Word_coach_research

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Information about Word_coach_research
Education

Published on October 28, 2008

Author: r21270

Source: slideshare.net

Description

vocab, video game

Tom Cobb Université du Québec à Montréal “ Does My Word Coach coach words?” http://mywordcoach.us.ubi.com/ This PPT at http://www.lextutor.ca/cv/ppt/pittsburgh.ppt

Tom Cobb

Université du Québec à Montréal

“ Does My Word Coach

coach words?”

Video Game use – exponential increase A great deal of some kind of learning no doubt happens But can targeted learning be made to happen? Can we exploit this trend rather than fight it?

A great deal of some kind of learning no doubt happens

But can targeted learning be made to happen?

Can we exploit this trend rather than fight it?

Many learning claims get made

Few games have specific learning goals Claims are about “new ways of learning,” not about any particular content Few (any?) claims are based on empirical investigation But more in glossy books than dull research papers

Few games have specific learning goals

Claims are about “new ways of learning,” not about any particular content

Few (any?) claims are based on empirical investigation

To design a game with concrete learning goals Based on learning principles In one’s own research area And investigates its effects empirically An interesting opportunity therefore…

To design a game with concrete learning goals

Based on learning principles

In one’s own research area

And investigates its effects empirically

 

Game contains all the non-specialist words of English Sequenced by frequency/range in the BNC Yes-no test determines start-point in sequence Words are introduced in six coordinated word games Games focus on Form Meaning Verbal efficiency (speed of access) Words are dropped only after six correct uses Principled recycling Games are integrated within a tutor-model Choice of tutor Goal setting, record keeping, error review Game incorporates a level-appropriate dictionary CALD My Word Coach - description

Game contains all the non-specialist words of English

Sequenced by frequency/range in the BNC

Yes-no test determines start-point in sequence

Words are introduced in six coordinated word games

Games focus on

Form

Meaning

Verbal efficiency (speed of access)

Words are dropped only after six correct uses

Principled recycling

Games are integrated within a tutor-model

Choice of tutor

Goal setting, record keeping, error review

Game incorporates a level-appropriate dictionary

CALD

Belief: Discovery is not a sufficient strategy to grow an L2 lexicon Some type of vocab focus is demonstrably necessary Computer /video game is an ideal start to this job Although maybe not finish My Word Coach - philosophy

Belief: Discovery is not a sufficient strategy to grow an L2 lexicon

Some type of vocab focus is demonstrably necessary

Computer /video game is an ideal start to this job

Although maybe not finish

Predecessors 1

Predecessors 2

Predecessors 3

 

Word Coach’s Pedagogy

Behind-the-scenes pedagogy

Word Coach’s Coaches

Content – 3 strands 1. Form of words

2. Meaning of words

 

3. Processing speed

All packaged in a small box … and announced to the world in a huge publicity campaign - http://mywordcoach.us.ubi.com

http://mywordcoach.us.ubi.com

Are more word meanings known both immediately + after delay Are more words used in oral production Are words accessed more quickly? Research Questions Following substantial use of the game…

Are more word meanings known

both immediately + after delay

Are more words used

in oral production

Are words accessed more quickly?

Grade 6 primary school in suburban Montreal Feb-June 2007 Two intact classes, same teacher, n=50 Condition 1: both groups get to use game Condition 2: testing sessions not to exceed 1 hr 60%+ immigrant children, some quasi-bi/tri-lingual French, English, another Instruction is in French, 2 hrs/wk ESL Game is integrated into ESL classwork Parents solidly behind experiment DS players + game disks from Ubisoft Subjects and setting

Grade 6 primary school in suburban Montreal

Feb-June 2007

Two intact classes, same teacher, n=50

Condition 1: both groups get to use game

Condition 2: testing sessions not to exceed 1 hr

60%+ immigrant children, some quasi-bi/tri-lingual

French, English, another

Instruction is in French,

2 hrs/wk ESL

Game is integrated into ESL classwork

Parents solidly behind experiment

DS players + game disks from Ubisoft

1. For meanings known Paul Nation’s BNC-based 14k Levels test 10 levels used, then 5 2. For words used Boy, dog and frog story (Mercer) Analyzed with VP-kids 3. For word access UNESCO method Read words aloud from 60-word list in fixed time Instruments

1. For meanings known

Paul Nation’s BNC-based 14k Levels test

10 levels used, then 5

2. For words used

Boy, dog and frog story (Mercer)

Analyzed with VP-kids

3. For word access

UNESCO method

Read words aloud from 60-word list in fixed time

1

2

 

 

 

(60 words) 3

Research Design

Results To note first: Equal game use between groups (despite considerable variance)

Results 1 1a. Levels Test (pretest, both groups, no diffs) About 2350 word meanings known from first 5000 families but only just over half at key 1k level (600 words, SD 150)

Results 1b. Levels post-test Significant gains for first 5 k-levels combined at T3

Significant gains for first 5 k-levels combined at T3

Results 1c. Levels Test (3 times, both groups)

Results – Levels Test - Summary Initial state: No significant difference Baseline (602, T1-T2): No significant difference Following game use 601: 459 words average gain, **sig – but at T3, not T2 602: 178 words average gain, * sig Note: These are average gains Incorporating wide range of variance

Results 2 2a. Frog stories – new words in use

Results 2b. Frog stories – where are these gains?

