Working At Height by Ron Bonner

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Information about Working At Height by Ron Bonner
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Published on February 11, 2008

Author: Davidino

Source: authorstream.com

Working at Heights Regulations:  Working at Heights Regulations A Consultation Discussion & Awareness Seminar With Ron Bonner Technical Resources Manager Aims :  Aims To systematically examine each regulation in turn, interpret that regulation and apply it to today's operational situations. Discuss the implications of any contentious issues found in the proposed regulations and decide a response. Record any responses, views and proposals in order to present them to the Health and Safety Commission on your behalf. Bring awareness to you as an individual or company on how to comply with these regulations on a day to day basis when they become implemented into UK law. Why introduce these Regulations?:  Why introduce these Regulations? The Working at Height Regulations are being introduced by the Health and Safety Commission as a response to the European Directive on Temporary Working at Heights (2001/45/EC) which should be implemented by member states by July 2004 This consolidates the working at height requirements found in the CHSWR 96. Transitional Period:  Transitional Period Member States do have the right to make use of a transitional period of no longer than 2 years from the date the new regulations come into force, to attempt to alleviate associated costs and extra change. To date the HSC have had no suggestions that any industry or groups would benefit from these transitional arrangements! Reg 2. Interpretation:  Reg 2. Interpretation “Work at Height” Work in any place, including a place in: the course of obtaining access to or egress from any place except by a staircase in a permanent workplace or; At or below ground level from which a person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury and any reference to working at height will include access to or egress from such places whilst at work. Explains for the purposes of the Regulations, certain words and phrases that will crop up throughout the document which unless defined could be interpreted differently from one industry to another. Guidance (Reg 2):  Guidance (Reg 2) Working at height Working on a scaffold or MEWP Working on the back of a lorry Using cradles or ropes to gain access Climbing permanent structures such as gantries Working close to excavations, cellars or other openings. Staging or trestles (concerts filming etc) Not working at height Activities carried out by private individuals (even if the equipment used is from work). However, if the home owner employs a gardener to cut the hedges then the WAHR will apply. Trips and slips on the level surface Falls on permanent stairways (unless under structural maintenance) Working in a building (e.g.office) with multiple floors where there is no risk of falling (except if the staff use a stepladder to change the bulbs within the office) Reg 2. Interpretation continued :  Reg 2. Interpretation continued “Access and egress” “Working Platform” Includes ascent and descent Any platform used as a place of work, or as a means of access to or egress from a place of work. Any scaffold, suspended scaffold, cradle, mobile platform, trestle, gangway, gantry or stairway which is so used But does not include a building or other permanent structure Reg 2. Interpretation continued:  Reg 2. Interpretation continued “Work equipment” “Ladder” “Line” Any machinery, appliance, apparatus, tool or installation for use at work and includes anything to which Regulation 8 and schedules 2 to 6 of the WAHR apply. Includes a fixed ladder and a step ladder Includes rope, chain or webbing Reg 2. Interpretation continued:  Reg 2. Interpretation continued “Personal fall protection” “Fragile surface” A fall prevention, work restraint, work positioning, fall arrest or rescue system other than a system in which the only safeguards are collective safeguards or: Rope access and positioning techniques. (terminology adopted from BS 7985:2002 Code of Practice for the use of rope access methods for industrial purposes) A surface which would be liable to fail if any reasonably foreseeable loading were to be applied to it Reg 3. Application:  Reg 3. Application 3-1 Of the WAHR will apply in Great Britain and outside Great Britain as per section 1-59 and section 80-82 of the 1974 act. 3-2 The requirements imposed on an employer by these Regulations shall apply in relation to work- By an employee of his or By any other person under his control, to the extent of his control; 3-3 The requirements imposed on an employer by these Regulations shall also apply in relation to – Self-employed person in relation to work – by him or person under his control; and Any other person other than self-employed person, in relation to work by a person under his control, to the extent of his control. Guidance (Reg 3):  Guidance (Reg 3) Employers and the self employed must ensure that- Any work carried out either at your premises or off site complies with the WAHR and does not put others at risk (i.e. members of the public) Any workers off site should