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Published on August 21, 2007

Author: Techy_Guy

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Slide1:  Wordsalive A Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools 'A word is the skin of a living thing.' Oliver Wendell Holmes LET’S BRAINSTORM:  LET’S BRAINSTORM What are the problems your students have when you introduce new material? What are the ways in which you introduce new words to your students? How was vocabulary taught to you when you were a student? SIMULATION # 1:  SIMULATION # 1 Find a partner who teaches a different subject from the one you teach. Using the methods you usually use with students, teach one word from your subject area to your partner. Trade roles so that your partner teaches you one word from his or her discipline. How do we really learn new words and make them our own?:  How do we really learn new words and make them our own? Martha Rapp Haggard tells us that adults have a three step process. 1. Search for the word’s meaning and pronunciation. 2. Practice the word in a low risk situation. 3. Use the word properly without effort. 'Vocabulary self-collection strategy: an active approach to word learning.' (1982). Journal of Reading, 26.3, 203-207. What are the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction?:  What are the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction? Eileen Carr and Karen Wixson provide four guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction. Students should: relate new vocabulary to background knowledge; develop elaborated word knowledge; be actively involved in learning; and develop strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently. 'Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction.' (1986). Journal of Reading, 29.7, 558-595. Slide6:  Is there a word in the purpose statement which needs more instruction? Which one? The purpose of the workshop is to provide the tools for all teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning. Slide7:  Wordsalive Map Escher’s designs extrapolate a variety of shapes. extrapolates …to provide the tools… to teach vocabulary…in a way that extrapolates student learning Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization improves extend a curve or function beyond the range of known values using the values that have already been determined enhance, enrich or go beyond what’s there extends confines extra-beyond pol-polish ate- to make verb/Latin polish extra- curricular Slide8:  Day and Night by M. C. Escher Slide9:  Wordsalive Map Synonym Caption using the new word Antonym or non-example Etymology and P.O.S. Related Words WORD Parts of sentence(s) from the book which reveal the context Paraphrased definition Guessed definition Dictionary Definition Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization Slide10:  Wordsalive Map SIMULATION # 2:  SIMULATION # 2 Find a partner who teaches the same subject as you do. Using the wordsalive map transparency, choose a familiar word from your subject area to map with your partner. Take a short break. Share and discuss. Why do we need to do all the parts of the Wordsalive Map?:  Why do we need to do all the parts of the Wordsalive Map? 1. Association: with a single definition or context 2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite 3. Generation: ability to produce a novel response 'Research on vocabulary instruction: Ode to Voltaire.' (1991). Handbook on Teaching the English Language Arts, 602-632. Baumann and Kameenui discuss three levels of word knowledge that can be used to consider depth of understanding and related instructional procedures. Slide13:  Association: shaking hands Comprehension: becoming friends Generation: calling on a friend when in need Baumann and Kameenui’s three levels of word knowledge: an analogy Association:  Association Why? Facilitates decoding and provides direct interaction with the word. Focuses attention on the context clues and the content. How? Copy only as much of the context that supplies the essence of the meaning for the new word. Use selection and deselection of information. Include the sentence before or after the new word, if necessary. wordsalive Copy the sentence Association:  Association Copy only the essential context from the following sentences: 'If Immanuel Kant had stumbled across this luncheon after his noon Beverly Hills shrink appointment, he would have quickly discerned that Lisa is all phenomena and no noumena, and that Mirabelle is all noumena and no phenomena.' (p 32) 'Mirabelle is not sparkling tonight, because she works only in gears, and tonight she is in the wrong gear. Third gear is her scholarly, perspicacious, witty self; second gear is her happy, giddy, childish self; and first gear is her complaining, helpless, unmotivated self. Tonight she is somewhere midshift...' (p 63) 'But right now, he is using the hours with her as a portal to his own need for propinquity.' (p 77) Martin, S. (2000). Shopgirl, Hyperion. wordsalive Copy the sentence Association:  Association wordsalive Record only the essential context into the speech bubble. All contexts are not created equal!:  All contexts are not created equal! 