Published on March 6, 2014
How a mobile first strategy can increase employee engagement february 2014
SUMMARY In this white paper imgZine analyzed two of its internal enterprise apps to determine the engagement level of employees. It shows that engaging internal enterprise apps can help enterprises achieve their desired business outcomes. Today, engaged employees are more 1. Introduction p.5 important than ever. They understand what it takes for a company to be successful and 2. What is employee engagement? p.7 want to be involved in the organization’s everyday affairs. While internal enterprise apps 3. Employee engagement in numbers p.9 offer a great opportunity to promote productivity and engagement, only a small number of 4. How mobile enterprise apps can increase engagement p.8 companies have started to leverage their benefits. 5. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) 5.1 Share, share and share imgZine’s data shows that employees are very loyal to their company, with 32% of employees visiting the app over 11 times. Furthermore, employees are engaged throughout the workday and want to stay up-to-date and connected even outside of working hours. While 39% of 6. The benefits of an enterprise news application p.9 p.10 p.11 7. Analyzing a mobile enterprise application p.12 7.1 App loyalty: do users visit the app multiple times? p.13 7.2 Are users engaged throughout the workday? p.13 application visits occur during working hours, 61% of users visit their enterprise app before or 7.3 What is the frequency of app visits? p.14 after their workday. The visiting frequency is high (within 2.5 days), articles are read carefully 7.4 Do users merely browse or read content? p.15 (48.5% of viewed articles are read) and readership levels remain stable (the average session 7.5 What is the average session length? p.16 length is 18 minutes). 7.6 Do personalized features affect user engagement? p.17 7.7 Do consumption patterns differ on tablets and smartphones? p.18 Data discussed in this paper also shows that relevant content recommendations have a positive impact on readership levels. While recommended articles are read by 75% of users, non-recommended articles are only read by 42% of users. Finally, results show that consumption patterns on tablets and smartphones are now more or less similar, suggesting that mobile device consumption patterns are no longer as clear-cut as they once were. Smartphones have become just as important as tablets to engage employees outside working hours, while tablets have become just as important as smartphones to engage employees during working hours. 8. Conclusion 9. imgZine for enterprise communications p.21 10. 9 reasons to go for imgZine’s enterprise news app p.22 References p.20 P.24
1. introduction Leaders often say employee engagement is fully integrated into their organization’s lexicon. This is actually quite different in practice. Only 13% of employees across 142 countries have expressed that they feel engaged in their jobs (Gallup 2013). While mobile enterprise applications offer a great opportunity to promote productivity and engagement, only a few companies are taking full advantage of the capabilities that mobile enterprise applications offer. This is interesting, because mobile browsing is projected to overtake desktop usage in 2014 (Richmond 2011) and the purchase of tablets by businesses will more than triple in four years, going from 13 million units in 2012 to 53 million units in 2016 (Gartner 2012). The benefits of mobile adoption for businesses are plentiful when companies succeed in engaging their employees. ImgZine delved into employee engagement on mobile devices to identify these key benefits. Figure 1 : Mobile browsing is set to overtake desktop internet usage by 2014 (Richmond 2011), is your business ready to go mobile? 5
2. What is employee engagement? 3. Employee engagement in numbers Employees can be happy, motivated, or engaged, but an optimal worker meets all three, An organization’s greatest asset is its people, but in reality, this is only true when says HR pro turned consultant Sharlyn Lauby (2012). Happiness is about satisfaction: employees are fully engaged with their jobs (Gallup 2013). Moreover, success does are employees happy at work? Motivation relates to their expectations: are they not only depend on employees that deal directly with customers. Every worker is getting what they expect in return for their efforts? Employee engagement, however, responsible for the customer experience. Research (Gallup 2013; Chui, M. et al. is different. Unlike happiness or motivation, engaged employees understand what it 2012) shows that employee engagement is strongly linked to business results that takes for the company to be successful. They want to be involved in the organization’s are essential to a company’s financial success. Work units in the top 25% of Gallup’s success and are willing to do what it takes to help their business get there. research database (2013) differ significantly from those in the bottom 25%. absenteeism Happy engaged motivated -37 High-turnover orgs. -25 tUrnover low-turnover orgs. -65 shrinkage -28 -48 safety incidents patient safety incidents eMpLOyEE ENGAGEMENT -41 quality (defects) -41 10 customer productivity Figure 2 : The employee engagement concept. 