Women and Media

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Information about Women and Media
Education

Published on September 30, 2014

Author: mirakdesai

Source: slideshare.net

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This presentation is part of online session for Foundation Course for SNDTWU college students which will be delivered from WizIQ platform in few hours from now.

Portrayals of Women in Media- Indian Context 30th September 2014 Mira K Desai, PhD Associate Professor and I/C Head University Department of Extension Education SNDT Women’s University Juhu Campus, Mumbai

Outline for the Day • Society- Men and Women and third Gender • Women in Indian society • What and Which of Media? • Women and Media • How are women portrayed in media? • Role-Qualities-Behaviour-Valuation of Sexes = Social construction of Gender • What happens because of such portrayals? • Conclusion

1,18,59,58,045 people View slide

50% Women Source: http://colleenandmichael.blogspot.in/2010/11/amritsar-funny-walks-and-holy-place.html View slide

SOCIETY MEN

MAN WOMAN

Third Gender

INDIAN WOMEN

Women like YOU and Me!!

We all Consume MEDIA……

MEDIA can be for……. Individual Group Mass

Audio- Visual Media

Audio Media

Visual Media

Visual Media

Out Of House Media

Out of House Media

New Media

Media & Entertainment Industry…??!! • Advertising {OOH, Direct marketing, PR…} • Broadcast, Cable, DTH, IPTV • Filmed Entertainment • Print- Newspapers, Magazines • Publishing- Books • Radio • Upcoming convergent platforms- Mobile and telecom, Gaming, Internet & Social networking….

Indian Media Journey in Numbers MEDIA THEN NOW Newspapers and Periodicals 3000 in 1947 including 300 dailies 93,985 registered publications by Dec 2012 Television Two-hour/day transmission on ONE channel and 41 TV Sets in 1962 850 channels with 24X7 telecast and from 127 million in 2008 to 253 million households in 2010 Films 280 films in 1947 and had 150 theatres in 1921 1250 productions in 2010 having 13000 Cinema halls Radio 1 AM radio channel in 1947 Multiple Stations: AM , FM, Community, Campus Internet Inception in 1995, 4.55 million users in 2004 160 ISPs, 71 million ‘claimed’ users

Women - Media • Women who work in Media (professionals) • Women who use Media (as audiences) • Women as shown in Media (subjects) • Women’s media ( media created by women) • Women who work for those who work in media (Support services- makeup, hair, catering, stylists, etc.)

WOMEN as MEDIA Audiences

Women in Audio Visual Media • ACTRESSES: Who are TV/Films characters • NEWS-PRESENTERS: Those who are anchors, read/write news, interviews people on screen • PRODUCERS & DIRECTORS: Women who make TV/Film/Newspaper content • TECHNICIANS: Women camerapersons, sound-engineers, assistants, workers • NEWS SUBJECTS: Any woman shown as news subject (who can be any woman)

Women as Performers In front of Camera - Behind Camera With lots of clothes - Without clothes

Women as Presenters

Women as Technicians

Women as News Subjects

GMMP- Gender Media Monitoring Project (www.whomakesnews.org) • FOUR: 1995, 2000, 2005, 2009/10 • GMMP 2009/10 on 10 November 2009 • Volunteer groups in 130 countries across the world monitored national newspapers, listened to radio newscasts and watched local television • Findings of the representation and portrayal of women and men in news media around the world across cultures/languages/countries

WOMEN in NEWS….as News Providers/ Sources Media Professionals News Subjects Portrayal in news

GMMP 2009/10 • Sample: 6,902 news items and 14,044 news subjects, including people interviewed in the news. • Themes: Politics/government dominate the biggest chunk of coverage (27% of the total number of stories), crime/violence comes second at 20%, and the economy third at 18%. • People: 24% of the people interviewed, heard, seen or read about in mainstream broadcast and print news are female; only 16% of all stories focus specifically on women. • Change: GMMP 1995 recorded only 17% of the people in the news were women which became 24%. ONLY 7% rise in visibility of women in last 15 years.

