WillanS April2005

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Information about WillanS April2005
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Published on September 3, 2007

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Men, Women and HIV&AIDS: Power, Enforced Labour and Violence:  Men, Women and HIVandamp;AIDS: Power, Enforced Labour and Violence Presentation to: Centre for AIDS Research 27 April 2005 Samantha Willan VSO Policy Adviser (HIVandamp;AIDS) Samantha.willan@vso.org.uk Presentation Outline:  Presentation Outline Review the pandemic – in relation to women andamp; men Consider two studies VSO – AIDS Agenda UN Task Force in Southern Africa Reflect on what can be done. We know the Scale of the Pandemic:and its got a Female Face:  We know the Scale of the Pandemic: and its got a Female Face UNAIDS December 2004 Epidemic Update: Globally just under half HIV infections are female Sub-Saharan Africa, 57% of adults infected are female ¾ of all women with HIV live in this region South Africa, Zambia andamp; Zimbabwe 15-29 year old women 3 – 6 times more likely to be infected More then ¾ of young PLWA are women Lesotho, 2001, 96% of new infections among 10-19 year olds were female Only 10% pregnant women in Africa access PMTCT Despite this reality:  Despite this reality 'HIV prevention efforts do not take into account the gender and other inequalities that shape people’s behaviors and limit their choices' (UNAIDS AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2004, pp7-8) Challenge: need to develop our understanding of the gendered nature of this pandemic, and adjust responses where appropriate. Stephen Lewis 'It is a massacre of women in Africa. And while the pandemic currently has a female face, it is now beginning to erase that face of women in Africa.' VSO: AIDS Agenda:  VSO: AIDS Agenda Aim: To Understand (through evidence andamp; practical solutions): Overlap: lack of rights, gender inequalities andamp; HIVandamp;AIDS What needs to change to strengthen, policies andamp; implementation Five VSO Programmes andamp; Partners: India, Cameroon, Namibia, South Africa – Feb-May 2003 Bangladesh 2004/05 Stakeholder research, andamp; validation workshops VSO programmes (staff andamp; volunteers) andamp; partners Not comprehensive analysis, reflecting the issues that emerged and prioritized by stakeholders Gendering AIDS:women, men, empowerment, mobilisation:  Gendering AIDS: women, men, empowerment, mobilisation Position Paper Programme andamp; partner experiences influence strategic work Evidence-based lobby tool Recommendations aimed at: governments, donors, civil society, NGOs Influence programme work AIDS Agenda: Key Manifestations of Gender Inequality in relation to HIV&AIDS :  AIDS Agenda: Key Manifestations of Gender Inequality in relation to HIVandamp;AIDS Gender Violence: Sexual violence increases risk (frequency, biologically) Threat reduces ability to negotiate sex; 'Gang rapes in schools are an Epidemic' (Women’s Solidarity Namibia) Study 2000, 37,000 South Africa men: 1 in 4 forced sex by 18; 8 in 10 thought women responsible or partly responsible for sexual violence. Disclosure often leads to violence, very few shelters e.g. Gugu Dlamini stoned to death Durban HIV andamp; AIDS itself increasing violence, as men's fears and frustrations are taken out against partners AIDS Agenda cont…:  AIDS Agenda cont… Burden of Care – Forced Labour Women’s traditional role increasing - provide care and support Compounding burden and stereotypes 'Grandmothers are bearing the largest burden of the epidemic, especially as sick male members come back to be cared for, (in addition to OVC)' (VSO volunteer, Catholic AIDS Action, Namibia) Increased responsibilities increases vulnerability: 'If a women can’t feed herself, why would she worry about a disease that might kill her in ten year's time? If a client offers to pay twice as much for sex without a condom…' (Rep from Jagruti, India) AIDS Agenda cont…:  AIDS Agenda cont… Unequal rights to property: Fear of loss of property, reduces ability to negotiate sex; Even where legal protection andamp; rights, often cannot realise them Disclosure often leads to eviction Partners death, women evicted ‘Widow Inheritance’ AIDS Agenda cont…:  AIDS Agenda cont… Unequal Access to Treatment: Lack of access to OI’s and ARV’s India – 25% hospital beds women, pressure not to travel alone Roll out through public sector this is changing Economic Dependence and Poverty: 'If you want me to have sex with a condom, I won’t give you money for food' (husband told wife in South Africa.) AIDS Agenda cont…:  AIDS Agenda cont… Unequal Access to Appropriate Information (women and MSM): Due to both: lack of education andamp; cultural norms 'Cultural norms of sexual ignorance and purity for women block their access to prevention information. Due to lack of awareness… women have little ability to discuss or negotiate use of condoms, and previous/concurrent