21 profitability 22 -70% -60% -50% -40%- 30% -20% -10% 0% 10%2 0% 30% From a physiological perspective, engaged employees work longer and have a better focus on organizational priorities than less engaged workers (MacCormick, J., Dery, K., Kolb, G. 2012). Engaged employees are also more productive - that is, if their Figure 3 : Engagement’s effect on key performance indicatiors: median differences between top- and bottom-quartile teams (Gallup 2013). organization provides the support, tools and technologies that they need. As these results show, companies with a critical number of engaged employees While new technologies and devices enable us to be connected anywhere and anytime, organizations still keep a distance between the workspace and the outside employees’ potential (Gallup 2013). Low engagement levels saw no competitive world (Boeyink 2013). As a result, employees may not be able to tap into their full advantages, and disengagement levels are even worse: For the U.S. alone, it is potential. They may feel less motivated and may lack the means to participate and estimated that active disengagement costs $450 billion to $550 billion per year. To communicate more openly with their colleagues. In other words, they may feel the sum up, engaged workers are most likely to drive the innovation, expansion and need to be more connected. 6 surpassed their competition, compared with those that did not maximize their revenue that their organizations desperately need. 7
4. How mobile enterprise apps can increase engagement 5. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) An Aberdeen Group study (2013) found significantly improved business performance Today, leaders cannot avoid to bring enterprise communications to mobile. Employees outcomes for all respondents with a mobile software initiative (MSI). For instance, will often bring their own smartphone and tablet with them, or companies will simply companies with a mobile app got over 50% higher numbers in employee satisfaction, provide one or subsidize their purchase and use (Udell 2013). Moreover, as employees workload completed on mobile, operational efficiency and employee productivity. spend more time with their own mobile device in and outside the office, it becomes more important for companies to ensure that they are able to work effectively and securely without putting customers or business data at risk (Forrester 2013). By bringing enterprise communications to mobile, leaders can encourage all employees to use their own device while using a secure platform. This is important, because mobile devices will likely become the world’s primary Internet browsing tool by 2020. Mobile devices are becoming a popular device for a diversity of work purposes for two main reasons. First, employees usually prefer to use their own device because they are often better than the devices provided by the company and they are able to use features that can improve their efficiency (Holtz 2013). Second, most people have an emotional attachment to their phones, and the feeling of being connected with others when they are on. When providing enterprise communications on mobile Figure 4 : Enterprise mobile apps have 2x performance advantage (Aberdeen Group 2012). devices, employees might feel this emotional connectivity with their company as well. Despite these advantages, many companies still do not have a solid internal communications plan that incorporates mobile. In fact, companies often fail to news, plans and other information can be shared among colleagues and is always promote internal communications altogether. According to Prescient Digital Media’s available on everyone’s mobile device”. In addition, mobile devices offer multiple social intranet study (2013), only 13% of employees participate in the social intranet chances to grab the attention of workers while they are on the move to a customer, on a daily basis, and 31% rarely or never do. Such results indicate that there must be having a break or are waiting for someone at the office (DronaMobile 2012). Companies a shift away from static, one-way communications towards a real-time and mobile that positively engage their workers through a mobile application are able to reap a dialogue. Two key digital developments strenghten this assumption: The Bring Your number of competitive advantages. The key to that advantage, however, is to ensure Own Device (BYOD) movement and social media. 8 According to Gallup (2013) “Mobile devices can be used to build a community where that employees are engaged users of the technology (MacCormick et al. 2012). 9
