Wing and Rotor Presentation Friday AM

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Information about Wing and Rotor Presentation Friday AM

Published on April 24, 2008

Author: Ulisse


Radiological Response: Myth vs. Reality:  Radiological Response: Myth vs. Reality James Barnes Certified Health Physicist Chairperson, Homeland Security Committee, Health Physics Society Bobbie Walton Governor’s Office of Emergency Services State of California Health Physics Society Homeland Security Committee:  Health Physics Society Homeland Security Committee Radiation and the First Responder:  Radiation and the First Responder Visualizing Radiation:  Visualizing Radiation For best viewing, turn brightness and contrast on the monitor to maximum values Average Exposures From Background Radiation:  Average Exposures From Background Radiation Average Exposure: 0.360 rem/year Slide6:  Radiation Risk – High Dose Radiation Risk – Low Dose:  Radiation Risk – Low Dose In our society, about 20% of the population will die of cancer. In 10,000 people, this means that 2,000 will die from cancer. If 10,000 people were to be given 1 REM of radiation, statistics suggest that 2,004 will die of cancer. This suggests that the risk of excess cancer deaths is increased by a factor of about 0.0004 per rem. Myth 1:  Myth 1 Radiation is so deadly that an attack using radioactive materials will kill thousands of people. Slide9:  The Goiania Experience (Sept, 1987) Rozental, J. J. Radiological Accident in Goiana - An Overview. Slide10:  The Goiania Experience A mothballed tele-therapy irradiator was present in an abandoned hospital building. Two men decided to “mine” the metal in the irradiator. The unit (containing 1400 curies of Cs-137) was dismantled. The source capsule was ruptured and the cesium was released. The “glowing crystals” (due the the extremely high radioactivity of the material) was taken home and shared with family and friends. There was widespread contamination of the neighborhood. Slide11:  Initial Response 112,000 people (10 % of Goiania’s population) were surveyed at an Olympic Stadium. 250 were identified as contaminated 50 contaminated people were isolated in a camping area inside the Olympic Stadium for more detailed screening 20 people were hospitalized or transferred to special housing with medical and nursing assistance 8 patients transferred to the Navy Hospital in Rio de Janeiro Residential contamination survey was initiated Slide12:  Early Consequences Widespread contamination of downtown Goiania 85 residences found to have significant contamination (41 of these were evacuated and a few were completely or partially demolished) People cross-contaminated houses 100 miles away Hot Spots at 3 scrap metal yards and one house Slide13:  Radiation Injuries and Uptakes 4 fatalities (2 men, 1 woman and 1 child) 28 patients had radiation induced skin injuries (they held/played with the source for extended periods) 50 people had internal deposition (ingestion) Slide14:  The Goiania Experience (cont.) Significant psychological consequences amongst the population such as fear and depression. Discrimination against the victims and key products of local economy Psychomatic illnesses related to the accident stress. In first 60,000 monitored individuals; 5,000 presented symptoms consistent with Acute Radiation Syndrome (i.e, rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, etc.). Of these 5,000 persons, NONE were contaminated. Salter (citing Peterson in Nuclear News; 1988). Helping to Prevent Terror Following A Radiological Incident. HPS Annual Meeting; 2001. Slide15:  Conclusions Long and expensive clean-up effort. Profound psychological effects such as fear and depression on large populations Isolation and boycott of goods by neighbors The Reality::  The Reality: The primary effect of this dispersed radioactivity was psychological and sociological, not radiological. The true radiation effects were limited to those in the immediate vicinity of the source remnants: They were exposed the longest They were closest to the source material They had little protection from the source The “Radiation” Terrorist:  The “Radiation” Terrorist Slide18:  The term "terrorism" means an activity that -- The Nuclear Weapon:  The Nuclear Weapon Slide21:  What was your reaction to that last slide? Myth 2:  Myth 2 Nobody can survive the aftermath of a nuclear weapon. There is so much radiation that it will scorch the earth. Slide23:  Blast and Fire create high levels of destruction Slide25:    The process (nuclear fission), creates radioactive materials and distributes them over a wide area (“fallout”). Slide27:    The Reality:  The Reality Terrorists do not have thermonuclear weapons. They may have small yield nuclear (fission) weapons. The levels of an atomic weapon’s dispersion are NOT as severe as a hydrogen bomb’s, and CAN be survived. While such an attack would be devastating, it does not create an inescapable environment in the surrounding areas (i.e., survive the blast, and you have a good chance of escaping). With proper planning and preparation, people can escape from fallout affected areas without incurring serious exposures. Radiological Dispersal Device:  Radiological Dispersal Device Myth 3:  Myth 3 Thousands will die if a “dirty bomb” is exploded in a major city. Slide31:  Radioactive Material High Explosive The Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Slide32:  Detectable Ground Contamination Can be Found Miles Downwind ≥ 0.2 uCi/m2 Can be detected with thin window G-M meter ≥ 2 uCi/m2 Can be detected with dose rate meter Slide33:  Despite Widespread Contamination, There Are Relatively Small Exposures ≥1 REM EPA Shelter Area Less than 0.1 miles downwind 0.01 – 0.1 REM out to 2 miles [Dose similar to a chest x ray or ~30% of natural background] Slide34:  Release: 1.3 KCi CS-137 RDD with 5 lbs HE 4-Day Dose (Internal + External) Evacuation/Relocation PAG Los Angeles Example: EPA PAG Would Recommend Shelter/Evacuation of a Few Residential Blocks Release location: Burbank Police Department 34 10' 60"N, 118 18' 31"W 100% Aerosolized release fraction Normal summertime west-northwest winds, 10-12 mph. Map size: 6 x 6 km HYPOTHETICAL The Reality:  The Reality The Dirty Bomb is a weapon of mass disruption, not mass destruction. It is effective to the degree that it would: Deny area access Induce psychological stress in a population Create economic disruption Slide36:  What Will You Need to Know? Know the Basics About Radiation:  Know the Basics About Radiation Lack of trained personnel is the primary reason for loss of control of radiation / radioactive environments Responders FEAR radiation about as much as the public Training should be tailored to the mission / scope of the responder (Firefighter vs. EMT vs. Haz Mat’l Team) Where do you get this information?:  Where do you get this information? Where do you get this information?:  Where do you get this information? Many local HPS Chapters will provide training (general or specific) as a public service (especially to small (poor) organizations). Where do you get this information?:  Where do you get this information? Know Your Response Mission Precisely:  Know Your Response Mission Precisely Examples: Fire fighters: Set Perimeter; Recover Victims Police: Secure Perimeter / Scene Investigation FBI: Scene Management Red Cross (and others): Mass Shelter and Feeding EMTs / Medical: Victim Triage and Medical Services Management Each Mission Requires a Different Radiation Protection Approach Where do you get this information?:  Where do you get this information? Where do you get this information?:  Where do you get this information? Where do you get this information?:  Where do you get this information? Obtain and Maintain Instruments:  Obtain and Maintain Instruments “Simple” works Match the Instrument to the Mission Dose Rate instrument for scene entry Contamination instruments for perimeters No one instrument does it all Cover a range of levels / doses Dose Rates: 0.010 – 50,000 millirem Contamination: 100 – 100,000 dpm Keep them working and calibrated Can I get instruments with no budget?:  Can I get instruments with no budget? Know Your Radiation Exposure Limits for a Terrorist Scene:  Know Your Radiation Exposure Limits for a Terrorist Scene What is a “safe” dose level for a member of the public? What dose level should a responder not exceed? What dose level would make a rescue too dangerous to attempt? When would the dose levels apply? These levels should be formally described. If you’re trying to figure this out AT THE SCENE, it’s TOO LATE! “Emergency” Limits:  “Emergency” Limits No dose: Anecdotally reported to be the limit in several U.S. cities 100 mrem: Limit listed for first responders in several emergency response guidance documents (some in draft stage) 5,000 mrem: OSHA limit, (first responders to be engaged in occupational exposure in an emergency scenario) 10,000 mrem: EPA guidance for property protection 25,000 mrem: EPA guidance for lifesaving activities 50,000 mrem: NCRP Report 138 75,000 mrem: “Old” military limit for lifesaving activities No upper limit: Draft ICRP Guidance for lifesaving activities Know Where to Get Expert Help:  Know Where to Get Expert Help Local Radiation Regulatory Organizations (City, County, State) Federal Organizations with Radiation Expertise (NRC, DOE, EPA) Local Professional Societies (Health Physics Society Chapters, Medical Physicists, Radiation Oncologists, etc.) Do it NOW! Don’t wait until the event happens! RAP Team Configuration:  RAP Team Configuration Each region has a minimum of 3 teams RAP teams consist of trained employees from DOE and DOE contractors/facilities Each team consists of 9 members; one Team Leader, one Public Information Officer, one Team Captain, one Senior Scientist, and five Health Physics Survey/Support personnel Additional personnel are available, such as industrial hygienists, transportation specialists, logistics support, etc. Standard Response Equipment:  Standard Response Equipment Alpha Detection Beta Detection Gamma Detection Neutron Detection Gamma spectroscopy systems (NaI and HPGe) Air samplers (high and low volume) RAP Regional Contact Numbers:  RAP Regional Contact Numbers Region 1, Brookhaven Area Office (631) 344-2200 Region 2, Oak Ridge Operations Office (865) 576-1005 Region 3, Savannah River Operations Office (803) 725-3333 Region 4, NNSA Service Ctr. Albuquerque (505) 845-4667 Region 5, Chicago Operations Office (630) 252-4800 Region 6, Idaho Operations Office (208) 526-1515 Region 7, Livermore Site Office (925) 422-8951 Region 8, Richland Operations Office (509) 373-3800 DOE HQ (202) 586-8100 Any Questions?:  Any Questions?

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