Whistleblowers: A study of employee decision-making

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Information about Whistleblowers: A study of employee decision-making
Business & Mgmt

Published on May 3, 2009

Author: lamb2u2

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Dissertation regarding the lived experiences of whistleblowers.

Whistleblowers: A study of employee decision-making. Tina M. Lamb Doctoral Candidate Capella University February, 2009 Dissertation Defense

Agenda The previous presentation covered: Chapter 1 – Why this study? Chapter 2 – Literature Review Chapter 3 - Methodology This presentation covers: Chapter 4 – Findings Chapter 5 – Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations Questions

The previous presentation covered:

Chapter 1 – Why this study?

Chapter 2 – Literature Review

Chapter 3 - Methodology

This presentation covers:

Chapter 4 – Findings

Chapter 5 – Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Questions

Research Questions What are the events or experiences leading to whistleblowing? What are the consequences of whistleblowing to the blower? Would whistleblowers repeat the same behavior if they had to do it all over again?

What are the events or experiences leading to whistleblowing?

What are the consequences of whistleblowing to the blower?

Would whistleblowers repeat the same behavior if they had to do it all over again?

Chapter 4 – Interview Summary This chapter details the participants in the study and ways in which their related stories were linked to each other. Further, it describes the data collection process as well as the coding and analysis steps employed by the researcher.

This chapter details the participants in the study and ways in which their related stories were linked to each other.

Further, it describes the data collection process as well as the coding and analysis steps employed by the researcher.

Chapter 4 – Data Collection Institute for Management Consultants USA (IMCUSA) 44 respondents/18 interviews

Institute for Management Consultants USA (IMCUSA)

44 respondents/18 interviews

Chapter 4 - Findings Study Participant Demographics Of the 18 study participants, all but one of them are currently management consultants, but a couple of them were not consultants when they blew the whistle.

Study Participant Demographics

Of the 18 study participants, all but one of them are currently management consultants, but a couple of them were not consultants when they blew the whistle.

Chapter 4 – Data Collection and Analysis Recording conversations equipment Delphi Technique The first session focused on responses to the first research question. The second session focused on responses to the second research question. The third session focused on responses to the third research question.

Recording conversations equipment

Delphi Technique

The first session focused on responses to the first research question.

The second session focused on responses to the second research question.

The third session focused on responses to the third research question.

Chapter 4 – Data Collection and Analysis Transcripts of interviews Findings – 1 st research question Every one was sure the activities were unethical based upon their own personal standards of ethical business behavior, and based upon the standards of their professions. It was the right thing to do.

Transcripts of interviews

Findings – 1 st research question

Every one was sure the activities were unethical based upon their own personal standards of ethical business behavior, and based upon the standards of their professions.

It was the right thing to do.

Chapter 4 – Data Collection and Analysis Findings – 2 nd research question There was a range of ramifications that included both positive and negative responses. awarded a large financial settlement threats and reprisals

Findings – 2 nd research question

There was a range of ramifications that included both positive and negative responses.

awarded a large financial settlement

threats and reprisals

Chapter 4 – Data Collection and Analysis Findings – 3 rd research question They would do it again. A couple participants had blown the whistle more than once. They felt they had a responsibility. They would not compromise their reputations or risk their CPA certification.

Findings – 3 rd research question

They would do it again.

A couple participants had blown the whistle more than once.

They felt they had a responsibility.

They would not compromise their reputations or risk their CPA certification.

Chapter 4 – Data Analysis (Coding) Six major themes . Fear of retaliatory action against them. (motive) Disappointment in top leaders for inaction. (emotion) Fear of losing professional certification if they did not report unethical activities. (motive) Fear of losing professional reputation if they did not report unethical activities. (motive) Feeling that what they did was the right thing to do. (norm) Having high personal and professional standards of ethical behavior. (norm)

Six major themes .

Fear of retaliatory action against them. (motive)

Disappointment in top leaders for inaction. (emotion)

Fear of losing professional certification if they did not report unethical activities. (motive)

Fear of losing professional reputation if they did not report unethical activities. (motive)

Feeling that what they did was the right thing to do. (norm)

Having high personal and professional standards of ethical behavior. (norm)

Chapter 4 – Research Tool Validity The Delphi technique flexible way to access and exchange human experience not obtainable under other methods “because of time or cost constraints” (Linstone, p. 275). Useful tool in qualitative research because it has a scaffolding characteristic with which to build a complete story of the phenomenon under study.

The Delphi technique

flexible way to access and exchange human experience not obtainable under other methods “because of time or cost constraints” (Linstone, p. 275).

Useful tool in qualitative research because it has a scaffolding characteristic with which to build a complete story of the phenomenon under study.

Chapter 4 – Summary of Findings They felt morally compelled to bring up the issues to someone within their organization, a term that Johnson (2003) found often in her whistleblower research. Of the 18 in the study, only one said he would not again blow the whistle on the organization because it was too much work and too much of a personal cost. A few chose to leave their organizations of their own accord because they felt that there was not an ethical fit between the organization and themselves.