5.1 share, share and share As told before, successful companies need to involve employees in their success. They While it is difficult to know everything that is going on within a company, mobile need to provide the tools and knowledge for them to be successful, and start sharing devices can help your organization achieve these two crucial engagement factors. information openly within their organization. This need for open communications With a mobile platform, employees can be invited for events, join discussions, give is caused by digital developments such as social media. Customers expect brands feedback, and more (Drona Mobile 2012). to share everything and build a sense of community. Employees struggle with the same expectations with regards to their companies. However, social innovation is often not given enough attention within organizations, restricting employees’ sense of engagement and trust (Boeyink 2013). 6. The benefits of an enterprise news application Employees feel more connected to their colleagues when they are able to share company news - whether it is good or bad news. This is because when employees are In sum, a mobile enterprise app enables companies to: properly engaged in company processes such as decision making and goal setting, they feel they are an important part of the organization (Boeyink 2013). They want to know what is going on and feel connected with their company. In other words, they • Let employees work effectively and securely on their own device (BYOD); they work more effectively using the technology they feel more comfortable with need social innovation. There are two crucial factors to achieve this. (Gartner 2013). • Maximize the potential of engaged workers and give employees the knowledge and tools they need to be effective (Gallup 2013). • Create and facilitate a dialogue to achieve greater performance, increased revenue and higher productivity (Gallup 2013). The first factor is transparency. What are managers doing? What do they think about a situation? Organizations using social software report that their company’s activity stream is popular among employees. Some people even compare this intranet activity • Involve employees in their company’s success, because they feel the need to stream with Facebook’s news feed. With employees constantly able to see what their stay connected and share news with colleagues and customers before, during colleagues are doing, they feel more connected, and as a result, get more engaged and after work (Boeyink 2013). (Holtz 2013). Secondly, dialogues need to be encouraged for a longer period. After all, employee engagement is not a short-term initiative. Organizations cannot start to engage employees and then drop the initiative, because efforts will backfire and create employee estrangement (Drona Mobile 2012). This means companies should be actively involved, making the engagement of employees a priority. 10 11
7. Analyzing a mobile enterprise application 7.1 App loyalty: do users visit the app multiple times? Mobile apps can significantly increase the engagement level of employees, but to Figure 6 shows app loyalty data for internal enterprise news apps, external enterprise make this happen, workers need to be engaged with technology. Several companies news apps and publisher apps. While the last two categories appear to have similar have emerged in recent years to help enterprises embrace new technologies in their percentages, these results are different for internal enterprise applications. Only a communications mix. small percentage of users (20%) open the application only once and the retention rate is far higher than that of other applications. In fact, 32% of employees who start using imgZine, for instance, started a mobile platform for enterprises which produces smart the app seem to be loyal to their company app, visiting the app over 11 times. and real-time news apps based on existing content. The platform is inspired by the retention success of social magazines like Flipboard, Pulse and Zite, as well as traditional print magazines. For example, readers can personalize their application and add or remove 50.00% employees. But can we explain engagement in numbers? imgZine analyzed two of its enterprise news apps (used for a company’s internal 38.00% % users social and personalized features translates into a more engaging experience for external enterprise apps publisher apps channels and sources. imgZine’ s apps also recommend relevant and popular articles to users according to their preferences and reading behavior. This combination of internal enterprise apps 25.00% 13.00% 0.00% communications purposes) and compared these to imgZine’s external apps for visits enterprises and publishers. These external apps include imgZine’s insights apps, which are used by large enterprises to publish interesting market insights and content, and Figure 6 : App loyalty on internal enterprise apps, external enterprise apps and apps digital magazines and newspapers released by publishers. for publishers. This chapter will try to answer seven questions: 1) App loyalty: do users visit the app multiple times? 