1. Misdirective contexts which mislead the reader. 2. Nondirective contexts which provide no assistance to the reader. 3. General contexts which provide only enough information for the reader to categorize the unknown word. 4. Directive contexts which lead the reader to the specific, correct meaning for a new word. Beck, McKeown, and McCaslin, 'Vocabulary Development: All contexts are not created equal.' (1983). Elementary School Journal 177-181. Copy the sentence All contexts are not created equal!:  All contexts are not created equal! Misdirective Context 'Mr. Barry, ...this is just a courtesy call to do you the courtesy of interrupting your dinner so I can ask you a question. …I hang up. But of course this does not stop them. …they call again. That’s how courteous they are.' Dave Barry, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 All contexts are not created equal!:  All contexts are not created equal! Nondirective Context ' There is a doggedness about [Charles] Wright’s treatment of these things that becomes, as the poems pile up, somehow both humble and heroic.' Ron Smith, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 All contexts are not created equal!:  All contexts are not created equal! General Context ' ’Meat is contraband,’ the customs agent said as he confiscated the ham.’ ' Jonathan Yardley, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 ' In him [Arthur Miller] the American theater found, perhaps for the first time, an eloquence and an amplitude of feeling…' Jere Real, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 All contexts are not created equal!:  All contexts are not created equal! Directive Context 'On the other hand, the windblown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt called loess have benefited farmers in China, the American Midwest and other parts of the world.' World Geography : Prentice Hall, page 51. Association:  We learn more when we are self-involved. Association Guess, copy and paraphrase the definition Why guess? To activate background knowledge. Why use the dictionary? To link the word to the appropriate definition based on the context. Why paraphrase? To lead to the comprehen-sion level. Slide23:  The paraphrase begins the comprehension process. Guess and paraphrase the definition a covering of a plane without overlaps or gaps using combinations of congruent figures preponderant influence or authority especially of one nation over others tessellation hegemony subduction the process of the edge of one crustal plate descending below the edge of another Comprehension:  Comprehension Related Words Multiple opportunities for interaction with the new word will allow each student to find understanding in his unique way. Synonym, antonym, etymology, and related words Comprehension Comprehension:  Comprehension Why? Synonyms can provide a new label for a known concept. How? Synonyms should be consistent in part of speech; however, teachers should recognize students’ developmental stages as they move toward that consistency. Pull synonyms from the definition, context, prior knowledge, or etymology. Do not just copy one from a thesaurus. Find a synonym wordsalive Comprehension:  Comprehension The Not Box Why? 'Polarity is located at the deepest and most abstract level of the semantic network.' (Powell, 1986) Definition by contrast How? Provide an opportunity to reinforce negative prefixes. (Hennings, 2000) Many words do not have antonyms, but a non-example works well to establish polarity. (Frayer, 1969) Find an antonym wordsalive Slide27:  Three types of antonyms Mutually exclusive singular/plural husband/wife Graduation icy/scalding emaciated/obese Undo buy/sell wrap/unwrap wordsalive Finding antonyms The Not Box Powell, 'Teaching vocabulary through opposition.' Journal of Reading 29.7 617-621. Comprehension:  Comprehension cleave benign frolic arrange suitable Create a synonym and antonym wordsalive destination nourishment sufficient often prohibit Comprehension:  Comprehension Related Words Etymology and Morphology What is etymology?:  What is etymology? Etymology is the study of the history and structure of words. When we study etymology we learn the origins of words. Comprehension:  Comprehension Why? Nearly 70% of multisyllabic words in English come from Greek and Latin roots. Roots and affixes link new words to background knowledge. Suffixes reveal the part of speech. How? Provide an opportunity to discover prefixes, suffixes and roots. Tell the stories of words. Teach etymology wordsalive Etymology:  Etymology The Structure and History of Words An inflection: internal or external change in a word form which signifies some addition to or change in a word to denote a modification in meaning. A derivation: a tracing of the meaning and formation of a word to its