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Published on November 25, 2008

Author: Ms.safizadeh

Source: authorstream.com

WIRELESS MONITORING IN AGRICULTURE : WIRELESS MONITORING IN AGRICULTURE INSTRUMENTATION MEASUREMENT & CONTROL M. Safizadeh Why Wireless ? : Why Wireless ? Boston central telephone station at 40 Pearl Street after the blizzard of 1881 Slide 3: Wireless Revolution Current wireless technologies : Current wireless technologies 1. Bluetooth 2. WiFi 3. ZigBee Bluetooth : Bluetooth Bluetooth is a device that categorized in IEEE family and assigned as IEEE 802.15.1.By the history of Bluetooth technology, it is actually a standard of wireless communications between devices in a personal area network (PAN) using a radio frequency for a short range and the range of the distance is approximate 10 meters long. It is basically used to handle a variety of tasks ranging from cell phones to PDA communications which have quality of service suitable for voice communications. There a two devices that follow the standard and it can communicate and exchange data between them. A group of Bluetooth actually a device of a mobile phone, a digital camera, a hand held devices and so on. It can be instantly form a network of switched it into each other’s as soon as possible as we can. Besides that, it also has a mobile phone in our pocket and sends a mail using a laptop without making any connection through or between laptop and the mobile. WiFi : WiFi WIFI or Wireless Fidelity refers as a technology surrounding the radio transmission of the internet protocol data from an internet connection wirelessly to a host computer. Most of the internet connection is a higher speed one such as satellite, DSL or cable rather than slower dial up connections. It is essentially a wireless connection between computer and the internet connection such as DSL router or a cable modem. The earliest companies propose and promote this technologies is a Apple Computer where they using a WIFI transmitter called Airport. This company actually made a connecting wirelessly to the internet from most anywhere in a simple life in the house. Today, this technology has been growth slightly and majority of laptop or notebook computers in the market today was built in with this technology to make an ease to consumer to search an internet at any location. Not only available for the home but it also referred to as WiFi hotspots. Actually, these are usually used in public areas such as in coffee shops or fast food restaurants in town. Here, the WiFi signal is really easy to get a network because the price is so low. ZigBee : ZigBee ZigBee technology is a low data rate, low power consumption, low cost wireless networking protocol targeted towards automation and remote control applications. IEEE 802.15.4 committee started working on a low data rate standard a short while later. Then the ZigBee Alliance and the IEEE decided to join forces and ZigBee is the commercial name for this technology. ZigBee is expected to provide low cost and low power connectivity for equipment that needs battery life as long as several months to several years but does not require data transfer rates as high as those enabled by Bluetooth. In addition, ZigBee can be implemented in mesh networks larger than is possible with Bluetooth. Comparison : Comparison Sensor : Sensor Light Sensor : Light Sensor Slide 11: Accurate Measurement Air-temperature Humidity Sampling Gas (CO2, NOx, SOx) Insects Microbes Virus Dusts Cooling specification : specification Web server DDS (1 Hz – 70 MHz) 24bit-AD converter (8 ch) 10bit AD converter (8 ch) 10bit DA converter (1 ch) Power photo MOS relay(2 ch) Serial I/O (RS-232C) DC-DC converter (in: 4-34 V, out: 5 V) Slide 13: Measurement by DDS Type Slide 14: FPAA Field Programmable Analog Array 20 OP-AMP Resistor Capacitor Cross-bar Switch Multiplier Soil-moisture sensor EC sensor Plant moisture sensor Humidity sensor pH,Pressure,Acceleration Infrared-Visible LED/LD Photo sensor Microphone sensor Speaker emitter RF antenna Slide 15: The temperature sensor and the humidity sensor together form a single unit. This also enables an accurate and point-precise determination of the dew point, without incurring errors due to temperature gradients between the humidity and the temperature sensors. Through the unique linkage of these sensor elements with the signal amplifier unit, the analog-to-digital converter, the calibration data memory, as well as the digital, bus-ready interface, all on a surface area of a few square millimeters. Sensors: T & RH from Sensirion AG Slide 16: Sensors Wireless Application : Wireless Application Weather station : Weather station ET (Penman) Radiation Wind Rain T & H Soil temp Leaf wetness Enable use of the actual/historical data to plan irrigation strategy for future situations Slide 20: Field station transmitter Reliable and simple Built-in battery for 5 year No external antenna Range – max :1-4 km Frequency: 150 – 600 MHz Built-in interface for: Three Tensiometers Three TDT Soil moisture Water meter / tipping bucket Weather station Other digital or analog inputs 150~600 MHz Principles of Operation : Principles of Operation Data is sampled every 15 minutes and transmitted every 30 minutes to the base station. Wireless data transfer from the sensors to the collector or a PC Downloading the data from the collector or the PC via telephone line or cellular Data processing and presentation for decision-making in real time Data collecting for historical analyses and research Wireless data transfer : Wireless data transfer Sending range: Up to 1– 4 km Extending the Transmitting Range via the Repeater : Extending the Transmitting Range via the Repeater Range: Up to 7– 10 km Repeater range 1- 4 km Remote accesses to data : Remote accesses to data Local PC FieldCollector Telephone line Cellular

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