Published on March 9, 2014
A STUDY ON IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF WORKERS EDUCATION Prepared by Debdulal Dutta Roy CBWE & Psychology Research Unit of the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata Prepared for Presentation in the Governing Body Meeting of CBWE Delhi, 15.9.2005
OVERVIEW What is Workers Education? , Perspectives of Impact Assessment SETTING OBJECTIVES : Company Profile, Interviewing President, Management, Workers ,Trade union leaders, Trainers, Studying course contents, training manual, observing training program. Content analysis, Departments under study OBJECTIVES Model of the study Subjective Data collection : instrument development, Studying the constraints and collection of data, Sampling criteria and Characteristics of Samples DATA ANALYSIS Results of Subjective data : Achievement test and training process satisfaction Objective Data collection :Constraints, Study periods RESULTS : Productivity- 1, 2, 3 , Wastage - 1, 2, 3, 4 Quality control 1, 2 Accident - 1, 2 and Absenteeism - 1, 2 CONCLUSION & FUTURE RESEARCH THANK YOU
What is Workers Education ? Workers Education is humanized training process to change in knowledge and skills required for on and off the job life. So it makes a balance between on and off the job life in designing training inputs. It assumes that worker is a total man with complex adaptive open system. They have own reasoning for self direction and self control. Workers education affects the reasoning level so that workers feel inner urge to learn new knowledge and skills.
PERSPECTIVES OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT Workers Perspective Acquiring knowledge about working operations, self control (faulty habits). Satisfaction with training process Job Satisfaction or Employee Satisfaction Organizational Perspective Improvement in productivity Reduction of wastage Improving quality Reduction of accidents Reduction of absenteeism Change in Return of Investment Change in Organizational Climate or Organizational health
STUDY LOCATION Situated on the West bank of river Ganges near Belur Math, Howrah, West Bengal
Company Profile Name : Ambica Jute Mill Established : Pre-independence Location : At the bank of River Hooghly Machines : 100 years old and periodical overhauling Training : No training other than CBWE Workers : Multilingual, multi culture, most of them were below class VIII.
ASSESSING PERCEPTION OF PRESIDENT ABOUT TRAINING IMPACT Collecting data from the President about underlying motives for training, his own observation about training course, training methods and its impact on the mill workers and mill performance.
ASSESSING PERCEPTION OF MANAGERS, & SUPERVISORS, WORKERS AND TRADE UNION LEADERS ABOUT TRAINING IMPACT MANAGERS AND SUPERVISORS WORKERS INTUC LEADER CITU LEADER
COURSE CONTENTS QUALITY KNOW YOUR INDUSTRY PRODUCTIVITY WASTE CONTROL COURSE CONTENTS ACCIDENT ABSENTEEISM
REVIEWING MANUALS ONE COURSE MANUAL WAS DEVELOPED BASED ON THE TRAINING NEEDS OF MILL AND IT WAS TRANSLATED IN TO HINDI LANGUAGE.
OBSERVING TRAINING PROGRAMME USED DIFFERENT TRAINING AIDS LIKE LECTURE,ROLE PLAY, GROUP DISCUSSION, EXHIBITS, QUESTION ANSWER SESSION, EXERCISES, AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS, DEMONSTRATION
INTERVIEWING THE TRAINERS
18 16 16 16 13 14 13 12 9 10 9 7 8 5 6 4 4 3 4 1 2 M ec h. Pr es id en t El ec tri ca Q l lty Cn tro l 0 Sp in ni ng W ea vi ng Ba tc hi ng Fi ni sh in g Pe rs on ne l Se cu rit y G od ow n Fi na nc e % Distribution of Training Impact statements Preliminary investigation and Content Analysis in Setting Objectives % Distribution of Training Im pact Pr od uc W tiv as ity te co nt ro l Qu ali ty Ac c id Ab en se t nt ee is m Co -o pn Ot he Te r am s w or MC k Mn tn Department wise 25% 20% 15% 21% 20% 16% 13% 12% 10% 5% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 1% Area wise W P in TU IPR 0% Collected 335 statements (Page 177-196) from the open -ended interview with managers, supervisors, workers and trade union leaders of the jute mill about effect of training on them. Statements were coded and content analysis was made. Results revealed that most of the statements were related to improvement in productivity, wastage control, quality control, accident and absenteeism of 4 departments namely, Batching, Spinning, Weaving and Finishing.