Results 2c. Frog stories – story size

Results 2c. Frog stories – the main difference

Listen & compare Which Frog story is T1, and which is T3? From same user Just above average use-record Francophone but no code-switching issue Press on to see VP-Kids profiles 

Listen & compare

Which Frog story is T1, and which is T3?

From same user

Just above average use-record

Francophone

but no code-switching issue

Press on to see VP-Kids profiles 

Results - 2e. Example

Results – 2f. Example

Results – Frog stories - Summary Initial state: No significant difference (n.s.d.) - In # families used - In # tokens (=story size) Baseline (602, T1-T2): n.s.d. Following game use Despite variance: - Average 3 new word families - Average 35 more word tokens - Average 45% reduction in # of L1 words used

Results 3 3. Access – number of words read in 1 min.

Results 3. Access – number of words read in 1 min.

Results – Lexical access - Summary Initial state: No significant difference (n.s.d.) Baseline (602, T1-T2): Small but sig gains * Practice effect Following game use Despite variance: - Av. 23 more words read/minute - Statistically significant **

Results 4 – qualitative + post-hoc 4a. Beyond our means

Results – qualitative + post-hoc 4b. Winning profiles

Results – qualitative + post-hoc 4b. Winning conditions

Are more word meanings known both immediately + after delay Are more words used in oral production Are words accessed more quickly? Research Questions Following substantial use of the game…

Are more word meanings known

both immediately + after delay

Are more words used

in oral production

Are words accessed more quickly?

For this population, results are significantly and meaningfully positive on all three measures Esp. compared to baselines e.g., Milton & Meara (1995): 550 wds/yr in classroom on recognition measure But paradoxical Lexical development is at opposite ends of the spectrum Recognition – gains throughout first 5k Production – gains in first 250 words Conclusions

For this population, results are significantly and meaningfully positive on all three measures

Esp. compared to baselines

e.g., Milton & Meara (1995): 550 wds/yr in classroom on recognition measure

But paradoxical

Lexical development is at opposite ends of the spectrum

Recognition – gains throughout first 5k

Production – gains in first 250 words

Source of productive gains unclear Learning or activation of existing knowledge? Apparent confirmation that lexical access is trainable Small effect for practice with format; big effect for time-pressure processing As known since SkiJump days but never widely exploited First successful use of Levels Test as pre-post measure Unsurprising since game and test derive from same wordlists Conclusions 2

Source of productive gains unclear

Learning or activation of existing knowledge?

Apparent confirmation that lexical access is trainable

Small effect for practice with format; big effect for time-pressure processing

As known since SkiJump days but never widely exploited

First successful use of Levels Test as pre-post measure

Unsurprising since game and test derive from same wordlists

Significant prior vocab knowledge from somewhere 2350 known words at pretest … but not in use Frog stories of 100 toks / 40 fams (cf. age 6 NS: 350 toks / 91 fams,) … and distributed so that half the words are unknown at key 1k + 2k levels (# 32) Which explains weak reading levels Which reflects neglect of lexis in MEQ curriculum Conclusions 3 – Interesting portrait of Quebec ESL learner

Significant prior vocab knowledge from somewhere

2350 known words at pretest

… but not in use Frog stories of 100 toks / 40 fams

(cf. age 6 NS: 350 toks / 91 fams,)

… and distributed so that half the words are unknown at key 1k + 2k levels (# 32)

Which explains weak reading levels

Which reflects neglect of lexis in MEQ curriculum

Can Word Coach compensate for any of this? Effects of moderate-to-heavy users of the game Word knowledge : 1k and 2k levels rise to equivalent age native speaker (NS) levels (80% plus) Word use : Story size of 250 word, pushing age= NS average of 350 Access : 85 words read aloud/minute is approaching NS average of 110 A lot of compensation in a short time! Conclusions 3 – Interesting portrait of Quebec ESL learner

Can Word Coach compensate for any of this?

Effects of moderate-to-heavy users of the game

Word knowledge : 1k and 2k levels rise to equivalent age native speaker (NS) levels (80% plus)

Word use : Story size of 250 word, pushing age= NS average of 350

Access : 85 words read aloud/minute is approaching NS average of 110

A lot of compensation in a short time!