7.2 Are users engaged throughout the workday? 2) Are users engaged throughout the workday? 3) What is the frequency of app visits? The assumption is that employees want to stay up-to-date with their company 4) Do users merely browse or read content? before, during and after work when they are engaged with their company. But can this 5) What is the average session length? assumption be confirmed by imgZine’s internal news application? Figure 7 indicates 6) Do personalized features affect user engagement? that 39% of application visits take place during working hours. This percentage is 7) Do consumption patterns differ on tablets and smartphones? actually higher for external enterprise applications and applications for publishers (47% and 49%, respectively). This means that users of internal enterprise applications spend more time outside working hours compared to external enterprise applications and applications for publishers (61% vs. 53% and 51%, respectively). 12 13
during working hours outside working hours 39% 61% internal enterprise apps external enterprise apps 7.4 Do users merely browse or read content? Articles on internal enterprise applications are read carefully. The average number of 47% 53% read articles per article view is 48,5%, which means almost half of a company’s articles are read by their employees. When looking at external enterprise applications and publisher apps 49% 51% publisher apps, it can be seen that there are more users browsing through articles than actually reading them (48,9% and 73% vs. 41,1% and 27%, respectively). Applications for publishers show the lowest percentage of read articles. This should not come as a Figure 7 : Average time spent in the app during and outside working time for surprise, because internal and external enterprise applications have a certain “need to imgZine’s internal enterprise apps, external enterprise apps and apps for publishers. know” factor, while a digital magazine publishes “nice to know” content. Users might therefore be less motivated to read every article carefully. Instead, they will merely The data suggests two things. First, employees want to stay up-to-date and browse through the app and screen the articles. connected. Real time communications are perfect to keep them informed and involved, regardless of their location or the time of the day. Second, employees are engaged throughout the workday. 61% of employee application visits occur outside working hours, implying that workers are engaged even after work. 7.3 What is the frequency of app visits? 48.5% read articles 41.1% read articles 27.0% read articles Employees feel the need to stay up-to-date with company news throughout the day. Therefore, it is not unusual to see that the average time between application visits will be lower for external enterprise applications and applications for publishers internal enterprise apps external enterprise apps publisher apps when compared to internal enterprise apps. This expectation is partly confirmed by imgZine’s data: internal enterprise applications are opened every 3,3 days, while Figure 9: Reading vs. browsing on imgZine’s internal enterprise apps, external external enterprise applications and applications for publishers are reopened every enterprise apps and apps for publishers. 14,9 days and 3,2 days respectively. These reading behavior results taken from imgZine’s internal enterprise news apps are time internal enterprise apps 3,3 days also confirmed by other data. For instance, the average amount of read articles and Figure 8: Average time between external enterprise apps application visits for 14,9 days imgZine’s internal enterprise apps, external publisher apps 3,2 days enterprise apps and apps reading time does not decrease or increase over time. In fact, readership levels for these apps tend to remain stable. Applications for publishers show different results, because the amount of read articles will decrease if there is no marketing. Employees, on the other hand, will always feel the need to access key resources and participate in company dialogues. Enterprise news apps are simply essential for today’s fast-paced, ‘bring your own device’ era. for publishers. 14 15
7.5 What is the average session length? 