Departments Under Study and flow of work 1 BATCHING 2 SPINNING 3 WEAVING FINISHING
OBJECTIVES To determine extent of difference in knowledge (achievement) about course contents between the trained and non-trained employees of the mill To determine extent of Training process Satisfaction of trainees To determine extent of difference in Productivity, Waste control, Quality control, Rate of accidents and Absenteeism between before and during training periods
Model of Study Dependent Variables Independent Variables TRAINING Controlled Variables : Technology, Training Months, Supervision, Raw materials Change in Subjective variables ( Knowledge, Self assessment of training satisfaction ) Change in Individual Performance (Absenteeism, Accident) Change in Organizational Performance (Productivity, Wastage, Quality Control)
SUBJECTIVE DATA COLLECTION CONSTRAINTS Non- availability of all the workers at a time at one location as they are scattered around different locations and due to shifting duties Giving assurance that production process will not be disturbed during evaluation. COLLECTION OF DATA Therefore, one specific day was selected and data were collected randomly from different categories of workers in their respective departments without any prior intimation to the interviewees. In sampling, each machine of the respective departments was initially listed and machines were randomly selected out of the list. Samples were selected based on the operators of randomly selected machines.
Sample Criteria and Characteristics Criteria Training received before 1 month Able to read the questionnaires Due to his absence, there will be no disturbance in production process Sample must belong to the respective department more than 5 years Sample Characteristics More than 10 years experience in same department Middle aged Income above Rs.3000 Educational level in average ranged from grade V to VIII Common languages were Hindi and Bengali Most of them married Most of them possessed 1 or 2 children Most of them came from West Bengal and Bihar and Most of them trained before 1 month.
Tools : Psychometric Test Properties Achievement Test No. of Items: 4 items (2 on awareness and 2 on application) X 5 issues (Productivity, Waste control, Quality control, Absenteeism, Safety) Item Categories : 7 common and 13 department wise questions Type : Multiple Choice. 4 Options. Range of scores : 0 to 20 Content validity : Item-total correlation was significant across departments (Table 5.7) Reliability range : 0.75 to 0.93 (Table 5.8) Training Process Satisfaction Variables : Awareness, Motivation and Attitude towards training Type : Multiple choice to assess awareness and motivation variables. 4 point interval scale to assess attitude variables.
Statistics Used for Analysis Pearson Product Moment Correlation t-test Chi-square test Correspondence Analysis Wilcoxon Matched Paired Signed Rank test Item discrimination Item total correlation Kuder Richardson Coefficient
Trainee and Non-trainee difference in Achievement Test Trainee and Non-trainee difference in dimension wise Achievement test Department wise Achievement score distribution Trainees 8 Non-trainees 20 Critical ratio 15 Mean 6 10 5 4 2 0 Batching Batching Spinning Weaving 4.37 2.73 6.14 Waste control 2.17 3.32 4.79 3.9 2.18 6.98 Absenteeism 2.89 3.12 4.88 Safety Weaving Sp inning Productivity 0 6.57 2.04 3.92 Quality Control C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n a ly s is b e tw e e n lo c a tio n o f d e p a r tme n ts a n d a c h ie v e me n t s c o r e s Sta n d a r d iz a tio n : R o w a n d c o lu mn p r o file s D imension 2; Eigenvalue: .07161 (30.49% of Inertia) 1 .0 5-8 0 .8 1-4 0 .6 0 .4 Achievement score was high in Weaving, Spinning and finishing department than batching Spinning Finishing 0 .2 13-16 0 .0 9-12 - 0 .2 - 0 .4 - 0 .8 17-20 Weaving Batching R o w .C o o r d s - 0 .6 - 0 .4 - 0 .2 0 .0 0 .2 0 .4 D ime n s io n 1 ; Eig e n v a lu e : .1 3 8 3 5 ( 5 8 .9 0 % o f In e r tia ) 0 .6 0 .8 C o l.C o o r d s
Training Process Satisfaction Pie diagram of Awareness of Job responsibility Pie diagram of Supervisor's instruction 1% 6% Pie diagram of Awareness of Mistake 1% 20% Understanding instructions only Understanding the reasons Understanding BM Able to pursue others 11% 15% Understand mistake Ask others to correct mistake Try to correct mistake Able to correct mistake 16% Aware of my job responsibility 21% Helps in error modification Helps to make others realized 64% 82% 63% Correspondence analysis of Work pattern and training methods No Significant Difference among the departments Input Table (Rows x Columns): 4 x 4 0.4 120 Great extent 0.3 Percentage 0.1 Spinning Some extent Batching 0.0 Greater extent -0.1 97 85 80 84 61 55 60 81 40 20 Weaving -0.2 0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Dimension 1; Eigenvalue: .16533 (85.84% of Inertia) Batching dept. workers found less similarity between work pattern and trg. methods Col.Coords MOTIVATION Training Methods Ideas sharing -1.0 Related to Prac. Prob. -1.2 Duration -1.4 Dept. Prob. Row.Coords Machine Chk -0.3 -1.6 93 White board adequacy Finishing 0.2 90 Adequacy of accessories 100 Least extent Attendance Dimension 2; Eigenvalue: .02147 (11.15% of Inertia) Standardization: Row and column profiles Training Materials
OBJECTIVE DATA COLLECTION CONSTRAINTS Before and after experimental design can not be followed as training is continuous process. All the months were not in analysis as production process depends upon months. Individual productivity data were not available. No use of Medical data as company wise data records were not available in the ESI hospitals. Individual wise absenteeism and accident data were not available. COLLECTION OF DATA Before and During Experimental design Only selected months were considered Department and hierarchy wise data were used for analysis.