They felt morally compelled to bring up the issues to someone within their organization, a term that Johnson (2003) found often in her whistleblower research.

Of the 18 in the study, only one said he would not again blow the whistle on the organization because it was too much work and too much of a personal cost.

A few chose to leave their organizations of their own accord because they felt that there was not an ethical fit between the organization and themselves.

Chapter 5 - Contents Chapter 5 explains how the researcher addressed the problem statement discussed in Chapter 1. The results discussed in Chapter 4 are further discussed in Chapter 5 to indicate their relationship to both the literature review in Chapter 2 and the methodology discussed in Chapter 3. Lastly, Chapter 5 concludes with limitations of this study and suggestions for future research.

Chapter 5 explains how the researcher addressed the problem statement discussed in Chapter 1.

The results discussed in Chapter 4 are further discussed in Chapter 5 to indicate their relationship to both the literature review in Chapter 2 and the methodology discussed in Chapter 3.

Lastly, Chapter 5 concludes with limitations of this study and suggestions for future research.

Chapter 5 – What is the problem? Employees get tired of wrestling with their conscience over the battle of job security and the ethical and moral awareness of wrongdoing.

Employees get tired of wrestling with their conscience over the battle of job security and the ethical and moral awareness of wrongdoing.

Chapter 5 – Direction of Study The primary direction of this dissertation was to understand the decision-making process that people experience when they observe unethical activities. What activities were observed? How was the decision to blow the whistle made? What were the repercussions of blowing the whistle? Why didn’t they blow the whistle? Would they do it again?

The primary direction of this dissertation was to understand the decision-making process that people experience when they observe unethical activities.

What activities were observed?

How was the decision to blow the whistle made?

What were the repercussions of blowing the whistle?

Why didn’t they blow the whistle?

Would they do it again?

Chapter 5 – Purpose of the study Purpose: to explore the experiences people had as they contemplated blowing the whistle, and to understand their decision-making processes. This study is important because it may disclose more recent information about the decision-making involved in the whistleblowing phenomenon that has not already been disclosed in research.

Purpose: to explore the experiences people had as they contemplated blowing the whistle, and to understand their decision-making processes.

This study is important because it may disclose more recent information about the decision-making involved in the whistleblowing phenomenon that has not already been disclosed in research.

Chapter 5 – Focus of Study phenomenological tradition through an anthropologic lens the focus was on what the study participants felt and thought as they lived the whistleblowing phenomenon

phenomenological tradition through an anthropologic lens

the focus was on what the study participants felt and thought as they lived the whistleblowing phenomenon

Chapter 5 – Lit Review Connections Literature review connections: Moral Development upbringing professional standards their own reputation was at stake they would be seen as being a part of the problem

Literature review connections:

Moral Development

upbringing

professional standards

their own reputation was at stake

they would be seen as being a part of the problem

Chapter 5 – Lit Review Connections Literature review connections: Upper Echelon nearly all of the study participants were upper level executives either at the time they experienced the phenomenon or today the ethical quotient of an organization is set from the top management team

Literature review connections:

Upper Echelon

nearly all of the study participants were upper level executives either at the time they experienced the phenomenon or today

the ethical quotient of an organization is set from the top management team

Chapter 5 – Lit Review Connections Literature review connections: Fear of Retaliation #1 thing that stops some whistleblowing knowing of possible retaliatory actions does not stop people from blowing the whistle Groupthink

Literature review connections:

Fear of Retaliation

#1 thing that stops some whistleblowing

knowing of possible retaliatory actions does not stop people from blowing the whistle

Groupthink

Chapter 5 – Discussion of Results All of the study participants felt that blowing the whistle was the right thing to do. There were ramifications for most of the whistleblowers in this study. Most of the study participants would blow the whistle again.

All of the study participants felt that blowing the whistle was the right thing to do.

There were ramifications for most of the whistleblowers in this study.

Most of the study participants would blow the whistle again.

Chapter 5 – Conclusions This study primarily concludes that many whistleblowers blew the whistle after witnessing or discovering unethical activity because they felt that it was morally the right thing to do. They felt compelled to act. Most people would blow the whistle.

This study primarily concludes that many whistleblowers blew the whistle after witnessing or discovering unethical activity because they felt that it was morally the right thing to do.

They felt compelled to act.

Most people would blow the whistle.

Chapter 5 –Study Limitations allotting time for interviews trustworthiness of data

allotting time for interviews

trustworthiness of data

Chapter 5 – Further Research socioeconomic status and ethical behavior of top management team members a quantitative research with same participants are occupations an indicator, or predictor, of what type of person will blow the whistle subversive retaliation study of family members of whistleblowers

socioeconomic status and ethical behavior of top management team members

a quantitative research with same participants

are occupations an indicator, or predictor, of what type of person will blow the whistle

subversive retaliation

study of family members of whistleblowers

Questions Thank you for the time today and throughout this process. Your input and expertise are valued and appreciated. Tina Marie

Thank you for the time today and throughout this process. Your input and expertise are valued and appreciated.

Tina Marie

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