not be at risk from WAH and you must ensure that the person in charge of that site co-operates to make sure that workers are asked not to do tasks where there is inadequate protection Involve staff trade unions and any others in the formulation of your risk assessments. Multiple contractors should agree so it is clear who is responsible for which aspects of the work at height (written) (see INDG368 Use of contractors – a joint responsibility) Where personal equipment is supplied by the individual, the employer is responsible for checking the equipment, its use and competency of the user(s) Employee duties- Reg 14 of the WAHR parallels Reg 14 of the MHSWR which in turn bolsters Section 7 of the HSWA Understand the hazards and comply with safety rules Inform the employer of any known medical conditions which may affect WAH Use equipment provided by their employer safely and in accordance with any instructions and training given and not tamper or modify the equipment Report any situation which they consider likely to lead to a dangerous occurrence Not act in a careless or reckless manner Reg 4. Organisation and Planning:  Reg 4. Organisation and Planning 4-1 Every employer shall ensure that work at height is – Properly planned; Appropriately supervised; Carried out in a manner which is so far as reasonably practicable, safe And that its planning includes selection of work equipment in accordance with regulation 7 of the WAHR. 4-2 Planning includes planning for emergencies 4-3 Every employer shall ensure that working at height is carried out only when the weather conditions do not jeopardise the health and safety of persons involved with the work Guidance (Reg 4):  Guidance (Reg 4) Assess the risks to decide how to work safely Follow the hierarchy for safe working at height Plan and organise the work properly not forgetting to taking into account weather and emergency provisions Competency of those working at height The correct use of work equipment Manage the risks from working near or on fragile surfaces and manage the risk of falling objects Inspect and maintain the work equipment to be used and carry out inspections of the place where the work is to be carried out (not forgetting to include access and egress) The Working at Heights Hierarchy of Control :  The Working at Heights Hierarchy of Control Avoid the risk by not working at height – where it is reasonably practicable to carry out the work safely by other means. Prevent falls – where it is not reasonably practicable to avoid work at height you should assess the risks and take measures to allow the work to be done whilst preventing so far as is reasonably practicable, people or objects falling. This might include ensuring the work is carried out from an existing place of work; or choosing the right work equipment. Mitigate The consequences of a fall – where the risk of people or objects falling still remains you should take steps to minimise the distance and the consequences of such falls, this also involves the selection and safe use of work equipment. At all stages the collective protective measures should always have precedence over personal protective equipment Guidance (Reg 4):  Guidance (Reg 4) Assess the risks to decide how to work safely Follow the hierarchy for safe working at height Plan and organise the work properly not forgetting to taking into account weather and emergency provisions Competency of those working at height The correct use of work equipment Manage the risks from working near or on fragile surfaces and manage the risk of falling objects Inspect and maintain the work equipment to be used and carry out inspections of the place where the work is to be carried out (not forgetting to include access and egress) Reg 5. Competence:  Reg 5. Competence 5. Every employer shall ensure that no person engages in any activity including organisation, planning and supervision in relation to work at height or work equipment for use in such work unless he or she is competent to do so or, if a person is being trained, that the person receiving the training is supervised by competent persons. Guidance A combination of appropriate, practical and theoretical knowledge, training and experience, which collectively should enable a person to: Undertake safely their specified activity at their level of responsibility; Understand fully any potential risks related to the work activity (tasks and equipment) in which they are engaged; Detect any defects or omissions and recognise any implications for health and safety with the aim of specifying appropriate remedial actions that may be required in relation to their particular work activity. This could include refusing to do a particular task if the potential risk is assessed as being too great. Reg 6.Avoidance of risk from Work at Height:  Reg 6.Avoidance of risk from Work at Height 6-1 Every employer will need to make sure that any work is not carried out at height where it is reasonably practicable to carry out the work safely by other means 6-2 Where work will have to be carried out at height, every employer shall take suitable and sufficient measures to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable, any person falling a distance liable to cause personal injury. 