Determining the Periods for study Years Months Total Phase -1 Before During 2000-02 2003 Aug-Dec Aug-Dec 15 months 5 months Phase -2 Before During 2001-03 2004 Jan-Mar Jan-Mar 9 months 3 months Since company performance is related to month wise variation, months were kept constant in both before and during training periods. Wilcoxon’s matched paired signed rank test was computed to estimate between period difference.
Products for Assessing Productivity Productivity was measured in terms of Production efficiency of 4 finished products. Fine Yarn Course Yarn Hessian Cloth Sacking Cloth
Productivity of Spinning Dept FINE YARN Fine yarn (P-2) Fine Yarn (P-1) 82 80 78 78 76 Before Percentage Percentage 80 76 Before 74 During During 74 72 72 70 Before During 70 Aug 73.667 77 Sep Oct 74.333 75.333 80 80 Nov 75.667 81 Jan Feb Mar Before 73.66 73.66 74 During 80 80 80 Dec 75.667 79 COARSE YARN Coarse Yarn (P-2) Coarse Yarn (P-1) 82 84 Percentage 78 Before During Percentage 82 80 80 78 76 Before 74 During 72 76 70 74 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Before 77.3 76.7 77 76.7 77 During 80 81 80 81 82 Jan Feb Mar Before 75 76 78.6 During 81 83 82
Productivity of Weaving Dept HESSIAN Hessian Cloth (P-1) Hessian Cloth (P-2) 80 60 50 40 Before During Percentage Percentage 60 40 30 Before 20 During 10 20 0 0 Aug Sep Oct Nov Before 45 47.33 49 48 44 52 54 61 Mar 42.33 42.66 37.33 During 52 Feb 58 59 60 47.67 During Jan Before Dec SACKING Sacking (P-1) Sacking (p-2) 80 60 60 40 Before 20 0 During Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Before 59.67 57.33 57.67 56.67 55 During 65 65 67 64 68 Percentage Percentage 80 40 Before During 20 0 Jan Feb Mar Before 55.66 54 54.66 During 70 71 74
Wastage Wastage across Departments Batching Sliver Spinning Caddies Weaving Thread Thread Finishing Thread Gunny Cutting
Wastage Difference in Batching Department SLIVER WASTAGE Sliver ( P-2) Sliver ( P - 1) 4 4 Percentage Percentage 3 2 Before 2 Before During During 1 0 0 Jan Feb Mar Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Before 3.3333 3.3233 3.1967 Before 2.97 3.04 3.15 3.26 3.1 During 2.39 2.36 2.31 During 3.36 2.5 2.45 2.4 2.37 CADDIES WASTAGE Caddies ( P-1) Caddies (P-2) 8 10 4 Before During 2 0 Aug Sep Oct Nov 6.1 5.88 5.61 5 Before During Dec 6.23 Percentage Percentage 6 5.58 0 Before During 4.2 4.3 4.2 4 3.8 Jan Feb Mar Before 6.3467 5.74 5.9433 During 3.5 3.6 3.4
Thread Wastage Difference SPINNING DEPARTMENT (P-1) P-2 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 Before During 0.2 Percentage Percentage 0.6 0.4 0.3 Before 0.2 During 0.1 0 Aug Sep Oct Nov 0.56 0.56 0.53 0.63 0.6 During 0.41 0.39 0.39 0.38 Jan Feb 0.55 0.52 0.5 0.37 0.38 0.35 Dec Before Before During 0 Mar 0.35 WEAVING DEPARTMENT P-1 P-2 4 4 2 Before During 1 Percentage Percentage 3 3 2 Before 0 0 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Before 2.74 2.7 2.78 2.87 3.06 During 3 2.75 2.62 2.6 2.48 During 1 Jan Feb Mar Before 3.15 3.29 3.09 During 2.5 2.43 2.45
Wastage in Finishing Department THREAD WASTAGE ( P - 1) (P-2) 0.2 0.15 0.1 Before During Percentage Percentage 0.15 0.1 Bef ore 0.05 During 0.05 0 0 Aug Sep Oct Nov Before 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.12 0.1 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.1 Feb Mar 0.15 0.13 0.15 During 0.13 During Jan Bef ore Dec 0.09 0.07 0.08 GUNNY CUTTING WASTAGE Phase - 2 Phase - 1 0.6 0.4 Before During 0.2 0 Percentage 0.8 0.6 Percentage 0.8 0.4 Before During 0.2 0 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Before 0.62 0.74 0.74 0.63 0.69 Before During 0.56 0.52 0.48 0.46 0.45 During Jan Feb Mar 0.7 0.7 0.66 0.48 0.48 0.46
