Published on December 4, 2016
1. WINDOWS AND STAIRCASE HARPREET KAUR A2180315058
2. WINDOWS A window is a transparent or a translucent opening in a wall or door that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound. Windows are held in place by frames, which prevent them from collapsing in.
3. TYPES OF WINDOW Pivoted window Dormer window Skylight PVC window
4. PIVOTED WINDOW A window having a section which is pivoted near the center so that the top of the section swings in and the bottom swings out. A window that opens by pivoting either horizontally or vertically. The frame has no rebate.
5. DORMER WINDOW Such types of windows are provided on the inclined roofs of the buildings. They provide air and light to the room constructed within the space of the roof slopes.
6. SKYLIGHT This type of window is fixed on the sloping surface of an inclined roof. It is meant to admit light into the room and generally fixed glass pans to cover it. Reinforced or ribbed glass is preferred. A curb frame is provided with the common rafter to support the windows.
7. CLERE STOREY WINDOW These are provided in a room which has greater ceiling height than the surrounding rooms.
8. PVC WINDOW PVC windows are relatively new, having only been introduced during the last 25 years. These windows are extruded from high-impact resistant polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC windows have excellent weathering characteristics, are almost maintenance-free and have excellent resistance to heat loss.
9. Originally used primarily in renovation because PVC lends itself to non-standard size production, PVC windows are rapidly increasing in the new construction market as well. PVC is available in several extruded colours. Special painted coatings have been developed to expand the range of colours available.
10. WINDOW MATERIALS Windows are made from wood, aluminum, PVC, fiberglass, or from a combination of these materials.
11. WOOD WINDOWS Wood windows are warm, traditional and aesthetically pleasing. Because it is a good insulator, wood does not become cold like metal and glass. Wood is treated with preservatives to prevent rotting. Wood windows can be painted on the exterior, or clad with aluminum or PVC profiles for better weathering and reduced maintenance.
12. ALUMINUM WINDOWS Aluminum windows are more durable than wood, and are thinner, lighter, and easier to handle. But aluminum is a poor insulator and in cold weather, and loses more heat to the exterior than wood.
13. FIBERGLASS WINDOWS Fiberglass windows are the latest window products to be developed. The shapes are formed by special technique called pultrusion,whereby the glass fibers are pulled through dies rather than pushed through an extruder (as PVC is extruded). Fiberglass and PVC lineals look similar a first glance, however, fiberglass is much more rigid than PVC.
15. Medium of travel which connects two consecutive horizontal surfaces. A complete arrangement of steps, stringers, newel posts, hand rails, balusters, etc. Easy and quick access to different floors with comfort and safety.
16. CLASSIFICATION OF STAIRCASE STRAIGHT STAIRS
17. DOG LEGGED STAIRS
18. QUARTER TURN NEWEL STAIRS
19. BIFURCATED STAIRS SPIRAL STAIRS
20. Staircase made up of: Wooden staircase Stone staircase Metal staircase Reinforced concrete staircase(RCC)
21. WOODEN STAIRS An extremely popular and evergreen staircase material is wood The beauty of wooden staircase is that it can adapt to any style of interiors; be it traditional, contemporary, rustic, or any other.
22. STONE STAIRS One of the most common staircase materials is stone. Stone offers variety in color and texture; and looks amazing as a staircase material. For interiors, stones like marble and granite are widely used as a cladding material for concrete and brick staircase. It lends the interiors a touch of luxury.
23. METAL STAIRS Though not very popular, metal staircase is a great option for space constrained interiors. It is strong and hard wearing but scores low on aesthetics.
24. REINFORCED CONCRETE STAIRCASE (RCC) Reinforced concrete is perhaps the most suitable of all the said materials for the construction of stairs. The various advantages of reinforced concrete stairs are given below - They have requisite fire resisting qualities to a great extent . They are durable strong pleasing in appearance and can be easily rendered non-slippery.
25. They can be designed for greater widths, longer spans and any height. They can be moulded in any desired form to suit the requirements of the architect. They can be easily cleaned.