Published on June 15, 2009
Comparing the self-employed and employees on payroll Marjan Gorgievski a, Arnold Bakker a, Wilmar Schaufelib A Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands B Utrecht University, The Netherlands 1
What predicts good work performance? Personality (e.g., Rauch & Frese, 2007; Zhao & Seibert, 2006)? Competencies (e.g. Markman, 2007)? Selfish passion for work (e.g., Shane, Locke & Collins, 2003)? 2
Work engagement (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003) Vigor Dedication Absorption Workaholism (Schaufeli, Taris & Bakker, 2006) Excessive working Compulsive working 3
Warning from cultural psychology: Are our measures equivalent across cultures? 4
scalar metric Equal variance I get carried away when I’m working I am immersed in Work engagement my work (absorption) I feel happy when I am working intensely 5
Work engagement Full metric invariance Partial scalar invariance (3 items different of 9) Working compulsively Full metric invariance Partial scalar invariance (4 items different of 8) Working excessively Full metric invariance Partial scalar invariance (3 items different of 9) 6
Raw sd Raw mean sd Raw Estimated mean Employee difference corrected SE s difference Work 4.08 1.12 3.71 1.16 .37 .43 (SE = .09) engagement Working 2.36 .55 2.24 .52 .12 .07 (SE = .03) excessively Working 2.07 .61 2.04 .57 .03 Ns compulsively Corrected difference is only slightly different from raw difference. 7
Intra role performance Full metric invariance Equal variances Extra role perforance Full metric invariance Equal variances Innovativeness Partial metric invariance (1 item different from 6) Equal variances 8
Working In‐Role excessively Performance .44 .78 .32 .63 .33 Working -.47 Extra ‐Role .25 Compulsively Performance .18 .05 .53 -.40 Work Innovativeness Engagement .24 9
Working In‐Role excessively Performance .44 .78 .32 .63 .33 Working -.47 Extra ‐Role .25 Compulsively Performance .18 .05 .53 -.40 Work Innovativeness Engagement .24 10
Working In‐Role excessively Performance .44 .78 .32 .63 .33 Working -.47 Extra ‐Role .25 Compulsively Performance .18 .05 .53 -.40 Work Innovativeness Engagement .24 11
Working In‐Role excessively Performance .39 .72 .38 .33 Working .21 Extra Role .26 Compulsively ‐ Performance .42 .23 .04 .39 -.13 Work Innovativeness Engagement .33 12
Measurement equivalence may be an issue when comparing sub-cultures The self employed have more work engagement and work more excessively, but not more compulsively than salaried employees Working compulsively suppressed the positive effect of working excessively This pattern more visible among the self- emloyed, This effect stronger for innovation and extra role behavior 13
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