wind

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Information about wind
Education

Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Urania

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  It Blows You Away Slide2:  "Coal, gas and oil will not be the three kings of the energy world for ever. It is no longer folly to look up to the sun and wind, down into the sea's waves" Introduction:  Introduction Slide4:  Energy is a major input for overall socio-economic development of any society The prices of the fossil fuels steeply increasing So renewables are expected to play a key role Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable Wind turbines are up to the task of producing serious amounts of electricity Principles:  Principles Uneven heating of earth’s surface and rotation:  Uneven heating of earth’s surface and rotation Beaufort Scale:  Beaufort Scale Velocity with Height :  Velocity with Height Power vs. Velocity:  Power vs. Velocity Lift and drag forces:  Lift and drag forces Solidity and Tip speed ratio:  Solidity and Tip speed ratio Performance co-efficient and Betz criterion:  Performance co-efficient and Betz criterion Potential:  Potential Slide15:  Huge potential exists Available potential can contribute five times the world energy demand 0.4% contribution to total energy Slide16:  Wind is currently the world’s fastest growing energy source Growth of Wind Energy:  Growth of Wind Energy MW Installed Year Wind Energy generating capacity by country, 1980-2003:  Wind Energy generating capacity by country, 1980-2003 Slide21:  Installed Capacity (MW) in 2005 Slide22:  Available potential in India Wind Power Density of India:  Wind Power Density of India Slide24:  All India Fuel wise Installed Capacity, 2004 Slide26:  State wise potential in India, 2005 Technology:  Technology Turbine Evolution:  Turbine Evolution Used for Pumping water Grinding grain Mainly used for Generating Electricity Types of turbines:  Types of turbines VAWT Drag is the main force Nacelle is placed at the bottom Yaw mechanism is not required Lower starting torque Difficulty in mounting the turbine Unwanted fluctuations in the power output Slide30:  HAWT Lift is the main force Much lower cyclic stresses 95% of the existing turbines are HAWTs Nacelle is placed at the top of the tower Yaw mechanism is required Two types of HAWT:  Two types of HAWT DOWNWIND TURBINE UPWIND TURBINE Slide32:  Counter Rotating HAWT Increase the rotation speed Rear one is smaller and stalls at high wind speeds Operates for wider range of wind speeds Offshore turbines:  Offshore turbines More wind speeds Less noise pollution Less visual impact Difficult to install and maintain Energy losses due long distance transport A Typical HAWT:  A Typical HAWT Turbine design and construction:  Turbine design and construction Blades Material used Typical length Tower height Heights twice the blade length are found economical Slide36:  Number of blades Three blade HAWT are most efficient Two blade turbines don’t require a hub As the number increases; noise, wear and cost increase and efficiency decreases Multiple blade turbines are generally used for water pumping purposes Slide37:  Rotational control Maintenance Noise reduction Centripetal force reduction Mechanisms Stalling Furling Slide38:  Yaw Mechanism To turn the turbine against the wind Yaw error and fatigue loads Uses electric motors and gear boxes Wind turbine safety Sensors – controlling vibrations Over speed protection Aero dynamic braking Mechanical braking Improvements:  Improvements Concentrators Future Wind Turbines:  Future Wind Turbines Wind Amplified Rotor Platform Disc type wind turbine:  Disc type wind turbine Much more efficient than HAWT Requires less height Low noise Works in any wind direction Economics:  Economics Determining Factors:  Determining Factors Wind Speed Turbine design and construction Rated capacity of the turbine Exact Location Improvements in turbine design Capital Wind Speed Matters:  Wind Speed Matters Assuming the same size project, the better the wind resource, the lower the cost. Size Matters:  Size Matters Assuming the same wind speed of 8.08 m/s, a large wind farm is more economical Overall cost distribution:  Overall cost distribution Break down of capital cost:  Break down of capital cost Energy Cost Trend:  Energy Cost Trend 1979: 40 cents/kWh Increased Turbine Size R&D Advances Manufacturing Improvements 2004: 3 – 4.5 cents/kWh 2000: 4 - 6 cents/kWh Typical cost statistics:  Typical cost statistics Size: 51 MW Wind Speed: 13-18 miles/hour Capital cost: $ 65 million ($1300/MW) Annual production: 150 million kW-hr Electricity costs: 3.6-4.5 cents Payback period: 20 years Economic Advantages:  Economic Advantages Slide51:  Greater fuel diversity No delay in construction Low maintenance costs Reliable and durable equipment Additional income to land owners More jobs per unit energy produced No hidden costs Future:  Future Wind Capital Cost:  Wind Capital Cost Cost of Wind Energy:  Cost of Wind Energy Germany now and 2020:  Germany now and 2020 At present 10% of the country’s energy is supplied by wind energy By 2020 it is expected to go up to 26% Australia now and 2040:  Australia now and 2040 So…..:  So….. Price of wind power is coming down There is enormous capacity Energy storage, however, is still a problem Typical Concerns:  Typical Concerns Slide61:  Visual impact Off shore turbines Arrangement Avian concerns Suitable choice of site Using tubular towers instead of lattice tower Using radars Slide62:  Noise Varies as 5th power of relative wind speed Streamlining of tower and nacelle Acoustic insulation of nacelle Specially designed gear box Use of upwind turbines Reducing angle of attack Low tip speed ratios Slide63:  Changes in wind patterns Reducing turbulence Intermittent Coupling with hydro or solar energy TV, microwave, radar interference Switching from conducting material to non-conducting and composite material Conclusion:  Conclusion Slide65:  Wind energy is pollution free and nature friendly Wind energy has very good potential and it is the fastest growing energy source The future looks bright for wind energy because technology is becoming more advanced and windmills are becoming more efficient THANK YOU:  THANK YOU Furling:  Furling

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