50 %
50 %
Information about wkonept2

Published on December 11, 2007

Author: Alfanso

Source: authorstream.com

Aftermath of Revolt:  Aftermath of Revolt By 1856 most of British India had taken shape In 1857 there was a major uprising when a group of principalities in north and central India joined forces with historical enemies in the west to try and overthrow the growing British East India company control over the Indian subcontinent They took advantage of a revolt among Indian soldiers of the East India Company, called Sepoys The defeat of this last great military threat inaugurated a period of stable British empire Political Units in the late 19th century:  Political Units in the late 19th century In 1858 when India came directly under the rule of the British crown, there were three kinds of provinces 1 Presidencies: Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay 2 Chief Commissioner Provinces: Panjab, Central India, Northwest Provinces & Avadh, and Northwest Frontier Provinces 3 Princely States Agrarian Changes :  Agrarian Changes Arable land in the presidency areas had been controlled by landed magnates of various sizes and dubious antiquity Many of these local lords had enhanced their economic and political power in their regional polities at the expense of tribute and service to previous empires and rulers declining with the onset of British dominance Colonial Imperatives:  Colonial Imperatives Extension of agriculture Maximization of land revenues Establishment of effective road and rail communications (from the 1850s) Extraction of raw materials, commercial crops, and labor power in service of British industrialization and trade monopolies in manufactured goods and food products Forms of Intensification in Colonial Government:  Forms of Intensification in Colonial Government Spread of elaborate policies of agrarian reform with a view to providing incentives for agricultural intensification – different land settlements in different provinces Forced conversion of large areas to plantation crops like indigo, spices, coffee, tea; and commercial crops like sugarcane, cotton, and staple cereals – wheat, rice, maize Related destruction of rural industries to promote markets for English manufactures Related social policies:  Related social policies Expansion of educational opportunities for upper class and high-caste Indians in the presidency areas Massive vertical integration of government structures with spread of white collar jobs for English-educated Indians, often moving from the Presidencies into the hinterland Cautious approach to social reform Intimations of Unrest:  Intimations of Unrest A rapidly growing Indian professional class of lawyers, doctors, civil servants, teachers, journalists, and business people got involved in local government in different provinces These educated elites became well acquainted with the workings of British democracy and political debates in England and Ireland They began to aspire for political participation in the colonial government of India Emerging Political Formations:  Emerging Political Formations British Indian Associations from 1851 onwards The Indian National Congress in 1885 The All India Muslim League in 1906 Various regional, caste based, and religious organizations with different degrees of social reformist and political agendas were created in the late 19th and early 20th century Literary guilds, social service leagues, bar associations, and education societies also came about in the same period Economic Changes and Political Awareness:  Economic Changes and Political Awareness Commercialization of agriculture had increased disparities between rich and poor in the countryside by 1900. This polarization of rural society also created a vocal and powerful rich peasantry and growing conflicts between different segments of rural society. Rural debt and landlessness grew, but labor absorption in industry and services was limited by the poor rate of growth in these sectors till 1917 Agitations and Protests:  Agitations and Protests After the ill-fated partition of Bengal in 1905, political agitation grew more frequent and more violent Restive urban educated youth complained about economic exploitation and racist attitudes Organized political elites were quick to point to discrepancies between British claims of rule by law and the actual injustices perpetrated by the colonial government Gradual Reforms :  Gradual Reforms Between 1909 and 1935, the colonial government introduced a spate of reforms to expand the inclusion of educated Indians in political office by limited election and mostly by nomination Economic reforms, following the first world war, introduced policies to encourage Indian industrialization and banking services In agriculture, simple extension of cultivation and forced extraction of value gave way to investments in irrigation, better seed stock, and improved cultivation techniques, including land development The Congress and Gandhi:  The Congress and Gandhi As political and economic reforms spread, so did political mobilization Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1911 and joined the Indian National Congress, becoming its undisputed leader by 1920 He launched a series of successful mass movements from 1921 that transformed the party of urban middle class reformists into freedom-demanding fighters with a large rural following Mass Movements and their Agendas:  Mass Movements and their Agendas Identifying the complaints of farmers and cultivators, and including them in the political platform of the Congress Protesting high land revenues, trade and market restrictions, limitations on the productive capacity of burgeoning Indian industries Expanded political participation in colonial government at all levels Freedom movements and their umbrella character:  Freedom movements and their umbrella character Notice that the Congress rarely raised issues that exacerbated class conflict or regional tensions The need to generate mass followings provoked certain idioms of protest and certain principles of mobilization But the Congress was always at pains to overcome religious, class, and linguistic divisions in its coalitions Mass contact and the problem of religious identities:  Mass contact and the problem of religious identities You will find inter-religious conflict in India referred to as communalism This phenomenon came to be an obdurate problem for Indian nationalists after the rise of Gandhi’s mass mobilizations Tensions between Congress and Muslim League grew with each successful movement after 1932 and led to the partition of the country along with independence in 1947 Communalism:  Communalism In its common Indian usage, communalism refers to the condition of suspicion, fear and hostility between members of different religious communities. In academic investigations the term is applied to organized political movements based on the proclaimed interests of a religious community. Competing definitions of communalism:  Competing definitions of communalism For Bipan Chandra, the important Marxist historian of India, communalism was the belief that ‘because people have the same religion, they also have common social, political, and economic interests’. Colonial officials used it to refer to fundamental irrationality and religious bigotry that they perceived in India. To them communalism was like tribalism or factionalism, that emerges spontaneously and even primordially in the midst of self-identifying communities Colonialism and Social Order in India:  Colonialism and Social Order in India Religious, caste, language, and racial stereotypes crystallized in the late nineteenth century These were often direct off-shoots of colonial attempts to describe and understand the bewildering diversity of social stratification and networks in India Censuses, ethnological surveys, cartography, and various cameral sciences provided technologies of classification and reification that were used by the colonial government Categorical Identities:  Categorical Identities Many of these social group identities that emerged in the 19th century were not invented by the colonial rulers (see your Ludden reading) But deployed in particular ways, these identities became vehicles for groups to seek and obtain opportunities, recognition, and rights. Over time they hardened to construct the social fabric of twentieth century India in terms of status distinctions and unevenly distributed resources mapped on identities emerging from colonial rule Examples of Uneven Development:  Examples of Uneven Development The spread of commercial and plantation agriculture displaced many agro-pastoral communities from their lands and led to the re-engineering of landscapes into forests and fields Small farmers and tribal communities were either dislocated and marginalized, or integrated into larger commodity production with loss of control over their lives and crops Early protests:  Early protests The rapid increase in the incidence of famines in the nineteenth century signaled the distress of agricultural communities across the country A series of peasant revolts emerged against high taxes, insecure tenure, forced labor, and the breakdown of social safety nets created in earlier feudalistic polities Colonial responses anticipated patterns of rural investment and property-rights reforms that we witness in later periods in the form of rural development or agricultural modernization

Add a comment

Related presentations