Published on September 9, 2015
1. ` BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development Wind Energy in Context of India Assignment Report BHUPENDRA PRATAP SINGH (2013BPLN010) 9/7/2015
2. Wind Energy in Context of India BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development | Bhupendra Pratap Singh (2013BPLN010) 2 Introduction Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. The earth’s surface is made of different types of land and water. These surfaces absorb the sun’s heat at different rates, giving rise to the differences in temperature and subsequently to winds. During the day, the air above the land heats up more quickly than the air over water. The warm air over the land expands and rises, and the heavier, cooler air rushes in to take its place, creating winds. At night, the winds are reversed because the air cools more rapidly over land than over water. In the same way, the large atmospheric winds that circle the earth are created because the land near the earth's equator is heated more by the sun than the land near the North and South Poles. Humans use this wind flow for many purposes: sailing boats, pumping water, grinding mills and also generating electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the moving wind into electricity. Global Growth of Wind Energy The wind is one of the cleanest sources of energy, and because it is a naturally generated resource, it is also the most abundant energy source on the planet today. Wind power is energy that is created through the conversion of wind into forms that are more practically useful, such as electricity. Wind energy is currently supplying as much as 1% of the world’s electricity use , however the power of wind energy could potentially supply as much as 20% of global electricity. Wind energy is the most easily accessed form of energy today, and it is also the cleanest which makes it an affordable and the most feasible option towards making our earth a greener place.
3. Wind Energy in Context of India BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development | Bhupendra Pratap Singh (2013BPLN010) 3 2014 was a record year for the wind industry as annual installations crossed the 50 GW marks for the first time. More than 51 GW of new wind power capacity was brought on line, a sharp rise in comparison to 2013, when global installations were just over 35.6 GW. The previous record was set in 2012 when over 45 GW of new capacity was installed globally. Indian Wind Energy In the early 1980’s, the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES) came into existence with the aim to reduce the dependence of primary energy sources like coal, oil etc in view of the Country’s energy security. The DNES became Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in the year 1992 and now from 2006, the Ministry was renamed as Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE). The growth of Renewable Energy in India is enormous and Wind Energy proves to be the most effective solution to the problem of depleting fossil fuels, importing of coal, greenhouse gas emission, environmental pollution etc. Wind energy as a renewable, non-polluting and affordable source directly avoids dependency of fuel and transport, can lead to green and clean electricity. With an installed capacity of 21136.3 MW (March 2014) of wind energy, Renewable Energy Sources (excluding large Hydro) currently accounts for 13.86 % of India’s overall installed power capacity of 228721.73 MW. Wind Energy holds the major portion of 66.7 % (of 31707.2 GW total RE capacity) among renewable and continued as the largest supplier of clean energy.
4. Wind Energy in Context of India BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development | Bhupendra Pratap Singh (2013BPLN010) 4 In its 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017), the Indian Government has set a target of adding 18.5 GW of renewable energy sources to the generation mix out of which 11 GW is the Wind estimation and rest from renewable sources like Solar 4 GW and others 3.5 GW. (Source:Reportof the WorkingGroup on PowerforTwelfthPlan2012-17, Govt.of India,Ministryof Power) Fuel Megawatt % Average Total Thermal 1,91,664 69.5 Coal 167,708 60.8 Gas 22,962 8.3 Oil 994 0.4 Hydro (Renewable) 41,997 15.2 NuclearPower 5,780 2.1 Renewable EnergySources 36,471 13.2 Total 2,75,912
5. Wind Energy in Context of India BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development | Bhupendra Pratap Singh (2013BPLN010) 5 Geographic Locationand Wind Potential The potential is far from exhausted. It is estimated that with the current level of technology, the ‘on- shore’ potential for utilization of wind energy for electricity generation is of the order of 65,000 MW. India also is blessed with 7517km of coastline and its territorial waters extend up to 12 nautical miles into the sea. The unexploited resource availability has the potential to sustain the growth of wind energy sector in India in the years to come.
