Published on February 16, 2014
Work Stressors Individual, Group, and Organizational Presented by: Chuckry D. Maunes
I ndividual Role Conflict Stressor 1. 2. Role Overload 3. Role Ambiguity 4. Harassment 5. Pace of Change
is present whenever compliance by an occurs to one set of expectations about individual when expected behaviors or tasks are at conflicts each other. (George et. al. 2012) the job, odds with with compliance to another set of expectations. A middle manager experiences role conflict when her supervisor expects her to increase production levels, and her subordinates complain they are being overworked.
Work and nonwork roles interfere with one another Family events (birth of a new child) Spillover effect – results when forces in Economic difficulties (sudden loss of a their personal lives “spill over” to affect big investment) them at work. (Schermerhorn et. al. 2010) Personal affairs (separation or divorce)
Employees who experienced more role conflict also experienced lower job satisfaction and higher job-related tension. The greater the power or authority of the people sending the conflicting messages, the greater was the job dissatisfaction produced by the role conflict
R ole Overload ole Overload Overload – the condition of having too many tasks to perform. (George et. al. 2012)
Role Overload Types of Overload: 1. Qualitative overload – occurs when people feel they lack the ability needed to complete their jobs or that performance standards have been set too high.
Role Overload Quantitative overload can cause biochemical changes, specifically, elevation in blood cholesterol levels. Karoshi – death from overwork
Optimal Stress Low Performance Low Performance Underload Boredom Decrease in motivation Apathy Optimal Performance High motivation High energy Sharp perception Calmness The Underload-Overload Continuum Overload Insomnia Irritability Increased errors Indecisiveness
Worker is motivated to perform at a high level High Level of Performance A Low Worker is Paralyzed by intense stress Worker is bored Low Level of Stress Positive stress High Negative stress
Role Ambiguity The uncertainty that occurs when employees are not sure what is expected of them and how they should perform their jobs.
Harassment Sexual harassment – defined as any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile work environment. Sexual harassment is more likely to occur when there are large power differentials
Harassment Unwanted physical touching Recurring request for dates when it is made clear the person isn’t interested Coercive threats that a person will lose his or her job for refusing sexual proposition Unwanted looks or comments
Pace of Change Rapid change in the world around us.
G roup & Organization Stressors 1. Participation 2. Intra and Intergroup Relationship 3. Organization Politics 4. Organizational Culture 5. Lack of Performance Feedback 6. Inadequate Career Development Opportunities 7. Downsizing
Participation refers to the extent that a person’s knowledge, opinions, and ideas are included in the decision making process.
Participation Groups and Organizations that do not encourage or allow participation will be a source of frustration to those who value it. Likewise, others will be frustrated by the delays often associated with participative decision making.
Intra- and Intergroup Relationship Poor relationships within and between groups can be a source of stress Poor relationship may include: low trust lack of cohesion low supportiveness
Organizational politics Focuses on the use of power to affect decision making in an organization, or on self-serving and organizationally unsanctioned behaviors.
Organizational Culture Organizations have distinct personalities. The personalities of organization is shaped largely by its top executives. A tyrannical and autocratic executive team can create a culture filled with fear.
Lack of Performance Feedback Most people want to know how they are doing and how management views their work.
Inadequate Career Development Opportunities This can happen if an employee is concerned about real or imagined obsolescence, believe that promotion progress is inadequate, or is generally dissatisfied with the match between career aspirations and the current position.
Downsizing Reduction of human resources by layoffs, attrition, redeployment, or early retirement.
Cognitive Appraisal The appraisal process occurs in two steps: 1. Primary appraisal- leads to categorizing a stressor as positive, negative or meaningless. 2. Secondary appraisalinvolves a determination of whether something can be done to reduce stress.
Coping with Stress Two types of coping with stress: 1. Problem – focused coping 2. Emotion – focused coping
Coping with Stress 1. Problem – focused coping is the action taken to deal directly with the source of stress.
Strategies Include: Get the person responsible to change his or her mind. Make plan of action and follow it. Stand your ground and fight for what you want. (Schermerhorn et. al. 2010)
Coping with Stress 2. Emotion – focused coping is the steps a person takes to address or alleviate stressful feelings and emotions.
Coping with Stress Strategies include: Look for the silver lining Accept sympathy and understanding from someone Try to forget the whole thing (Schermerhorn et. al. 2010)
Consequences of Sress PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES Unable to sleep at night, sweaty palms, feeling flushed, trembling, a pounding heart, elevated blood pressure, headaches, dizziness, nausea, st omachaches, backaches, and hives to heart attacks and impaired immune system functioning.
Consequences of Sress PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES bad mood, feeling anxious, worried and upset to feeling angry, scornful, bitter, or hostile.
Consequences of Sress BURNOUT psychological, emotional, or physical exhaustion – is a special kind of psychological consequence of stress that afflicts some employees who experience high level of work stress day in and day out for an extended period of time.
Burnout Indicators Emotional Exhaustion Feel drained by work Feel fatigued in the morning Frustrated Do not want to work with other people
Burnout Indicators Depersonalization Have become calloused by job Treat others like objects Do not care what happens to other people Feel other people blame you
Burnout Indicators Low Personal Accomplishment Cannot deal with problems effectively Do not have a positive influence on others Cannot understand other’s problem or identify with them No longer feel exhilarated by your job
Organizational Consequences Stress cost organization Poorer decision making and decreases creativity
Recognizing the Warning Signs of Stress in Employees As managers you should be alert to warning signs of stress in your subordinates. One indicator is change in behavior. Some of the common changes include: 1. A normally punctual employee develops a pattern of tardiness (or pattern of absences in a usually reliable worker).
2. A normally gregarious employee becomes withdrawn (or, less typically, a loner suddenly becomes a social butterfly). 3. An employee whose work is normally neat and demonstrates attention to detail submits messy, incomplete, or sloppy work. 4. A good decision maker suddenly starts making bad decisions ( or seems to be enable to make decisions).
5. An easygoing employee who gets along well with others becomes irritable and discourteous. 6. A normally well-groomed neglects his or her appearance. employee
Thank You for Listening Chuckry D. Maunes
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