origin. wordsalive Etymology:  Etymology The Structure and History of Words Inflections: secede, secession, succeed, success, intercede, intercession, precede, preceding, recede, receding, receded, exceed, proceed, procedure, precession, process, concede, concession... All of the cede words originated from the same Latin root meaning to go or to yield. wordsalive Etymology:  Etymology The Vocabulary Etymology - etymos: true, actual, real logos: word, speech Inflections - flectare: to bend, turn Derivation - riva: stream Language - lingua: tongue, language wordsalive Etymology:  Etymology Four Divisions: 1. Primitive/Primary Words: words that cannot be resolved into simpler elements (man, horse, run) 2. Derivative Words: words which consist of significant parts which exist either separately or in other combinations (man-ly, man-hood) 3. Compound Words: words consisting of two or more parts, each a significant word in itself (apple-tree, tea-spoon) 4. Hybrid Words: words with elements from different languages (gentleman, footsteps) wordsalive Composition and Derivation of English Words Etymology:  Etymology The Vocabulary: Affixes: Prefixes: intensify or negate enlarge, commingle, redo, misquote Suffixes - show part of speech or number dog/dogs internal/internally/intern/internist/ internalize/ internalization wordsalive Etymology:  Etymology The Stories of Words Do you know where the word italics comes from? We use italics frequently, but do we know its origin? The name for the slanted form of type comes from Aldus Manutius, an Italian printer who published the first book with this kind of type in 1501. The book, a work by Virgil, was dedicated 'To Italy' and subsequently, other printers, publishers, and writers began referring to the unique type as 'Italian' and eventually in English, 'italics.' wordsalive The Word Origin Calendar, (2000, October 5) Accord Publishing. Etymology:  Etymology Recent Journal Article 'Learning clusters of words that share a common origin helps students understand content area material.' Dorothy Grant Hennings 'Contextually relevant word study: Adolescent vocabulary development across the curriculum' Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44:3 November 2000 pages 268-279 wordsalive Etymology:  Etymology Date: Fri Jan 21 00:04:25 EST 2000 Subject: A.Word.A.Day--enormity Address: www.wsmith@wordsmith.org Enormity (I-NOR-mi-tee) noun 1. The quality of passing all moral bounds; excessive wickedness or outrageousness. 2. A monstrous offense or evil; an outrage. 3. (Usage Problem) Great size; immensity. wordsalive What is Morphology?:  What is Morphology? Morphology is the study of the building blocks of words. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning into which a word can be broken. Comprehension:  Comprehension Why? 'For every word a child learns … there are an average of one to three additional words…'(Baumann and Kameenui, 1991) Links new words to students’ background knowledge. Facilitates decoding through chunking. How? Find the root or the affix and use it in another word from the students’ repertoires. Related words/ Word Families wordsalive Comprehension:  Comprehension Etymology and Morphology polygon polytheism polyphony poly - many gon - angle Greek noun Slide43:  Related words Word families anonymous synonymous anonymity contronym eponym synonym antonym onym homonym Slide44:  Related words Word families Build your own family of words. Related Words - Word Families:  Related Words - Word Families aud bi bio chron dict duce graph ject phone photo plex poly port scribe sect therm vis,vid voc Build your own family of words. wordsalive 99 syllables:  99 syllables 1. Display a list of 99 syllables which have been generated ahead of time from a group of interesting words. 2. Allow participants 15 minutes to reassemble the words into the original list. 3. Read aloud in alphabetical order the original words with the number of syllables, and assign one point for each syllable reassembled correctly. 4. For an easier variation of the game, use a smaller number of syllables. From Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher 45 morphemes:  45 morphemes a morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher alpha cogn gener ize pol ant com hens lab pol ar con ic logy pre ate de ing morph re ation di intro multi rect ary duce ion non s bet eme ity onym syl bul etymo ive para text cod extra ize phrase voca wordsalive 45 morphemes:  45 morphemes A morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher Answers alphabetize introduce antonym morpheme comprehension multisyllabic contexts nondirective decoding paraphrase etymology polarity extrapolate recognize generation vocabulary wordsalive Decoding: Unlocking the pronunciation:  Decoding: Unlocking the pronunciation Insurmountability Steps by chunking: 1. Start with the suffix(es). 2. Proceed to the prefix(es). 