6-3 The measures required to meet the provision of 6-2 shall include: Ensuring that the work is carried out- from an existing place of work; or in the case of obtaining access & egress using existing means, in compliance with Schedule 1, where it is reasonably practicable to do so safely and under appropriate ergonomic conditions; and b) In other cases, the selection of work equipment in Regulation 7. Schedule 1. Requirements for existing places of work and means of access and egress at height :  Schedule 1. Requirements for existing places of work and means of access and egress at height Every existing place of work or means of access at height shall – Be stable and of sufficient strength and rigidity for the purpose for which it is intended to be or is being used; Where applicable, rest on stable and/or sufficiently strong surface; Be of sufficient dimensions to permit the safe passage or persons and the safe use of any plant or materials required to be used and to provide a safe working area having regard to work to be carried out there; Be provided with suitable and sufficient edge protection; Possess a surface which has no gap:- through which any material or object could fall and injure a person, unless measures have been taken to ensure that no person could be injured; or giving rise to other risk of injury to any person Where it has moving parts, be prevented by appropriate devices from moving inadvertently during work at height. Reg 6. Avoidance of risk from Work at Height continued.:  Reg 6. Avoidance of risk from Work at Height continued. 6-4 Every employer shall take suitable and sufficient measures to minimise the distance and consequences of a fall as described in 6-2 6-5 The measures required by 6-4 shall include the correct selection of work equipment in accordance with Regulation 7 6-6 In identifying the measures required by this Regulation every employer shall: take account of the risk assessment he must do under Regulation 3 of the Management Regulations. giving consideration to the measures required to prevent a person falling and the measures required to minimise the distance and consequence of a fall, give collective measures priority over personal measures. Reg 7. General principles for selection of work equipment for working at height:  Reg 7. General principles for selection of work equipment for working at height 7-1. Every employer, in selecting work equipment for use in working at height shall take account of - The working conditions and the risks to the safety of persons at the place where the work equipment is to be used; In the case of work equipment for access and egress, the distance to be negotiated; The distance and consequences of a potential fall; The duration and the frequency of use; Need for evacuation and rescue in an emergency; Any additional risks posed by the use, installation or removal of that work equipment or by evacuation and rescue from it and the provisions of the rest of these Regulations. Reg 7. General principles for selection of work equipment for working at height:  Reg 7. General principles for selection of work equipment for working at height 7.2 The employer must select work equipment for work at height which- Has characteristics including dimensions which: Are appropriate to the nature of the work to be performed and any foreseeable loadings; Allow passage without risk. b) Is in other respects the most suitable work equipment having regard in particular to the purposes specified in Regulation 6 Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- A guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. Slide23:  Schedule 2 requirements for guard rails etc. Unless the context otherwise requires, any reference in this schedule to means of protection is to guard-rails, toe-boards, barriers or similar means of protection. Means of protection shall – be suitable and sufficient strength and rigidity for the purpose (or purposes) for which they are being used; be so placed, secured and used as to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that they do not become accidentally displaced; and in the case of toe board or similar means of protection, shall not be less than 150 millimetres high. Any structure or part of a structure which supports a means of protection or to which a means of protection is attached shall be of sufficient strength and suitable for the purpose of such support or attachment. Means of protection shall be so placed as to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable, the fall of any person, or of any material or object from any place of work The top guard-rail or other similar means of protection shall be at least 950 millimetres above the edge from which any person is liable to fall. there shall not be a lateral gap in means of protection save at a point of access to a ladder or stairway where a gap is necessary. There shall not be a lateral gap exceeding 470 millimetres in means of protection, or between means of protection and a work surface and, in any case of any gap between the toe board and work surface, the gap shall be as small as is reasonably practicable. Means of protection shall be removed only for the time and to the extent necessary to gain access or egress or for the performance of a particular task and shall be replaced as soon as practicable. The task shall not be performed while means of protection are removed unless effective compensatory safety measures are in place. Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- A guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 1 Requirements for ALL working platforms:  Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 1 Requirements for ALL working platforms Interpretation In this schedule, “supporting structure” means any structure used for the purpose of supporting a working platform and includes any plant used for that purpose. Condition of Surface Any surface upon which any supporting structure rests shall be stable, of sufficient strength and of suitable composition to support the supporting structure, the working platform and any loading to be placed on the working platform. Stability of supporting structure Any supporting structure shall- Be suitable and of sufficient strength and rigidity for the purpose or purposes for which it is intended to be used or is being used; Be so erected and used as to ensure that its components do not become accidentally displaced as to endanger any person When altered or modified, be so altered or modified as to ensure it remains stable; Be dismantled in such a way as to prevent accidental displacement. Stability of supporting structure Any supporting structure shall- Be suitable and of sufficient strength and rigidity for the purpose for which it is being used; In the case of a wheeled structure, be prevented by appropriate devices from moving inadvertently during working at height; In other cases, be prevented from slipping by secure attachment to the bearing surface or to another structure, provision of an effective anti-slip device or by other means of equivalent effectiveness; Be stable while being erected, used and dismantled; and When altered or modified, be so altered or modified as to ensure that it remains stable. Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 1 Requirements for ALL working platforms:  Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 1 Requirements for ALL working platforms Through which any material or object could fall and injure a person, unless measures have been taken to ensure that no person could be so injured; or Giving rise to other risk of injury to any person; and Be so erected, used and maintained in such condition, as to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable- The risk of slipping or tripping Any person being caught between the working platform and any adjacent structure. Loading A working platform and any supporting structure shall not be loaded so as to give rise to a risk of collapse or to any deformation, which could affect its safe use. Stability of work platforms A working platform should- Be of sufficient strength and rigidity for the purpose or purpose for which it is intended to be used or is being used; Be so erected and used as to ensure that its components do not become accidentally displaced as to endanger any person When altered or modified, be so altered or modified as to ensure it remains stable; and Be dismantled in such a way as to prevent accidental displacement. Safety on a working platform A working platform shall- Be of sufficient dimensions to permit the safe passage of persons and the safe use of any plant or materials required to be used and to provide a safe working area having regard to the work being carried out there; Possess a suitable surface and, in particular, be so constructed that the surface of the platform has no gap- Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- Guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; and Where scaffolding is provided, part 2 of schedule 3 is also complied with Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 2 Requirements for Scaffolding:  Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 2 Requirements for Scaffolding Additional requirements for scaffolding Strength and stability calculations for scaffolding shall be carried out unless A note of the calculations, covering the structural arrangements contemplated is available; or It is assembled in conformity with a general recognised standard configuration. Depending on the complexity of the scaffolding selected, a use and dismantling plan shall be drawn up by a competent person. This may be in the form of a standard plan supplemented by items relating to specific details of the scaffolding in question. A copy of the plan including any instructions it may contain, shall be kept available for the use of persons concerned in the assembly, use, dismantling or alteration of scaffolding until it has been dismantled. The dimensions, form and layout of scaffolding decks shall be appropriate to the nature of the work to be performed and suitable for the loads to be carried and permit work and passage in safety While a scaffolding is not available for use, including during assembly, dismantling or alteration it shall be marked with general warning signs in accordance with the Health and Safety (Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 and be suitably delineated by physical means for preventing access to the danger zone. Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 2 Requirements for Scaffolding:  Schedule 3. Requirements for working platforms Part 2 Requirements for Scaffolding Scaffolding may be assembled dismantled or significantly altered only under the supervision of a competent person and by persons who have received appropriate and specific training in the operations envisaged which address specific risks which the operations may entail and precautions to be taken, and more particularly in- Understanding of the plan for the assembly, dismantling or alteration of the scaffolding concerned Safety during the assembly, dismantling or alteration of the scaffolding concerned Measures to prevent the risk of persons, materials or objects falling Safety measures in the event of changing weather conditions which could adversely affect the safety of the scaffolding concerned Permissible loadings Any other risks which the assembly, dismantling or alteration of the scaffolding may entail. Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- Guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; and Where scaffolding is provided, part 2 of schedule 3 is also complied with A net, airbag or other collective safeguard for arresting falls which is not part of a personal fall protection system – Schedule 4 is complied with; Schedule 4. Requirements for collective safeguards for arresting falls:  Schedule 4. Requirements for collective safeguards for arresting falls Any reference in schedule 4 to a safeguard is to a collective safeguard for arresting falls A safeguard shall be suitable and of sufficient strength to arrest safely, the fall of any person who is liable to fall. A safeguard shall In the case of a safeguard which is designed to be attached, be securely attached to all the required anchors, and the anchors and the means of attachment shall be suitable and sufficient strength and stability for the purpose of safely supporting the foreseeable loading in arresting any fall and during any subsequent rescue. In the case of an airbag, landing mat or a similar safeguard, be stable Suitable and sufficient steps shall be taken to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, that in the event of a fall by any person the safeguard does not itself cause injury to that person Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- Guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; and Where scaffolding is provided, part 2 of schedule 3 is also complied with A net, airbag or other collective safeguard for arresting falls which is not part of a personal fall protection system – Schedule 4 is complied with; A work positioning system – part 2 of schedule 5 is also complied with Schedule 5. Part 2 Additional requirements for work positioning systems :  Schedule 5. Part 2 Additional requirements for work positioning systems A work positioning system shall be used only if- The system includes a suitable backup system for preventing or arresting a fall; and Where the system includes a line as a back up system, the user is connected to it. Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- Guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; and Where scaffolding is provided, part 2 of schedule 3 is also complied with A net, airbag or other collective safeguard for arresting falls which is not part of a personal fall protection system – Schedule 4 is complied with; A work positioning system – part 2 of schedule 5 is also complied with Rope access and positioning techniques – part 3 of schedule 5 is complied with; Schedule 5. Part 3 Additional requirements for rope access and positioning techniques:  Schedule 5. Part 3 Additional requirements for rope access and positioning techniques A rope access or positioning technique shall be used only if- Subject to paragraph (3), it involves a system comprising at least two separately anchored lines, of which one (“the working line”) is used as means of access, egress and support and the other is the safety line The user is provided with a suitable harness and is connected by it to the working line and the safety line; The working line is equipped with safe means of ascent and descent and has a self locking system to prevent the user falling; and The safety line is equipped with a mobile fall protection system, which is connected to and travels with the user of the system. Taking the risk assessment into account and depending in particular on the duration of the job and the ergonomic constraints, provision must be made for a seat with the appropriate accessories. The system may comprise of a single rope where- A risk assessment has demonstrated that the use of a second line would entail higher risk to persons; and Appropriate measures have been taken to ensure safety. Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- Guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; and Where scaffolding is provided, part 2 of schedule 3 is also complied with A net, airbag or other collective safeguard for arresting falls which is not part of a personal fall protection system – Schedule 4 is complied with; A work positioning system – part 2 of schedule 5 is also complied with Rope access and positioning techniques – part 3 of schedule 5 is complied with; Any personal fall protection system – part 4 of schedule 5 is also complied with; Schedule 5. Part 4 Additional requirements for fall arrest systems:  Schedule 5. Part 4 Additional requirements for fall arrest systems A fall arrest system shall incorporate a suitable shock absorber or other suitable means of limiting the force applied to the user’s body. A fall arrest system shall not be used in a manner- Which involves the risk of a line being cut; Where its safe use requires a clear zone (allowing for pendulum effect), and where no suitable zone exists. Or which otherwise inhibits its performance or renders its use unsafe Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- Guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; and Where scaffolding is provided, part 2 of schedule 3 is also complied with A net, airbag or other collective safeguard for arresting falls which is not part of a personal fall protection system – Schedule 4 is complied with; A work positioning system – part 2 of schedule 5 is also complied with Rope access and positioning techniques – part 3 of schedule 5 is complied with; Any personal fall protection system – part 4 of schedule 5 is also complied with; A work restraint system – Part 5 of schedule 5 is complied with; and Schedule 5 Part 5 Requirements for work restraint systems:  Schedule 5 Part 5 Requirements for work restraint systems A work restraint system shall- Be so designed that, if used correctly, it prevents the user from getting into a position in which a fall can occur; and Be used correctly? Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment:  Reg 8. Requirements for particular work equipment 8 The employer shall ensure that, in the case of- Guard rail, toe board, barrier or similar means of protection – schedule 2 is complied with. A working platform. Part 1 of Schedule 3 is complied with; and Where scaffolding is provided, part 2 of schedule 3 is also complied with A net, airbag or other collective safeguard for arresting falls which is not part of a personal fall protection system – Schedule 4 is complied with; A work positioning system – part 2 of schedule 5 is also complied with Rope access and positioning techniques – part 3 of schedule 5 is complied with; Any personal fall protection system – part 4 of schedule 5 is also complied with; A work restraint system – Part 5 of schedule 5 is complied with; and A ladder – Schedule 6 is complied with. Schedule 6 Requirements for Ladders:  Schedule 6 Requirements for Ladders Every employer shall ensure that a ladder is used for work at height only if a risk assessment under Regulation 3 of the Management Regulations has demonstrated that the use of more suitable equipment is not justified because of the low risk and- The short duration of use; or Existing features on site, which cannot alter. Any surface upon which a ladder rests shall be stable, firm, of sufficient strength and of suitable composition to support the ladder so that its rungs or steps remain horizontal and any loading intended to be placed on it. A ladder shall be so positioned as to ensure stability during use A suspended ladder shall be attached in a secure manner and so that, with the exception of a flexible ladder, it cannot be displaced and swinging is prevented. The feet of a portable ladder shall be prevented from slipping during use by- Securing the stiles at or near their upper or lower ends; or Effective anti-slip or other effective stability device; or Any other arrangements of equivalent effectiveness A ladder used for access shall be long enough to protrude sufficiently above the place of landing to which it provides access, unless other measures have been taken to ensure a firm handhold No interlocking or extension ladder shall be used unless its sections are prevented from moving relative to each other while in use A mobile ladder shall be prevented from moving before it is stepped on. Where a ladder or run of ladders rises a vertical distance of 9 metres or more above its base, there shall be, as far as reasonably practicable, be provided at suitable intervals sufficient safe landing areas or rest platforms. Every ladder shall be used in such a way that- A secure handhold and secure support are always available to the user; and The user can maintain a safe handhold when carrying a load. Guidance on Ladders:  Guidance on Ladders No matter what type of ladder – (step, suspended, extension, fixed etc.) and regardless of their use, they will need to meet the requirements of WAHR . It must also be remembered that they are classified as work equipment under PUWER 98 and as such must be suitable for the for the task. A risk assessment will be needed for all ladder work and the assessment should be proportionate to the risk. Use “Ladders should only be used as work equipment, either for access/egress or as a place from which to work where a risk assessment shows that the use of other work equipment is not justified because of the low risk and the short duration of the job or unalterable features of the site” Working from a ladder “ a secure hand hold should be available” means that the user can grasp an upper rung (round) or handrail on the ladder. It does not mean that the user