Quality Control Parameters Batching (3 nos.) •CV% of Morah Weight •CV% of Sliver Weight ,F.C •CV% of Sliver Weight ,F.D Weaving (2 nos.) •No. of Ends observed •Heavy light % Spinning (6 nos.) •CV% of Weight of F.Yarn •CV% of Strength of F.Yarn •CV% of count of C. Yarn •CV% of count of S. Yarn •Quality ratio of W.Yarn •Quality ratio of W.Yarn of Fine Side from standard Finishing (2 nos.) •Fabric fault % •Weight of Sacking
Change in Quality Control Data No. of Ends Observed (Weaving Dept) Decrease in CV% of weight of Yarn Quality for fine side (Spinning Dept) 4 After Jan Feb Mar Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Ja n Dec Nov Oct Before After M ar Au g Se p O ct N ov D ec Before 5 4 3 2 1 0 b 6 % of fabric fault CV % 8 0 Sep % of Fabric faults of Hessian and Sacking (Finishing Dept.) 10 2 Aug Jan Feb Mar Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Mar Jan After Before After Standard Feb Before 475 474 473 472 471 470 469 468 Fe 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 CV % CV % Decrease in CV% of Morah weight (Batching Dept)
Accident Pattern Analysis Accident due to human error was used for analysis - unsafe act. Only minor injury due to unsafe act was taken into consideration. Difference in incidence of accident across the years before and during training period was assessed. Department and hierarchy wise difference was studied.
Distribution of minor unsafe Accident before and during training periods Department wise distribution Number of Minor Unsafe Accident before and during Training periods Finishing Weaving Before During Spinning Batching 0 5 10 15 20 Hierarchy wise distribution 8 Worker 10.67 Sardar During 5 Helper 8 1.5 2.33 Before
Analysis of Absenteeism Pattern The database is supposed to have 420 data (4 years ((2000-03) X 8 months X 4 departments X 3 hierarchies) + (1 year (2004) X 3 months X 4 departments X 3 hierarchies)). Expected data set will be 140 data for each category of employees for the purpose of comparison of absenteeism rate between before and during training periods. But the actual data set includes 57 data of Sardars, 50 data of helpers and 140 data of workers. Therefore, current analysis was limited to change in absenteeism pattern of workers only
Pattern of Absences of Workers Percentage of Absences (Weaving Dept) 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Before After % 6 Before After 4 2 O ct N ov D ec p Se g O ct N ov D ec p Se g Au M ar Fe b Before After n O ct N ov D ec p Se g Au M ar b Fe n 0 % Before After Ja % 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Ja 8 2 Au Percentage of Absences (Finishing Dept) Percentage of Absences (Spinning Dept) 4 M ar b Fe n Ja O ct N ov D ec g p Se Au M ar b Ja n 0 Fe % Percentage of Absences (Batching Dept)
Conclusion 1. Results revealed significant impact of Workers Education program conducted by CBWE at Ambica Jute Mill, Howrah on both subjective and objective criteria of Organizational Effectiveness.
Future Research 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Comparison between trainees and non trainees in their individual productivity level, level of absenteeism and of the accident. Impact of workers education on the Quality of working life ( Job satisfaction, Health and Off-the job life) of workers. Impact of workers education on the organizational climate or interpersonal trust among the employees; Impact of workers education on the Return of investment; Current model may be used in other Industries and diverse sectors like Education , health, service, etc.
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