7.6 Do personalized features affect user engagement? Figure 10 shows the average session length for imgZine’s internal enterprise news Employees will only be fully engaged when they are satisfied with the content that applications and external applications for enterprises and publishers. External is being delivered. They won’t read articles that are not relevant, even if they feel enterprise applications show the highest average session length, while internal the need to stay up-to-date with company news. But to what extent does relevant enterprise news apps show the lowest average session length. The average session content affect user engagement? Does providing relevant content really lead to more length of publisher apps is in between these two session lengths. read articles? imgZine analyzed the reading behavior of employees on tablets and smartphones to understand what they value and prefer. There appear to be two main reasons for the lower average session length on internal enterprise apps. First, many employees open their enterprise application during In order to increase user engagement in enterprise news applications, imgZine working hours to check news throughout the day, so they might spend less time in developed a recommender tool in its applications that is geared to: the application than users of the apps for external enterprises and publishers. Second, employees visit the app more frequently but since new articles are published less • Target specific content to employees and ensure that they are engaged often, they tend to spend less time in the app. • Recommend articles according to reading behavior The results of this recommender tool indicate that user engagement increases when week days weekend days companies provide relevant content to employees. Moreover, apps that display content according to employee interests are used for longer periods of time. As a internal enterprise apps 3,1 min. 2,9 min. external enterprise apps 4,0 min. 3,6 min. publisher apps 3,4 min. 3,5 min. result, these apps increase employee engagement and motivation. Recommended articles are read by of users 75% Figure 10: Average session length for imgZine’s internal enterprise apps, external enterprise apps and apps for publishers. Non-recommended articles are read by of users 42% 16 17
7.7 Do consumption patterns differ on tablets and smartphones? It is widely held in the industry that tablet users tend to consume content in the early peak from the late evening hours until the wee hours (from 5pm up to 5am), which morning and late evening. Tablet users are also thought to consume content for longer is comparable to the previously mentioned content consumption trends on tablets. periods of time, given the print-like reading experience offered by a tablet device. Consumption patterns on tablets and smartphones are thus not as clear-cut as they For instance, users might spend a considerable amount of time reading the news, were before. Phablets, a combination of the smartphone and the tablet, might be a checking websites and flipping through their digital magazines during breakfast or strong driver for this shift. while they are sitting on the couch. This is different for smartphones owners, who allegedly “snack” on content during the day and especially in the early evening hours. These insights indicate that while enterprise applications for tablets have always Presumably, they browse through the latest news, fun facts, social media feeds and been the primary device to engage with employees before and after working hours, instant messages as quickly as possible. Does imgZine’s data on internal enterprise smartphones have become just as important and tablet usage has increased during apps confirm these content consumption trends? working hours as well. smartphones 10,00% tablets 7,50% 5,00% 2,50% 0,00% 22 Figure 11: Consumption patterns of enterprise news apps on tablets and smartphones. Surprisingly, imgZine’s internal enterprise apps show a different pattern. While content consumption on tablets still peaks in the early morning hours, it does not peak during the late evening hours. On the contrary, our results show that tablet users are active during the day, with usage peaks that are higher than those of smartphones between 7am and 12pm, and 3pm and 4pm. Content consumption on smartphones shows a 18 19
8. Conclusion 9. imgZine for enterprise communications Leaders are often looking for ways to improve the productivity of their workforce. ImgZine offers a platform for producing smart and real-time news apps on tablets and By engaging them emotionally, pragmatically and socially, employee efficiency and smartphones, based on existing content. The platform is inspired by the success of retention can be achieved. According to imgZine’s report, enterprise news applications social magazines like Flipboard, Pulse and Zite, as well as traditional print magazines. can be the helping hand. First of all, the retention rate of enterprise apps is far higher For example, readers can personalize their enterprise news application and add or than for other applications, with 32% of employees feeling loyal to their company and remove channels and sources. The app also recommends relevant and popular articles opening the app over 11 times. Engagement rates are also higher. Sixty one percent of to employees according to their preferences and reading behavior. This combination application visits takes place outside the workplace and 39% of the visits occur during of social and personalized features translates into a more engaging experience for working hours, suggesting that employees are engaged throughout the workday and employees. want to stay up-to-date and connected even after the workday