Published on October 14, 2014
1. Women and charcoal value chains of Eastern and Southern Africa Phosiso Sola and Davison Gumbo email@example.com IUFRO 2014 World Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 5-11 October 2014
2. Source: WHO, 2012 % Population using solid fuel in 2010 Biomass fuels meet over 80% of Sub Saharan Africa energy demand Only about 30 % of the population have access to electricity
3. 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Central Africa East Africa North Africa Southern Africa West Africa Wood fuel Consumption 1000m3 African Region Most in the form of charcoal, for cooking and heating Produced in rural areas consumed in urban areas
4. The study- a critical review Literatures: With all the challenges the industry is lucrative to both men and women QUE: How women participate, benefit and are affected throughout the charcoal value chains of eastern and southern African? Wood production Charcoal production Transportation Wholesaling Retailing Consumption Adapted from Sepp, 2008
5. The study- a critical review Review literature on charcoal production and trade in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia Article focus Wood fuel Production and policy Trade Consumption Value chains Trade/value chains and gender Number of articles (89) 36 75 36 31 18 9 % 41 85 41 35 20 10
6. Charcoal Industry in eastern and southern African Industry largely informal, unregulated Deemed illegal, no recognition, practically neglected Energy policies believe in energy ladder BUT persistent poverty renders transition a fallacy YET industry remains very efficient in meeting urban and local demand
7. Demand levels Majority of urban households All income categories but mostly the urban poor Small-scale industries can account for up to 31% of urban demand (case of Tanzania) Urban Demand Kenya 82% (2013) Rwanda 72% (2010) Mozambique 70-80% (2007) Tanzania Dar es Salaam 78% (2007)
8. Demand levels Kenya 2005 to 2013 production increased from 1.6 to 2.5 mil ton Uganda Gov estimates demand increasing at rate of 6% /yr Country Annual figures Data year Production (Million ton) Kenya 2.5 2013 Uganda 1 2011 Rwanda 0.2 2008 Consumption (Million ton) Zambia 1.248 2010 Mozambique 14.8 2008 Malawi (consumption for the 4 major cities 90% country) 6.08 2007 Tanzania (Dar es Salaam 50% of country) 1.6 2007
9. Significance of the Industry Sector competitive with some agriculture sectors like tea, coffee, and tobacco Illegal trade leads to significant losses in revenue Kenya Mozambique Malawi Tanzania Rwanda Income Per yr USD mil 1,600 394 41 (Main cities) 350 (Dar es Salaam) 67 % GDP 2.2 3 2.3 2.7 Data Year 2013 2011 2007 2007 2007
10. The charcoal industry in ESA Studies indicate that substantial volumes of charcoal crossing borders 43% charcoal production from border districts Zambia Takes 1-6 actors to deliver the charcoal to final consumers
11. Charcoal industry Actors Country Wood production Producer Transporter Wholesaler Retailer Total Data year Kenya 254,000 4900 635,000 893,900 2013 Mozambique 27,169 1,132 5,822 101,885 214,000 2012 Rwanda 300, 000 8,000 200-300 2000 310,300 2010 Malawi 10,550 122,490 133,040 2008 6400 46,500 12,800 33,500 92,800 2007 Informal and or illegal thus accurate statistics difficult to get The bulk, of the product is produced and traded without licensing
12. Charcoal industry Actors Country Wood producers % Producers % Transporters % Wholesalers % Retailers % Data year Kenya 28.4 0.6 71 2013 Mozambique 12.7 0.5 2.7 47.6 2012 Rwanda 96.7 2.6 0.1 0.6 2010 Malawi 6.5 46.8 12.9 33.8 2008 Tanzania 43.2 0.1 56 2002 Zambia 47.5 0.9 51.3 2002 retailers/vendors > producers > wholesalers > transporters traders
13. Role of women? Tend to dominate the wood production, charcoal production and retailing stages But remain in the small scale businesses Limited to no access and rights over key resources (land, trees, financial capital, and credit) Country Producers % Transporters % Wholesalers % Retailers % Data Year Kenya 17 10-14 57 2005 Tanzania 24 0 20 16 2012 Uganda 4 6 (Agent 22) 19 69 2008 Mozambique 24 2 55 90 2004
14. Production energyaccess.wikispaces.com www.itswild.org Both men and women produce charcoal But roles somewhat predefined Iiyama, Miyuki (ICRAF)