is expected to be holding the rung or handrail at all times as this would clearly make it impossible to carry out many tasks for which two hands are needed. Reg 9. Fragile surfaces:  Reg 9. Fragile surfaces 9-1 The employer must take suitable and sufficient steps to prevent any person at work falling through any fragile surface 9-2 And to achieve the requirement of the above paragraph, the employer shall ensure that- No person whilst at work should be allowed to pass across, work on or from, a fragile surface where it is reasonably practicable to carry out that work safely and under ergonomically acceptable conditions unless there is no other method of doing so safely; No person whilst at work should be allowed to pass across, work on or from, a fragile surface unless there are suitable and sufficient platforms, coverings or other similar means of supporting the loadings expected for the task are in place; No person whilst at work should be allowed to pass across or work near to a fragile surface unless there are provided suitable and sufficient guard rails, coverings or any other methods that would, as far as reasonably practicable, prevent a person falling through the fragile surface; and Where a person may pass across or work near a fragile surface, prominent warning signs are, so far as reasonably practicable, fixed to the approach to the area where the fragile surface is located. If, after all the above are implemented, the risk of falling through the fragile surface still remains, the employer must provide suitable and sufficient means for arresting his fall, again, so far as is reasonably practicable. Guidance (Reg 9):  Guidance (Reg 9) Fragile surface are defined as surfaces where there is a risk of a person or object falling through. They can be close to or part of the structure Including vertical and inclined Whilst some fragile surfaces could support a persons weight consideration regarding additional loading must be made along with consideration of dynamic loading i.e. fall onto the surface Weather and deterioration Fall protection and signage (danger area as per Reg 11 Typical signage Reg 10 Falling objects:  Reg 10 Falling objects 10-1 The employer must take reasonably practicable steps to make suitable and sufficient arrangements to prevent the fall of any materials or objects. 10-2 If it is not reasonably practicable to comply with 10-1 above then the employer will need to take suitable and sufficient steps to prevent any person being struck by materials or objects, which are likely to cause injury. 10-3 The employer must ensure that no material is tipped or thrown from height if it is likely to cause injury. 10-4 And the employer shall ensure that materials and objects are stored in such a way as to prevent risk to any person arising out a collapse, overturning or movement of those materials or objects. Reg 11. Danger areas:  Reg 11. Danger areas 11. The employer must ensure that: If due to the nature of the work, the workplace contains an area in which there is a risk of any person falling a distance or being struck by a falling object which is liable to cause injury then the workplace is, as far as reasonably practicable, equipped with devices which will prevent unauthorised access; and That this area be clearly indicated. Guidance:  Guidance Danger areas To manage the requirement of Regulation 11 a restricted area should be set up adjacent to the area where the risk of falling or the risk of being struck by a falling object exists. A physical restriction should be used to exclude those persons not concerned with the work and adequate signage should also be employed. Reg 12. Inspection of work equipment:  Reg 12. Inspection of work equipment 12-1 This regulation will only apply to work equipment to which regulation 8 and schedules 2 and 6 will apply 12-2 Every employer must ensure that, where the safety of work equipment (including equipment to which paragraph 12-3 applies) depends on how it is installed or assembled, it is not used after installation or assembly in any position unless it has been inspected in that position. 12-3 Every employer shall ensure that work equipment is inspected: At suitable intervals; and Each time that exceptional circumstance, which are liable to jeopardise the safety of any of the work equipment have occurred. 12-4 If a scaffold is built for whatever purpose and a person could fall more than 2 metres, then that scaffold must not be used in any position unless the scaffold has been inspected in the previous 7 days. 12-5 No work equipment: (other than lifting equipment, which will have its own requirement under Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations, LOLER) Leaves the employers undertaking or; If obtained from another undertaking is used in his place of work unless it is accompanied by physical evidence that the last inspection required to be carried out under this set of regulations, has been carried out. Reg 12. Inspection of work equipment:  Reg 12. Inspection of work equipment 12-6 The employer shall ensure that the result of an inspection under this set of Regulations is recorded and kept until the next inspection is carried out. 12-7 A person carrying out an inspection of work equipment to which