is over. Our Enterprise News app contains a variety of features, including: With 2.5 days being the average time between application visits for enterprise news apps, their visiting frequency is also much higher than that of publisher apps and • Security / Authentication • Personalization • Standardized API • Real time updates • Connects existing intranets • Multiple languages average session length, it shows that this length is shorter than that of external • Connects internal social feeds • Feedback forms enterprise applications, but longer than that of publisher apps. • Recommended articles • Polls / Questionnaires • Targeted content • Notifications • Offline reading • Push messages • Dashboard / Analytics • Beautiful design external enterprise apps. Furthermore, the contents of internal enterprise news applications are read most carefully. The average number of read articles per article view is 48.5%, so almost half of the articles are read by employees. Looking at the imgZine also found that personalized features in an enterprise news application lead to increased engagement levels. While non-recommended articles are read by 42% of users, recommended articles are read by 75% of users. It is thus important to target specific content to employees and recommend articles according to their reading behavior. Finally, results show that consumption patterns on tablets and smartphones are now more or less similar, suggesting that mobile device consumption patterns are no longer as clear-cut as they once were. Smartphones have become just as important The Enterprise News app allows to: • Unlock corporate intranet news content as tablets to engage employees outside working hours, while tablets have become • Create a secure mobile platform just as important as smartphones to engage employees during working hours. • Manage your app easily • Connect your existing enterprise content systems Without hesitation, managers agree that retaining their best employees ensures customer happiness, high sales volumes and effective project planning. Then why wait to jump on the mobile bandwagon if there are engaging mobile applications that help you achieve your desired business outcomes? 20 • Release your publication in multiple platforms: iOS, Android, Windows and (mobile) web • Get a standardized solution 21
10. nine reasons to go for imgZine’s enterprise news app Unlock corporate intranet news content Personalization, engagement and sharing imgZine’s platform is equipped with a variety of content aggregation features, ranging imgZine apps enable you to add or remove your own content sources and RSS-feeds, from plugins for popular content management systems like Wordpress and Tumblr as well as create your own media channels. Our apps also offer several features for to RSS-feeds. An automatic content extraction feature for existing websites is also personalization, interaction and (social) sharing. Supported social features include available. comments, ratings, forms, polls and content sharing via email, LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, Instapaper and Pocket. These features can be enabled or disabled Connect existing enterprise content systems according to your needs. We integrate seamlessly with your intranet, so you can (re)use your existing data to deliver meaningful, real-time content experiences on mobile devices. Insight and control Delve into your users’ reading behavior and identify their content needs using our Release your publication in multiple platforms: iOS, Android, Windows, (mobile) web nifty analytics dashboard. We measure a wide range of metrics including: We produce apps for all mobile platforms: iPad, iPhone, Android tablets and smartphones and mobile devices running on Windows 8. In addition, our enterprise • Unique visitors news apps are available for the web. Our platform allows you to be visible anywhere • Number of app opened and anytime. • Usage patterns • Engagement rates Secure integration into the corporate ecosystem • Reading times Integration with your corporate ecosystem is available. This option is ideal for • Trending topics companies that want to optimize their intranet or other existing content sources for • Popular articles smartphones and tablets, and expose certain kinds of information to their employees - in either a general or role-based fashion. The imgZine platform uses several layers We also enable you to control and prioritize the content in your app. You can highlight of security to protect your data. Our advanced authentication services ensure highly specific channels, articles or content sources and make use of push notifications. controlled access to your valuable content. Communication between our apps and platform draws on an SSL encryption to ensure that information does not get Media Intelligence tampered with. Our real time social magazines are not only beautifully crafted, they are also geared for media intelligence. We developed state of the art algorithms that can help us Great design and user experience deliver highly personalized content recommendations based on your end users’ imgZine’s branded mobile content apps are optimized for engagement and reading behavior. productivity, that’s why we like to call them real time news apps. Our design specialists incorporate your existing house-style into the app, creating stunning visualizations that fit your corporate identity. But that’s not all. We also study user reading behavior We take care of everything, from development to publishing in Apple’s App Store or to understand your target audience’s needs and further customize their reading Google Play. Our apps are always up-to-date. Our pricing model, based on an annual experience. 