Global – Local….GMMP 2010 GMMP Global GMMP India GMMP Mumbai News subjects Women Males 24% 76% 22% 78% 20% 74% Women news reporters 37% 34% 14% Women central stories 13% 12% 8% Gender policy reference 10% 9% 6% Highlighting G. equality 6% 5% 8%

ROLES attached to SEX WOMEN • Mother • Wife • Sister • Daughter • Daughter-in-law • Mother-in-law • Sister-in-law MEN • Father • Husband • Brother • Son • Son-in-law • Father-in-law • Brother-in-law

QUALITIES expected of SEXES WOMEN • Passive • Submissive • Domesticated • Delicate • Pretty • Cute • Caring MEN • Active • Aggressive • Daring • Stud • Strong • Tough • In-Charge

Behaviour expected from SEX WOMEN • Agree with what others say • Behave as expected in a given role • Defined boundaries of movement MEN • Take control of situation • Lead others and given discounts to women as stupid • Can do anything

Valuation attached to SEX WOMEN • What they do in house is not of much value • If she is working outside and independent she is ignoring family MEN • IF they do any work in house they are obliging women • If he is working from home, helping wife, he is good husband

On TELEVISION ……

IN REAL …LIFE

Why difference in these women!!! • Media likes to show women as suffering, sacrificing, submissive, silent, subdued, passive individual driven by others. • Media creates stereotypes of mother-daughter- wife-sister which fits into subordinate roles. • Media promotes women as body- worker without strength- person without own power.

Social construction of Gender INSTITUTIONS • Family • Education • Religion • Caste • State • Media • Market ISSUES Role Qualities Behaviour Valuation CONTROLS • Fertility • Labour • Mobility • Property • Resources • Sexuality

MEDIA- What does it do? • MIRRORs the Society….. • Creates MARKET by selling you ideas, products, services….. • MEDIATES experiences of its audiences…. • Provides MYTHs…..Circulates and sustains them…… • CREATES definitions of NORMAL

Portrayals of Women • Mainly as news subjects • Sensationalisation and objectification • Glorified in certain roles like mothers • Most often as a body rather than a PERSON • Usually to support the sex stereotypes • Usually silent, passive, not important person • Most often shown in house and if shown outside house than in domesticated roles

Women as Communicators • Novelists • Journalists • Writers • Directors • Producers • Financers • Painters • Sculpture artists • Poets • Singers • Dancers • Actresses • Folk Artists • Presenters • Anchors • Photographers

Women as Communicators

Women Communicators

Media to Women • Media creates definitions about: What women should wear? When and where women should move? How should women behave? • Media stereotypes Gender realities. • Media perpetuates Gender existences. • Media conditions gendered experiences.

Media creates Gender definitions • Man should be metro-sexual. • Woman should be sexy. • Woman should be size ZERO. • Girls are cute/vulnerable/sweet. • Man can/should control women. • Man is the head of the household. • Woman have to/must marry.

Media stereotypes Gender realities • Mother-in-law and daughter-in-law always fight, What about Father –Son? • Women can’t be friends to each other, how many friendships do you have!! • Husband has a ‘rights’ over the wife, What about rights of the wife? • Children are mother’s responsibility, are not they joint responsibility?

Media perpetuates Gender existences • Women are dying to get male attention. • Women need to look ‘beautiful’. • Woman are body and man are brain. • Woman can not survive without man. • When woman say NO it is yes? • Woman has no SAY in decisions of her life! • Woman’s first priority is HOME.

Indian Television…. • More diverse portrayals • Soaps reinforce culture maintenance responsibilities on women and stereotypes • News objectifies women and highlights expected roles • Women as victims and women against women are highlighted

Indian Films….. • Commodification………..Stereotyping………….. Objectification…….Role setting • Setting parameters of qualities, behaviour, valuation for men-women • Lesser proportion of films showing women in ‘control’ of their life • Women directors did not make much difference but the change is due…..

New Media: Ray of HOPE • New media- Internet, mobile provides space for women • Women are voicing, making issues visible, changing direction of discourses • Newer occupations are emerging- food bloggers, social media specialists, Cross-country researchers, Doctors without borders, Alternate Media reporters…..

What happens because of such Portrayals? • Invisibility of women • Marginalisation of women’s work • Socialisation of young girls/women • Definitions of ‘NORMal’ • Provides public sanction to men • Numbness or Desensitisation of people towards women and women’s issues

We must……

Gender N Media: Resources • Media and Gender: A Scholarly Agenda for the Global Alliance on Media and Gender, co-edited by IAMCR and UNESCO, 2013 URL: http://iamcr.org/publications/special/media-and-gender • Gender-Sensitive Indicators for Media: Draft Framework of Indicators to Gauge Gender Sensitivity in Media Operations and Content- March 2012, URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/ • Getting the balance right: Gender equality in journalism, 2009, URL: http://portal.unesco.org • Gender sensitivity: a training manual for sensitizing education managers, curriculum and material developers and media professionals to gender concerns, 2004 URL: www.unesco.org

How should the Portrayal be? • Women as human being • Women having her aspirations, needs, life • Women as equal partners of civilization • Women respected for ‘what she is’ rather than ‘what she should be’ • Society having men and women as equal partners • Changing not only the media but also the ‘minds’

THANK YOU for your TIME feel free to connect@ drmiradesai@gmail.com sndtmedia@hotmail.com

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