3. Tackle the root. 4. Slide it all together. In sur mount abil ity Will the Wordsalive Map move students to the deepest level of word knowledge ?:  Will the Wordsalive Map move students to the deepest level of word knowledge ? 1. Association: with a single definition or context 2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite 3. Generation: ability to produce a novel response Baumann and Kameenui’s three levels of word knowledge According to Janis Harmon, moving from comprehension to generation takes time, effort, discussion, classification and usage. Help students pause and reflect before generating novel responses. Postpone the last steps of the map until comprehension can develop. Generation:  Generation We learn more when we are self-involved. Draw a picture? Why? A picture is worth a thousand words. A personal clue helps the student internalize a new word. How? Anything goes. Generation:  Generation Why? Writing an original sentence helps the student internalize a new word. How? Use the word in any of its forms. We learn more when we are self-involved. Create the caption How do we select the vocabulary to teach to students?:  How do we select the vocabulary to teach to students? Michael Graves asks four important questions: 1. Is understanding the word important to understanding the selection in which it appears? 2. Are students able to use the context or structural analysis to discover the word’s meaning? 3. Can working with this word be useful in furthering student’s context, structural analysis, or dictionary skills? 4. How useful is this word outside of the reading selection being taught? 'A Vocabulary Program to Complement and Bolster a Middle-Grade Comprehension Program.' (2000). Reading for Meaning 116-135. Does Wordsalive include all the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction?:  Does Wordsalive include all the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction? Eileen Carr and Karen Wixson provide four guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction. Students should: relate new vocabulary to background knowledge. develop elaborated word knowledge. be actively involved in learning. develop strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently. Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction (1986) Journal of Reading, 29.7, 558-595. Alternate Wordsalive Map:  Alternate Wordsalive Map WORD Parts of sentences(s) from the book which reveal the context Guessed Definitions Dictionary Paraphrased Synonym Antonym Etymology P.O.S. Related words Sketch Caption Alternate Wordsalive Map:  Alternate Wordsalive Map Alternate Wordsalive Map:  Alternate Wordsalive Map Cacophonous …into the deafening, paralyzing, horrifying dive…suddenly right back in the middle of the buffeting layer of cacophonous flak... pain harsh, discordant sounds noise discordant harmonious caco - harsh phone-sound ous - lots of Greek, adj. cacophony phonics The band room was full of cacophonous sounds as the members warmed up before the director arrived. Slide58:  Word ______________________________ Sentence__________________________________________________________________ Guessed definition ________________________________________________________ Dictionary definition ______________________________________________________ Paraphrased definition ____________________________________________________ Synonym _______________ Antonym or non-example_________________________ Etymology and P.O.S. ____________________________ Related words _________________________________ Linear Wordsalive Map Caption _____ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Let’s Revisit the Brainstorm:  Let’s Revisit the Brainstorm Will the wordsalive map help your students learn new material? Will the wordsalive map complement your existing vocabulary methods? Is the wordsalive map an improvement over vocabulary instruction when you were a student? How will we measure success?:  How will we measure success? Pre and post vocabulary tests Teachers’ anecdotal records Samples of student maps Slide61:  Wordsalive A Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools Vocabulary development is every teacher’s responsibility www.pen.k12.va.us Implementation Plan :  Implementation Plan SIMULATION #3:  SIMULATION #3 Find a new partner. Using a wordsalive map, choose a word from the list to map with your partner. Take a short break. Share, discuss, and ask questions. Word list for mapping:  Word list for mapping civilization convert beneficial computation digest conscious emancipation erode incredible hypothesis insulate prominent inclusion prediction unconstitutional polytheism reproduce static vernacular satisfy villainous Slide65:  Created by Rebecca Count-Kahilla Montgomery County Public Schools Joyce Johnston Tazewell County Public Schools Catherine Rosenbaum Virginia Department of Education Dennis Wimer Henrico Distant Learning Network Scholarly review by Janis Harmon University of Texas at San Antonio Piloted by the faculty at Spratley Middle School in Hampton, Virginia

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