22 Full service - no fuzz platform fee, includes all licenses, 2 yearly app updates and any necessary bug fixes. 23
REFERENCES Aberdeen Group (2013). Enterprise-Grade Mobile Apps: Powering Organizational Gallup (2013). The State of the Global Workplace: Employee Engagement Insights for Transformation [Internet]. Business Leaders Worldwide [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.aberdeen.com/Aberdeen-Library/8424/RA-enterprise- Available from: <http://www.gallup.com/strategicconsulting/164735/state-global- mobile-applications.aspx> [Accessed 18 December 2013]. workplace.aspx> [Accessed 13 December 2013]. Boeyink, G. (2013). Meer waarde voor medewerkers [Internet]. The Netherlands: WIM Gartner (2012). Gartner Says 821 Million Smart Devices Will Be Purchased Worldwide Community: Smile. in 2012; Sales to Rise to 1.2 Billion in 2013 [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.smile.nl/employee-engagement.html> Available from: <http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2227215> [Accessed 13 December 2013]. [Accessed 30 December 2013]. Chui, M. et al. (2012). The social economy: Unlocking value and productivity through ImgZine (2013). <www.imgzine.com> social technologies [Internet]. EU: McKinsey Global Institute. Available from: <http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_ Holtz, S. (2013). The 11 vital internal communications trends you’d be crazy to ignore internet/the_social_economy> [Accessed 13 December 2013]. [Internet]. Available from: Drona Mobile (2012). Employee Engagement using Smartphone: “Proven strategies <http://holtz.com/blog/visual-communication/the-11-vital-internal- to take full advantage of mobile’s growing influence”. communications-trends-youd-be-crazy-to-ignore/4223/> [Accessed 14 February]. Available from: <http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache: xl443kBsJMAJ:dronamobile.com/Definite%2520Guide-%2520Employee%25 Lauby, S (2012). Happy employees are not engaged problems [Internet]. 20Engagement%2520using%2520Smartphones%2520by%2520DronaMobile. Available from: <http://www.hrbartender.com/2012/recruiting/happy-employees- pdf+&cd=1&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl> [Accessed 14 February 2014]. are-not-engaged-employees/> [Accessed 5 December 2013]. Forrester (2013). Latest IT Trends For Secure Mobile Collaboration: A Custom MacCormick, J., Dery, K., Kolb, G. (2012). Engaged or just Connected? Smartphones Technology Adoption Profile Commissioned by Cisco Systems [Internet]. and employee engagement [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/ Available from: <http://staff.business.auckland.ac.nz/ DesktopModules/ unified -communications/unified- communications- manager-callmanager/byod_ StaffProfiles/Publications/9096.pdf> [Accessed 5 December 2013]. forrester_tap_latest_it_trends_wp_en.pdf> [Accessed 14 February 2014]. 24 25
Min, A. (2011). 26% of Mobile Application Users are Fickle – or Loyal [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.localytics.com/blog/2011/26percent-of-mobile-appusers-are-either-fickle-or-loyal/> [Accessed 8 December 2013]. Prescient Digital Media (2013). Social intranet study [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.prescientdigital.com/downloads/social-intranetstudy-2012-purchase-the-full-report> [Accessed 13 December 2013]. Richmond, H. (2011). The Growth of Mobile Marketing and Tagging. Available from: <http://tag.microsoft.com/community/blog/t/the_growth_of_ mobile_marketing_and_tagging.aspx> [Accessed 18 December 2013]. Udell, C. (2011). BYOD/BYOA: A Growing, Applicable Trend [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.inc.com/comcast/byod-byoa-a-growing-applicabletrend.html> [Accessed 15 February 2014]. Whittaker, Z. (2013). Bring Your Own Device: The Facts and the Future [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.zdnet.com/byod-from-optional-to-mandatory-by2017-says-gartner-7000014813/> [Accessed 25 January 2014]. Follow imgZine on Twitter and like us on Linkedin to stay informed about our upcoming research papers and reports on digital reading behavior. The Netherlands +31 20 411 18 38 Basisweg 52d 1043 AP Amsterdam 26 United States +1 415 3950941 811 Sansome Street San Francisco, CA 94111
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