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Education

Published on January 28, 2008

Author: Manuele

Source: authorstream.com

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Chapter Fourteen:  Chapter Fourteen The Persuasive Speech Chapter Fourteen:  Chapter Fourteen Table of Contents What is Persuasive Speech? Classical Persuasive Appeals Contemporary Persuasive Appeals A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches* What Is Persuasive Speech?:  What Is Persuasive Speech? Persuasion The process of influencing attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior Persuasive speaking Speech that is intended to influence the beliefs, attitudes, values, and acts of others* What Is Persuasive Speech? Persuasive vs. Informative :  What Is Persuasive Speech? Persuasive vs. Informative The goal of the persuasive speech is to influence audience choices These choices may range from slight shifts in opinion to wholesale changes in behavior Persuasive speeches seek a response As with informative speeches, persuasive speeches respect audience choices* What Is Persuasive Speech? Persuasive Purposes:  What Is Persuasive Speech? Persuasive Purposes How can you determine whether your topic and goals are persuasive? When you seek to influence an audience’s attitudes about an issue When you seek to influence an audience’s beliefs or understanding about something When you seek to influence an audience’s behavior When you seek to reinforce an audience’s existing attitudes, beliefs or behaviors* What Is Persuasive Speech? The Process of Persuasion:  What Is Persuasive Speech? The Process of Persuasion When you speak persuasively, you try to guide the audience to adopt a particular attitude, belief, or behavior that you favor* What Is Persuasive Speech? The Process of Persuasion:  What Is Persuasive Speech? The Process of Persuasion Attitude A predisposition to respond to people, ideas, objects, or events in evaluative ways Beliefs The ways people perceive reality to be; our conceptions about what is true and what is false Values People’s most enduring judgements about what’s good and bad in life* What Is Persuasive Speech? The Process of Persuasion:  What Is Persuasive Speech? The Process of Persuasion Several factors that increase the odds that your efforts at persuasion will succeed: A message should meet the psychological needs of the audience Seek only minor changes in the audience’s attitudes Establish a common ground between yourself and the audience Leave your audience feeling satisfied and competent For change to endure, people must be convinced they will be rewarded in some way* Classical Persuasive Appeals:  Classical Persuasive Appeals According to Aristotle, persuasion could be brought about by the speakers use of three modes of rhetorical proof Rhetorical proof The speaker’s use of three modes of persuasion: the nature of the message, the audience’s feelings, and the personality of the speaker* Classical Persuasive Appeals: Logos:  Classical Persuasive Appeals: Logos Many persuasive speeches focus on serious issues requiring considerable thought Logos Refers to persuasive appeals directed at the audience’s reasoning on a topic* Classical Persuasive Appeals: Logos:  Classical Persuasive Appeals: Logos Syllogism A three-part argument consisting of a major premise or general case, a minor premise or specific case, and a conclusion Enthymeme A syllogism stated as a probability instead of an absolute; states either a major or minor premise but not both* Classical Persuasive Appeals: Pathos:  Classical Persuasive Appeals: Pathos Pathos involves an appeal to audience emotion Pathos As used by Aristotle in terms of persuasive appeals, the audience’s feelings* Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos:  Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos Ethos As used by Aristotle in terms of persuasive appeals, based on the nature of the speaker’s moral character and personality* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals These approaches include appealing to audience needs; audience attitudes, values, and behavior; the audience’s ways of processing messages; and the speaker-audience relationship* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Appeals to Audience Needs:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Appeals to Audience Needs Appealing to audience needs is one of the most commonly used strategies for motivating people Maslow’s hierarchy of needs A set of five basic needs ranging from the essential life-sustaining ones to the less critical self-improvement ones* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Motivating the Audience:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Motivating the Audience Physiological needs include needs for water, food and air Safety needs relate to feelings of security Social needs refer to the desire for meaningful relationships with others Self-Esteem needs reflect our desire to feel good about ourselves Self-Actualization needs refer to reaching your highest potential* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Targeting Behavior:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Targeting Behavior Expectancy-Outcome Values Theory A theory of persuasion; maintains that people consciously evaluate the potential costs and benefits, or value, associated with taking a particular action Attitudes consist of feelings about the behavior in question* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Targeting Behavior:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Targeting Behavior Subjective Norms are what audience members believe other people feel about the behavior in question Intentions relate to the audience members’ conscious choice to do or not to do the behavior in question Behavior is the action taken by the audience any time after the speech* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Making the Message Relevant:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Making the Message Relevant Elaboration Likelihood Model A theory that suggests people process persuasive messages by one of two mental routes (central processing or peripheral processing) depending on their degree of involvement in the message Central processing Listeners are influenced primarily by the strength and quality of the speaker’s arguments* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Making the Message Relevant:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Making the Message Relevant Peripheral Processing occurs when listeners lack the motivation or ability to pay close attention to the speaker’s issues and become influenced by non-content issues* Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Establishing Credibility:  Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Establishing Credibility The relationship between speaker and audience is a crucial element in planning and delivering persuasive speeches Credibility Audience perceptions of and attitudes toward the speaker’s perceived expertise, trustworthiness, similarity to audience members, and attractiveness* A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches:  A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches Motivated sequence An organizational pattern for planning and presenting persuasive speeches that involves five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action* A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 1: Attention:  A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 1: Attention A persuasive speech should begin by getting the audience’s attention The attention step addresses core concerns of the audience, making the speech highly relevant to them* A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 2: Need:  A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 2: Need The need step isolates and describes the issue to be addressed in the persuasive speech If you can show the audience that they have an important need that must be satisfied, they have a reason to listen to your propositions* A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 3: Satisfaction:  A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 3: Satisfaction The satisfaction step identifies the solution This step offers the audience a proposal to reinforce or change their attitudes, beliefs, and values regarding the need at hand* A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 4: Visualization:  A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 4: Visualization The purpose of the visualization step is to carry the audience beyond accepting the feasibility of your proposal to seeing how it will actually benefit them The visualization step invokes needs of self-esteem and self-actualization* A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 5: Action:  A Plan for Organizing Persuasive Speeches: Step 5: Action The action step involves making a direct request of the audience to act according to their acceptance of the message*

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