paragraph 4 applies (scaffolds) shall- Before the end of the work period which the inspection is carried out prepare a report containing the particulars in schedule 7 (see schedule 7) Within 24 hours of completing the inspection, provide a report or a copy (electronic if wished) to the person on whose behalf the inspection has been carried out. Schedule 7 Particulars to be included in a report of inspection:  Schedule 7 Particulars to be included in a report of inspection The name and address of the person by whom the inspection was carried out. The location of the work equipment inspected. A description of the work equipment inspected. The date and time of the inspection. Details of any matter that could give rise to a risk to the health and safety of any person. Details of any action taken as a result of any matter identified in paragraph 5 Details of any further actions considered necessary. The name and position of the person making the report. Guidance (Reg 12):  Guidance (Reg 12) All records of inspections relating to the site safety or work equipment should kept so that in the event of an accident or incident, the details may be used in providing information to any investigation Legally they must be available for inspection by the enforcing authority So must be stored in such a way as to be available but protected from being tampered with Can be kept electronically but must be secure and available as printed version Care must be exercised with the mixing of inspection frequencies of LOLER, PUWER Etc. Reg 13 Inspection of places of work at height:  Reg 13 Inspection of places of work at height 13. Every employer shall ensure that the surface and every parapet, permanent rail or any other such fall protection measure of all places of working at height are visually inspected on each occasion before the place of work is used. Reg 14 Duties of persons at work:  Reg 14 Duties of persons at work 14-1 Every person must report to the persons that are in charge of their work and activities, any defects or activity relating to work at height, which that person knows to endanger the safety of his or herself or the safety of others. 14-2 Every person shall use any work equipment or safety device provided to him for working at height by his employer in accordance with- Any training in the use of the work equipment or device that has been received; and Any instructions regarding the equipment provided by the employer or supplier of the equipment Reg 15. Exemption by the Health and Safety Executive :  Reg 15. Exemption by the Health and Safety Executive 15-1 [subject to Community law] The Health and Safety Executive HSE can exempt by certificate in writing, the following- Any person or class of persons; Any premises or class of premises; Any work equipment; or Any work activity. From any requirement or prohibition imposed by the WAH regulations but if granted, would be granted subject to conditions and time limits however, the exemption can be revoked at any time. 15-2 The HSE will not grant any exemption unless the circumstance of the request for exemptions and in particular the: The conditions, if any, which it proposes to attach to the exemption; and Any other requirements imposed by or under any enactments, which applies to each case. It is satisfied that the health and safety of persons who are likely to be affected by the exemption will not be prejudiced as a direct consequence of that action. In summary, the Working at Heights Regulations require :  In summary, the Working at Heights Regulations require You carry out a risk assessment for ALL work carried out at height and put into place arrangements for: Eliminating or minimising risks from working at height; Safe systems of Work for organising and performing work at height; Safe systems for selecting suitable work equipment; and Safe systems for protecting people from the consequences of working at height. The risk assessment and the action you take should be proportionate to the harm that could occur if no action was taken. It should include a careful examination of what harm occurs, either through avoiding the activity or, where this is not reasonably practicable, through carrying it out in a safe manner using the appropriate work equipment. In short, apply a hierarchy of control- What to look for in the assessment:  What to look for in the assessment Environment and site conditions (including access and egress to the site, weather, ground conditions and possible risks relating to other activities). Task to be performed (to include extent of the task, complexity, duration and frequency). People involved (include the numbers of persons involved with the work, degree of exposure to the risk, worker competence required, fitness, level of required supervision and risks to others not involved with the work). Work equipment and other structures to be used (include the suitability of the existing structures, the selection of work equipment to be used and other associated risk with the equipment i.e. risks with installation and dismantling). Will we still see this once the WAH Regulations are introduced ?:  Will we still see this once the WAH Regulations are introduced ?

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