Two possible directions More of the same Game 2 which extends Word Coach approach into collocation, context, idioms, specialized domains Integration of Word Coach principles (whole lexicon, sequence, recycle, review) into a full adventure narrative “Look out ! They’re shooting from the balcony !!” Next steps for Word Coach

Two possible directions

More of the same

Game 2 which extends Word Coach approach into collocation, context, idioms, specialized domains

Integration of Word Coach principles (whole lexicon, sequence, recycle, review) into a full adventure narrative

“Look out ! They’re shooting from the balcony !!”

“ Look out – the other one’s in a garbage can!”

Further reading 1 Frequency lists Leech et al, Word Frequencies in Written & Spoken English Lemmatization procedures Nation, unpublished 20k as size of adult educated lexicon Goulding, Nation & Read (1990) Yes-No Test Buxton & Meara (1987) Spaced recycling Mondria & Mondria-Wit de Boer (1993) Reaction-time & practice Snellings, van Geldeen, & de Glopper (2002) Easy and hard spelling Connor (c.1986), N. Ellis (c.1996), Cognitive processes in spelling

Frequency lists

Leech et al, Word Frequencies in Written & Spoken English

Lemmatization procedures

Nation, unpublished

20k as size of adult educated lexicon

Goulding, Nation & Read (1990)

Yes-No Test

Buxton & Meara (1987)

Spaced recycling

Mondria & Mondria-Wit de Boer (1993)

Reaction-time & practice

Snellings, van Geldeen, & de Glopper (2002)

Easy and hard spelling

Connor (c.1986), N. Ellis (c.1996), Cognitive processes in spelling

Further reading 2 Baseline 550 words/year classroom Milton & Meara Pet-200 study Cobb, 1997 PET-2000 study Cobb, 1999a+b Francophones and cognates in Levels test Cobb 2000 Notion of a fixed order of lex growth Biemiller and Slonim, 200x Need for delayed post in vocab studies Cobb, 1999b

Baseline 550 words/year classroom

Milton & Meara

Pet-200 study

Cobb, 1997

PET-2000 study

Cobb, 1999a+b

Francophones and cognates in Levels test

Cobb 2000

Notion of a fixed order of lex growth

Biemiller and Slonim, 200x

Need for delayed post in vocab studies

Cobb, 1999b

Goulden, R., Nation, P., & Read, J. (1990). How large can a receptive vocabulary be? Applied Linguistics 11 , 341-358. Meara, P., & Buxton, B. (1987). An alternative to multiple choice vocabulary tests. Language Testing 4 , 142-154. Nation, P. (2007). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review 63 (1), 1-12. Mondria, J.-A. & Mondria-De Vries, S. (1993). Efficiently memorizing words with the help of word cards and 'hand computer': Theory and applications. System 22, 47-57. Snellings, P., van Gelderen, A,, & de Glopper, K. (2002). Lexical retrieval: An aspect of fluent second language production that can be enhanced. Language Learning 52 (4), 723-754.

Goulden, R., Nation, P., & Read, J. (1990). How large can a receptive vocabulary be? Applied Linguistics 11 , 341-358.

Meara, P., & Buxton, B. (1987). An alternative to multiple choice vocabulary tests. Language Testing 4 , 142-154.

Nation, P. (2007). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review 63 (1), 1-12.

Mondria, J.-A. & Mondria-De Vries, S. (1993). Efficiently memorizing words with the help of word cards and 'hand computer': Theory and applications. System 22, 47-57.

Snellings, P., van Gelderen, A,, & de Glopper, K. (2002). Lexical retrieval: An aspect of fluent second language production that can be enhanced. Language Learning 52 (4), 723-754.

Cobb, T. (2000). One size fits all? Francophone learners and English vocabulary tests. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57 (2), 295-324. Cobb, T. (1999a). Applying constructivism: A test for the learner-as-scientist . Educational Technology Research & Development, 47 (3), 15-33 Cobb, T. (1999b). Breadth and depth of vocabulary acquisition with hands-on concordancing. Computer Assisted Language Learning 12 , p. 345 - 360. Cobb, T. (1997). Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing? System 25 (3), 301-315. This PPT at http://www.lextutor.ca/cv/ppt/pittsburgh.ppt

Cobb, T. (2000). One size fits all? Francophone learners and English vocabulary tests. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57 (2), 295-324.

Cobb, T. (1999a). Applying constructivism: A test for the learner-as-scientist . Educational Technology Research & Development, 47 (3), 15-33

Cobb, T. (1999b). Breadth and depth of vocabulary acquisition with hands-on concordancing. Computer Assisted Language Learning 12 , p. 345 - 360.

Cobb, T. (1997). Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing? System 25 (3), 301-315.

[email_address] www.lextutor.ca This PPT at http://www.lextutor.ca/cv/ppt/pittsburgh.ppt

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