sexual contacts.' (Rakhi Sarkar, VSO, India) Nature of the delivery – Target groups become stigmatized e.g. sex workers and MSM Message must be clear andamp; accurate e.g. India UN Task Force on Women, Girls & HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa:  UN Task Force on Women, Girls andamp; HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa Prevention Marriage increases risk Inter-generational sex (older partner riskier) Transactional sex Girls education School as a protector Education as a social vaccine - Zambia 90% women with higher education discussed HIV prevention with sexual partner, 50% with no education Sometimes teachers re-enforce gender stereotypes Violence from male teachers – SA 33% rape under 15 years perpetrator teacher UN Secretary General’s Task force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. Fact Sheet: for all countries in Southern Africa, 2004. UN Task Force cont…:  UN Task Force cont… Violence Against Women and Girls Rife, often accepted - Malawi, 36% women believe men have right to beat them Condom use low Laws don’t always lead to change Few shelters and support groups Access to Care andamp; Treatment Few people access VCT, andamp; PMTCT Interesting change in accessing ARV’s from public sector UN Task Force cont…:  UN Task Force cont… Property andamp; Inheritance Women lose property andamp; home when widowed - Mozambique, 2000, 88% of cases to the Human Rights League women or children who lost homes after male died Often no legal rights - Lesotho women are minors; Swaziland And barriers to realising rights where they do exist - Botswana since 1970, but patriarchal practices prevail, Malawi introduced law Commission to protect women’s rights, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, UN Task Force cont…:  UN Task Force cont… Women’s Work Orphan care - grannies and girls Female-headed households care for more orphans, usually poorer Burden of care on women - SA carers lose 60% of time from other housework and subsistence gardening Volunteer charter: recognize andamp; protect rights VSO is working with UN to develop this charter What can be done?:  What can be done? VSO’s three-pronged approach: 1) Constructive involvement of men andamp; PLWHA’s 'Men should not think about what we stand to lose, but what we stand to gain.' Regional AIDS Initiative of Southern Africa (RAISA) conference delegate, Feb. 2003 2) Addressing immediate needs of women 3) Empowering women to attain equality Operating Principles:  Operating Principles All programmes andamp; research must include a full gender analysis of the different needs and roles of women andamp; men. Analyse the immediate needs andamp; causes Consider the needs of vulnerable men Recognize different needs and roles of men andamp; women - incorporate Prioritize training and support for front line staff to change delivery andamp; implementation Ensure HIVandamp;AIDS programmes do not increase burden of women Include PLWA’s - women andamp; men How do men and women experience HIVandamp;AIDS differently? What does this mean for our programmes? Constructive Involvement of Men:  Constructive Involvement of Men Identify and promote positive male role-models Pre-emptive, and supportive work with violent men Create space for men, and women, to behave differently e.g. caring roles; Cambodia – Khmer Codes Include men in a positive way, do not blame Understand the social context that men operate within e.g. truckers in India Address Immediate Needs:  Address Immediate Needs GBV - support women, shelters; create awareness among men andamp; women White Ribbon Campaign, Namibia Burden of Care –train andamp; support carers; recognize andamp; remunerate the work/forced labour; state take responsibility, engage men UN Volunteer charter; Padare, Zimbabawe Unequal Rights to Property – provide support, shelter for destitute women; lobby for legal changes; educate about legal reforms Information – ensure women have access to meaningful information; do not promote women as vectors of disease Empower Women: Address Inequalities:  Empower Women: Address Inequalities Address Policy andamp; Implementation Obstacles: Implementation of rights: CEDAW, Beijing, ICESCR 2005 – Key Opportunities to Lobby for Policy Change: MDG; UNGASS; G8 andamp; EU Presidency ARASA – Code on Equality for Women andamp; HIVandamp;AIDS Awareness andamp; training to realise rights: Service providers and women e.g. GBV, inheritance laws, rights guaranteed through international conventions and declarations Programmes: Involve men, avoid domination UN Volunteer Charter – proposed Ensure not exacerbating burden on women Address causes of inequity in programme work Conclusion:  Conclusion 'Strategically, women must be at the center of the response to HIV andamp; AIDS: tactically, men have to be involved to address both HIV andamp; AIDS and gender inequalities' Rakhi Sarkar, VSO India, 2003

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