14.4 to 19.8 (8) 5.6 to 14.4 (4) 18/12/2008 21
Intermediate flexibility: day-to-day % of es tablis hments 9.8 to 12.1 (5) 2.9 to 9.8 ( 11) 1.1 to 2.9 (5) 18/12/2008 22
Intermediate flexibility: overtime % of establishments 21.5 to 32.3 ( 7) 13.3 to 21.5 ( 8) 6.7 to 13.3 ( 6) 18/12/2008 23
low flexibility % of e s tab lis h me n ts 33.1 to 50 .8 (6 ) 18.8 to 33 .1 (7 ) 7.4 to 18 .8 (8 ) 18/12/2008 24
Distribution of company types within industry and services 35 high flexibility, worker oriented 30 high flexibility, firm 25 oriented % of establishments intermediate 20 flexibility, lifecourse intermediate 15 flexibility, day-to-day 10 intermediate flexibility, overtime 5 low flexibility 0 Industries (NACE C-F) Services (NACE G-O) 18/12/2008 25
Distribution of company types within private and public sector 30 high flexibility, w orker 25 oriented high flexibility, firm oriented % of establishments 20 interm ediate flexibility, lifecours e 15 interm ediate flexibility, day-to-day interm ediate 10 flexibility, overtim e low flexibility 5 0 private s ector public s ector 18/12/2008 26
Relation of WT flexibility to firm’s performance High Intermediate Low worker- firm- oriented oriented life-course day-to-day overtime + - Economic situation very good 16% + + - - - Personnel size increased 34% + - + - Problems finding skilled staff 35% + - Problems retaining staff 9% + - - + - Low motivation of staff 16% + Social climate very strained 4% + - + Work-life balance very difficult 6% 18/12/2008 27
Summing up •Based on observed practices in ESWT: 6 types of firms regarding WT-flexibility •Typology is more subtle than ‘more vs. less flexible’ working time flexibility is not a 1-dimensional concept •Substantial variation within and between countries •No strong relation between high flexibility and ‘performance’ differences between types of flexibility at least as important 18/12/2008 28
Further information European Foundation website www.eurofound.eu.int Company survey page http://www.eurofound.eu.int/areas/worklifebalance/eswt.htm Publications http://www.eurofound.eu.int/publications/index.htm Or email Camilla Galli da Bino: firstname.lastname@example.org 18/12/2008 29
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