Published on March 4, 2014
WOMEN AND LIVESTOCK Why GENDER Matters are BIG Matters Kathleen Colverson Susan MacMillan Dorine Odongo International Livestock Research Institute International Women’s Day 8 March 2014
Some definitions • ‘Sex’ Biological, fixed, mostly unchangeable differences between males and females • ‘Gender’ Socially constructed, changeable, culturally specific roles for women and men • ‘Livestock value chains’ Full range of production, processing and delivery activities from farm to fork
Why integrate gender into livestock research? In most of the world, women perform most of the work to produce most of the world’s food
Why integrate gender into livestock research? A person’s gender affects: • a person’s nutritional well• the impacts and being and livelihood strategies effectiveness of (e.g., interests and roles in livestock interventions livestock value chains) • a person’s access to • household food security natural resources
Why integrate gender into livestock research? • Worldwide, women play major roles in smallholder livestock systems • Women are disproportionately clustered in small livestock production systems (poultry, sheep, goats) and in milking and milk processing • Women-headed and AIDSaffected households are among the poorest and hungriest
Why assess different value chains differently? • Along livestock value chains in developing countries, women and men typically provide different kinds of labour and work in different segments of the chains • Women and men obtain different benefits from this work, with women receiving significantly fewer total benefits than men
Why women face large hurdles in benefiting from their (large) livestock labours Typically, in poor countries: • Men rather than women own the most valuable household livestock assets • Women may own smaller, less valuable, livestock species • Women and children raise and care for all species of livestock • Women harvest, process and sell the livestock products and control some of the income
Why women’s contributions to livestock value chains are often hidden • The percentage of ‘economically active’ women increases significantly when certain activities − cultivating a home garden, raising animals, gathering firewood − are recognized as productive Conventional survey 21% 79% Economically active Economically inactive • The proportion increases further when certain activities within the ‘reproductive sphere’ are included, such as meal preparation and child care Source: FAO Dominican Republic 16% 84% *including gardening and raising animals
Why gender plays a role in technology transfer • Women and men have unequal access to information and technology • Women have less access to agricultural inputs • Women have specialized livestock knowledge • Women and men play different roles in livestock management • Women serve as guardians of livestock diversity
Why global food security depends on reducing gender inequality in agriculture • Gender relations can change with introduction of new livestock technologies if women have access to inputs, training and markets • Evidence confirms that improving the status of women: – increases farm productivity – reduces household poverty – improves family nutrition Quoted from Feed the Future 2012
Why all the variables matter • Gender issues must be viewed in relation to other variables such as age, assets, income, education, and ethnicity of men and women • Interventions made to improve livestock value chains may result in more work and fewer benefits for women, or less work and greater benefits for men
Why mainstream gender in livestock value chains? Optimizing women’s participation in livestock value chains can lead to: • Higher livestock incomes for poor women • Improved rural family welfare, especially for children – better nutrition, health, educational opportunities • Stronger female intrahousehold bargaining power and voice in decision-making
How to integrate gender into R4D projects • Identify and address gender-based constraints • Target gender issues and women in research and training • Work with women’s associations • Collect, analyze and use sex-disaggregated data • Increase women’s participation and benefits in R4D projects • Employ participatory methods • Work towards social as well as technical goals
How to mainstream gender in a livestock value chain project cycle #1 Map gender roles and relations along the value chain Measure the success of actions Take actions to remove genderbased constraints Underlying principles guiding a strategy for integrating gender in a livestock value chain Assess the consequences of genderbased constraints Move from gender inequalities to gender-based constraints Adapted from: Rubin et al. 2010, Mayoux et al. 2010
Collect, analyse and use gender disaggregated data Provide empirical evidence of: • Division of labour along livestock and food chains • Related needs, interests and knowledge • Decision-making processes • Access to and control of resources • Access to credit and control of revenues • Gender-based performance of same activities
Use participatory research methods to engage and empower women • Employ mix of quantitative & qualitative approaches (e.g. semi-structured interviews, focus groups, journaling) • Ensure equal numbers of women and men in training / surveys • Train women in their priority areas • Investigate genderspecific issues in value chains • Interview women household heads, incl. single, divorced, and widowed women
Address women’s priorities and concerns • Attend to the time of day, duration of use and location of the technological interventions • Give women more time for activities if needed • Identify and address women’s priorities • Hold separate focus groups for women and men • Actively invite women to meetings and trainings • Network with women leaders and gender experts in NGOs
Use gender-sensitive indicators to mark changes in the status and roles of women and men • Measure successes in removing gender-based constraints • Provide consistency and flexibility • Attend to process and outcomes • Use quantitative and qualitative tools • Find the stories behind the numbers • Avoid assumptions • Recognize household differences
Gender training manual • Closing the gender gap in agriculture: A trainer’s manual • By Kathleen Colverson, ILRI senior gender scientist • Published July 2013 • Series: ILRI Manual 9 • Nairobi, Kenya • International Livestock Research Institute • http://bit.ly/Nmtd6i
Art credits Slide 02: Figure of Woman Shown in Motion, Albrecht Durer, 1528, via Wikipaintings Slide 03: Reaper, Kazimir Malevich, 1912, via Wikipaintings Slide 04: Going to the Marketplace (A green cow), David Burliuk (1882−1967), via Wikipaintings Slide 05: Silhouette of a Peasant Woman Digging Carrots, Vincent van Gogh, 1885, via Wikipaintings Slide 06: The Spoonful of Milk, Marc Chagall, 1912, via Wikipaintings Slide 07: The Shepherdness, Franz Marc, 1912, via Wikipaintings Slide 09: Russian Peasant, David Burliuk, 1928, via Wikipaintings Slide 10: Woman with a Book, Fernand Leger, 1923, via Wikipaintings Slide 11: Girl and Goat, Pablo Picasso, 1906, via Wikipaintings Slide 12: Reading, Pablo Picasso, 1921, via Wikipaintings Slide 13: Painting by Baya Mahieddine (1931−1998), Algeria, via Algerian Embassy in Rome website Slide 15: Illustration in 14 Questions People Ask about Hinduism (Hinduism Today), Oct−Dec 2011, Himalayan Academy Publications, Hawaii, via Wikimedia Slide 16: Peasant Woman with Red and Green Cows, David Burliuk (1882−1967) Slide 17: Daphnis and Chloe frontispeice, Marc Chagall, 1961 Slide 18: Salome, Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko, 1910, via RasMarley on Flickr Slide 19: The Towers of Trebizond cover design by Lindsay Mayer-Beug for Farrar, Straus and Giroux, via Paris Review Slide 20: [Num and cow], Lowell Herrero (1921− ), via Pinterest
better lives through livestock ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.
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