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Published on November 23, 2007

Author: Berenger

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 2. North America/Native America:  Chapter 2. North America/Native America Three Different Styles Sioux Grass Dance Zuni Lullaby Iroquois Quiver Dance Sioux Grass Dance (CD 1:3):  Sioux Grass Dance (CD 1:3) piercing falsetto driving drumbeat separate from voice part pitches sliding down from high to low (portamento) at the ends of phrases mixture of solo and group singing text is meaningless syllables (vocables) repeating, melodic phrases that start on high pitches and then gradually descend to lower pitches (“high to low and back up again”). Sioux Grass Dance (2):  Sioux Grass Dance (2) singing part. Melody The melody is “ornamented” by Form (phrase structure) of the Sioux Grass dance. Two phrases—A and B—repeat. Sioux Grass Dance - Beat:  Sioux Grass Dance - Beat It has a steady beat, but does not have a regular meter. It has a fast tempo. Notice how the drum beat does not coincide exactly with the sharp emphases, pulsations, and glides It accompanies a Sioux war dance. Vocables:  Vocables nonlexical or “meaningless” syllables “pathogenic”—arising from emotions “logogenic” where the text is meaningful words. The role of musical instruments :  The role of musical instruments drums and rattles Instrumental ensembles such as the familiar orchestras of the Western music-culture are unknown in traditional North American Indian music. In spite of the fact that their music and/or language is not written down in symbolic notation, what appear to be simpler cultures turn out to be very complicated. Zuni Lullaby (CD 1:4):  Zuni Lullaby (CD 1:4) Logogenic syllables -- meaningful words solo singer no drum free meter repetition no harmony voice dominates Zuni Lullaby Context:  Zuni Lullaby Context Grandmother sings a lullaby to her grandchild affection shown by repeating phrases comparing child to cute, small animals Iroquois Quiver Dance (CD 1:5):  Iroquois Quiver Dance (CD 1:5) A solo voice (the “leader”) sings a text phrase, the “call.” a group of voices answers, singing the “response,” “yowe hi ye ye!” This important texture or manner of treating a melody is common to many music-cultures throughout the world and is known as call-and-response. Iroquois Quiver Dance:  Iroquois Quiver Dance Male singers only. Instrumental accompaniment None that is obvious in this older (1942) field recording, but it is common for the dancers/singers to use rattles to accompany their singing. Music of the Navajo Indians:  Music of the Navajo Indians A Yeibichai Song from the Nightway Ceremony (CD 1:6):  A Yeibichai Song from the Nightway Ceremony (CD 1:6) Vocalized yells or shouts; male falsetto Rattle With the rattle shaking at end. Interweaving of repeating phrases/motives Groups (teams) of male voices Yeibichai Song - Religious:  Yeibichai Song - Religious It is part of a nine-night ritual ceremony during which masked dancers impersonate the gods to bring supernatural power to help cure a sick person. The person being cured by ritual is the “one-sung-over” The Navajo Way of Life:  The Navajo Way of Life Navajo are the largest American-Indian tribe. The Navajo live on a reservation 25,000 square miles in area, located in parts of New Mexico, Arizona and Utah farming, raising stock, weaving, and silversmithing Navajo homes range from modern ranch houses to one-room houses, with circular floor plans being preferred. While a lot of traditional Navajo culture remains, new ideas have brought much change to Navajo life. Traditional Popular Music (among the Navajo) :  Traditional Popular Music (among the Navajo) Ndáá’ (war dance) songs from Enemyway ceremonies “recreational pastime” Couples compete in a new pastime called Song and Dance for prizes that are given for their costumes and dancing skill. The Circle Dance Song “Shizhané’é” (CD 1:8) :  The Circle Dance Song “Shizhané’é” (CD 1:8) “Shizhané’é,” a Navajo Circle Dance song, is from the public part of the Enemyway ceremony known collectively as Ndáá’ songs “Shizhané’é,” is in a compound meter repeating groups of very fast threes: 123 123 123 syncopation—displaced accents which stress normally unaccented beats. The object of the humorous text of the song is to make the girls laugh and pay attention to the male singers. The “Classical” Music of the Navajos:  The “Classical” Music of the Navajos The great ceremonial chants restore a person’s harmony with the world of nature retell the Navajo creation story The Navajo believe that this music is too sacred and powerful and could lose its power if recorded or misused. “Navajo Sacred Prayer,” CD 1:9 from the Shootingway :  “Navajo Sacred Prayer,” CD 1:9 from the Shootingway After a person has been treated for snakebite at a hospital, he might undergo the traditional Shootingway ceremony to neutralize bad relations with the snake people (spirits) that caused the snake bite in the first place. Frank Mitchell -- Navajo Life:  Frank Mitchell -- Navajo Life 1. Repetitive narrative style: Repetition is a significant element in Navajo art. 2. Importance of women: Navajos elevate the status of women; matrilocal, matrilineal families are common. 3. Traveling about: Nomadic lifestyles are still common in Navajo culture. Frank Mitchell -- Navajo Life:  Frank Mitchell -- Navajo Life 4. Navajo practicality: Frank Mitchell became a singer for practical rather than spiritual reasons. 5. The value of Navajo songs: Music and musicians have the power to improve the life of the people (healing the sick, for example). 6. Speech and leadership: The chief in Navajo is “one who speaks,” illustrating the power of the voice. 7. Navajo humor: F. Mitchell was also the beloved jokester of his large family. Frank Mitchell -- Ceremonial Practitioner :  Frank Mitchell -- Ceremonial Practitioner high status with good job security Navajos believe in the power of music to improve their lives. learned through observing and learning from his father-in-law, father, and old people. The Native American Church - Influences:  The Native American Church - Influences Christian missionary movement The Native American Church Navajo Peyote Song Hymn (CD 1:10) :  Navajo Peyote Song Hymn (CD 1:10) melody: only two note values, one long, the other short. pitches move in a descending direction. rattle/drum accompaniment vocables (wordless syllables). Syllabic ends on the tonic or “home” pitch similar to the “Amen” in Christian hymns. Native American Church - Characteristics:  Native American Church - Characteristics meets in a large Plains Indian tipi the water drum and the rattle hospitable to all other religions include ideas from other religions in their philosophy and ideas. Water Drum:  Water Drum The Navajo water drum is clay pot eight to ten inches high filled half full of water and covered with a stretched, animal skin drumhead. The drum is beat with an unusual drumstick made of a bent twig which is tied in a loop at the far end. “Navajo Inn” skip dance:  “Navajo Inn” skip dance speaks despairingly of women finding their husbands unconscious behind a “tall fence.” makes light of heaving drinking The Native-American Flute Revival “Origins” (CD 1:14):  The Native-American Flute Revival “Origins” (CD 1:14) Synthesizer and Native-American Indian flute the synthesizer alone the Native-American Indian flute enters mellow, consonant music that produces a peaceful, contemplative mood. Repetition unifies the music. The character of the music is floating, lacking steady beat/meter or accompanying chord progression. Carlos Nakai:  Carlos Nakai

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