6. Wind Energy in Context of India BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development | Bhupendra Pratap Singh (2013BPLN010) 6 Wind energy as job generator Wind energy utilization creates many more jobs than centralized, non-renewable energy sources. Wind Energy companies have opened up huge career options. Also the ease and accessibility of manufacturing technology has given entrepreneurs with new business options to venture in. The wind sector worldwide has become a major job generator: Within only three years, the wind sector worldwide almost doubled the number of jobs from 235,000 in 2005 to 440,000 in the year 2008. These highly skilled employees are contributing to the generation of 260 TWh of electricity. India in the windy world In 2008, India shared 6.58% of total wind energy installed capacity around the world, according to World Wind Energy Report-2008. According to GSR-2011, the world witnessed highest renewable energy installations through wind energy. Total installed capacity of wind energy reached 198GW by the end of 2010. India ranked third in the world in annual capacity additions and fifth in terms of total wind energy installed capacity. India has been able to fast pace its growth in wind energy installations and bring down costs of power production. Positive Aspects ofWind Energy Wind energy produces no greenhouse gases. Wind power plants can make a significant contribution to the regional electricity supply and to power supply diversification. A very short lead time for planning and construction is required as compared to conventional power projects. Wind energy projects are flexible with regard to an increasing energy demand - single turbines can easily be added to an existing park. Finally, wind energy projects can make use of local resources in terms of labour, capital and materials. Can be used for both distributed generation or grid interactive power generation using on-shore or off shore technologies. Ranges of power producing turbines are available. Micro-turbines are capable of producing 300W to 1MW and large wind turbines have typical size of 35kW-3MW.
7. Wind Energy in Context of India BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development | Bhupendra Pratap Singh (2013BPLN010) 7 Wind turbine is suitable to install in remote rural area, water pumping and grinding mills etc. Disadvantages The total cost can be cheaper than solar system but more expensive than hydro. Electricity production depends on- wind speed, location, season and air temperature. Hence various monitoring systems are needed and may cost expensive. High percentage of the hardware cost (for large WT) is mostly spent on the tower designed to support the turbine. State Wise InstalledWind Capacity A notable feature of the Indian program has been the interest among private investors/developers in setting up of commercial wind power projects. Several companies have established themselves in wind technology manufacturing. The gross potential is 48,561 MW (source C-wet) and a total of about 14,158.00 MW of commercial projects have been established until March 31, 2011. All projects installed in India are listed on this page. The break-up of projects implemented in prominent wind potential states (as on March 31, 2011) is as given below: State Gross Potential (MW) Total Capacity (MW) till 31.03.2011 Andhra Pradesh 8968 200.2 Gujarat 10,645 2175.6 Karnataka 11,531 1730.1 Kerala 1171 32.8 Madhya Pradesh 1019 275.5 Maharashtra 4584 2310.7 Orissa 255 - Rajasthan 4858 1524.7 Tamil Nadu 5530 5904.4 Others - 4 Total 48,561 14,158
8. Wind Energy in Context of India BPLN0507 - Sustainable Urban Development | Bhupendra Pratap Singh (2013BPLN010) 8 Future Wind Power Plants in India 102.4 MW Sipla Wind Farm will be located at Jaisalmer District (Rajasthan) CLP 50.4 MW Narmada Wind Farm at Nallakonda (Andhra Pradesh),CLP 200 MW Wind Farm in Tamil Nadu by Techno Electric & Engineering Company Ltd (TEECL) Caparo is builing 500 MW Wind Farms in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra, has placed a $1.2 billion order with Suzlon. 56-megawatt Tuppadahalli wind farm by Acc India. 50MW wind farm Amreli district of Gujarat by Orient Green Power Company. 84 MW Wind Farm in Maharashtra by Orient Green Power Company. 33 MW wind farm Vellappaneri Wind Farm by Beta Wind Farm which is a 100 per cent subsidiary Orient Green Power. Conclusion For making a sustainable India Wind energy can play a important role as India having geographical condition which are favorable for implementing wind turbine, Also this sector provides a lots of jobs so it also provide employment. It provides better replacements for the non-renewable source of energy. Government also encouraging private sector to invest in this field so it also provide economic growth of the country as well as increasing the GDP of country. References http://www.indianwindpower.com http://www.ge.com/in/wind-energy/wind-turbines-in-india http://www.inwea.org/aboutwindenergy.htm http://www.gwec.net http://powermin.nic.in/power-sector-glance-all-india
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