15. Production Majority of women producers sell charcoal from home or at roadsides
16. Transportation Men the majority of transporters up to 90% Women rarely reach 20% Mostly cyclists, 90% of transporters for 10% volume into Dar es Salaam, Tanzania www.animaltraction.com
17. Most women do not own vehicles have to hire Business is done mostly at night – evade the law baraza.wildlifedirect.org Transportation www.globalgiving.org Risky: poor roads, poor state of the vehicles, long distances, illicit behaviour and illegality
18. Buy, store and sell in bulk offering prices 10 to 20% lower than the retail price Dominated by women but still the few men dominate large scale Limited access to capital –bulk purchase, storage Wholesaling Iiyama, Miyuki (ICRAF)
19. Retailing Sell in bags, small cans or piles Face stiff competition from sheer numbers Thus sell other products besides charcoal www.seattleglobalist.com felixfeatures.photoshelter.com
20. Income and income distribution Inequitable and skewed towards the middle players in transportation and trade/wholesaling Tightly neat in dealer-transporter-wholesaler networks/curtails highly connected % share final price Wood production Producer Transporter Wholesaler Retailer Data year Kenya 6 66 28 2013 Rwanda 16.9 42.2 32.8 8.1 2010 Tanzania 33 50 17 2009 Malawi 20-33 20 -25 25-33 2007
21. Uganda •Benefits concentrated in the middle where women form 6 % transporter or 22% of agents •Less benefits at tail ends, women 69% retailers Value chain actor Average monthly profits (USD) Producer 35.53 Agent 93.97 Transporter 646.58 Trader 579.21 Retailer 68.04 Source: Shively, et al., 2010
22. Recommendations Enabling policy framework -Formalise, Legalise, Operationalise Evidence to inform development and policies -In-depth research with standardized comparable methodology for gendered value chain analysis across countries Technology research, development and dissemination -Wood production, carbonisation, cooking Improve access to resources by women -Land and trees, Finance, Business premises
23. Main sources 1.Blodgett, C., 2011. Charcoal Value Chain and Improved Cook stove Sector Analyses SNV Rwanda positioning document 2.Delahunty-Pike A., 2012. Gender Equity, Charcoal and the Value Chain in Western Kenya Working Brief November 2012 PISCES, Practical Action Consulting 3.Gumbo, D. J., et. al., 2013. Dynamics of the charcoal and indigenous timber trade in Zambia: A scoping study in Eastern, Northern and Northwestern provinces. Occasional Paper 86. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia 4.Kambewa, P., et. Al., 2007. Charcoal: the reality – A study of charcoal consumption, trade and production in Malawi. Small and Medium Forestry Enterprise Series No. 21. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK. 5.Kenya Forest Service (Kfs), 2013. Analysis of the Charcoal Value Chain in Kenya, Final Report, August 2013 Ministry Of Environment, Water And Natural Resources, Government of Kenya 6.Kwaschik R., (ed) 2008. Proceedings of the Conference on Charcoal and Communities in Africa 16 – 18 June, 2008 Maputo, Mozambique, Coordinator, Global Non-timber Forest Products (NTFP) Partnership, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) 7. Malimbwi, R.E., and Zahabu, E.M., 2008. Research and development for sustainable management of semiarid miombo woodlands in East Africa Woodlands and the charcoal trade: the case of Dar es Salaam City Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 98: 93– 114 http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2008/mwp098.htm 8.Ndegwa Geoffrey M. et al., 2010. Woodfuel Value Chains in Kenya and Rwanda; Economic analysis of the market oriented woodfuel sector. Master Thesis Cologne University of Applied Sciences Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT) 9.Shively, G., et al., 2010. Profits and margins along Uganda’s charcoal value chain International Forest Review Vol 12 (3) 2010 10.van Beukering, P., et al., undated. Optimization of the charcoal chain in Tanzania Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
24. I thank you www.cifor.org www.blog.cifor.org Other photos from Iiyama, Miyuki (ICRAF) and http://www.olliviergirard.com/Gallery_Zambia/index.html
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