WHI Review I

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Information about WHI Review I

Published on March 24, 2008

Author: Spencer

Source: authorstream.com

WHI SOL Review:  WHI SOL Review Slide2:  How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans? Living near water was important because it helped in nourishment, hygiene, trade, travel, agriculture, and provided jobs. Climate determined what conditions the early people faced. It also determined where they could live and on what routes they could travel. Slide3:  Homo Sapiens Also called cro-magnons, they were similar to us, but had distinct physical differences. Such as, they had a much bigger skull and used the hair on their bodies to keep them warm. Slide4:  How long ago were the first humans on earth? The first humans in east-central Africa were here 100,000 to 400,000 years ago. Slide5:  They were nomads. They traveled from place to place to follow the animals and find ripening fruit. They would use stone, bone, and wood to make their tools out of. The nomads adapted to the weather. They would make jackets from the animal skins and get under cliffs and in caves during the long winters. Slide6:  The first humans lived in East Africa. They then migrated north and east in to Europe and Asia. They lived in small hunting and food gathering bands numbering about 20-30 people. The men hunted and fished and the women picked fruits and berries. They all contributed to each other. Slide7:  Old Stone Age They were Nomads ( People who follow their food ) Used stone, wood, and bones for tools For clothes they wrapped in animal skins They took refuge in caves or under rocky overhangs during the long winter Learned how to build fires for warmth and to cook Slide8:  Middle Stone Age First wooden boat Slide9:  They learned to farm and by producing their own food, they could remain in one place. Farmers settled into permanent villages and developed a new range of skills and tools. People learned to domesticate animals. They herded the animals to good grasslands or penned them in rough enclosures. Animals provided people with a source of protein. They created the first calendars. They learned to weave cloth from animal hair or vegetable fibers. Slide10:  Paleolithic people– they traveled from place to place. People depended wholly on their environment for survival. They found ways to adapt there surroundings. They made simple tools and weapons out of the materials at hand-stone, bone, or wood. To endure the cold, they invented clothing. They took refuge in caves or under rocky overhangs during the long winters. They also learned to build fires for warmth and cooking. Slide11:  Shang kings were likely the heads of important clans. Group of families who claimed a common ancestor. Clans controlled most of land. Slide12:  Portray animals such as deer, horses, and buffaloes. Some cave paintings show stick-figure people. Paintings often lie deep in the caves, far from a band’s living quarters. A early religious beliefs. Hundred of painted animals that appeared to prance over the calcite-covered walls and ceilings. Cave paintings have been part of animist religious rituals. Slide13:  How and when did agriculture develop? Agriculture developed as a way to have food in the winter months when animals hibernated and were scarce. The first crops grown were most likely grains and seeds found from different plants and trees. First traces of agriculture show up as early as the middle stone age Agriculture spread through diffusion rather than invention, as neighboring bands would cage or steal seeds and plants to try and start farming that appeared easier than hunting and moving around a lot. Slide14:  Nomads no longer had to move around to get food Once agriculture was developed the domesticated animals helped to pull plows and wagons to trade with neighboring tribes Development of civilizations and cities Religious ceremonies (more intense), temples, and shrines. Development of laws and government over time. Slide15:  New civilizations Iron and bronze weapons Advances in Agriculture (plows, domestications of animals.) Government development over time (laws, leaders) Temples and advanced religious ceremonies. Slide16:  the study of past cultural behavior, from the beginnings of the human species to events that happened yesterday, through the material remains, or artifacts, that people leave behind What is history?:  What is history? History is the knowledge of the past gained through the study of written records. What is anthropology?:  What is anthropology? Anthropology is the study of the origins and development of people and their societies Stonehenge:  Stonehenge A group of standing stones on Salisbury Plain in southern England. Dating to c. 2000-1800 B.C., the megaliths are enclosed by a circular ditch and embankment that may date to c. 2800. The arrangement of the stones suggests that Stonehenge was used as a religious center and as an astronomical observatory. 19.What were the first four major river valley civilizations?:  19.What were the first four major river valley civilizations? Indus River- Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Huang He and Yangzi- China Tigris and Euphrates- Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent Nile- Egypt 20.Why did the first permanent civilizations develop around major rivers?:  20.Why did the first permanent civilizations develop around major rivers? Good irrigation systems, easier trade, water on demand, farming, and stable food source. 21.When did these early civilizations exist?:  21.When did these early civilizations exist? 3200 B.C.- 256 B.C. The Hebrews, The Phoenicians, The Kush:  The Hebrews, The Phoenicians, The Kush The Hebrews settled in Israel The Phoenicians occupied the string of cities along the Eastern Mediterranean coast, in the area which today is Lebanon and Syria The Kush settled on the south of Africa What was their government like?:  What was their government like? They had very strict law and rules Trade was a very resourceful, they relied on it a lot They were all near water resources Code of Hammurabi :  Code of Hammurabi This, the earliest known written legal code, was composed about 1780 B.C. by Hammurabi, the ruler of Babylon. This text was excavated in 1901; it was carved on an eight foot high stone monolith. The harsh system of punishment expressed in this text prefigures the concept of 'an eye for an eye'. The Code lays out the basis of both criminal and civil law, and defines procedures for commerce and trade. This text was redacted for 1,500 years, and is considered the predecessor of Jewish and Islamic legal systems alike The 10 Commandments:  The 10 Commandments The Ten Commandments were given to Moses, the great leader of the Hebrews, over 3,000 years ago after the Hebrews were delivered from slavery in Egypt. While the Law of Moses is made up of over 600 rules, the Ten Commandments were a brief list of rules from which the others were developed. 26.) What are the eight features of these early civilizations?:  26.) What are the eight features of these early civilizations? 1.) Cities 2.) Organized Central Governments 3.) Complex religions 4.) Job Specialization 5.) Social Classes 6.) Arts/ Architecture 7.) Public Works 8.) Writing 27.) What early religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?:  27.) What early religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations? They started out being polytheistic and later on they became monotheistic. They had a God for everything. Later some societies religions evolved into having just one God. 28.) What is monotheism?:  28.) What is monotheism? Monotheism is the belief of one God. Polytheism:  Polytheism The belief in multiple gods is probably the result of an earlier belief in vaguely defined spirits, demons and other supernatural forces. These belief systems are similar to animism, ancestor worship and totemism. However, in polytheism, these supernatural forces are personified and organized into a cosmic family. This "family" becomes the nucleus of a particular culture's belief system. The family of gods was used to explain natural phenomena and to establish a culture's role in the universe. Typically, the number of gods would expand as the culture's belief system developed, eventually resulting in a hierarchical system of deities. Over time, the lesser gods would diminish in stature or vanish altogether. What are the beliefs of Judaism?:  What are the beliefs of Judaism? Judaism is a monotheistic religion. The Jewish People believe there is one God who created and rules the world. This God is omnipotent (all powerful), omniscient (all knowing) and omnipresent (in all places at all times). God is also just and merciful. Judaism believes the Land of Israel was part of the covenant made between God and the Jewish People at Mount Sinai. Since the time of Abraham, there has been a continual Jewish presence in the Land of Israel. Abraham:  Abraham Abraham was the first of the Hebrew patriarchs of the Old Testament. To test Abraham's faith, God commanded him to make a burnt offering of his son, Isaac. Torn between great love for his son and his desire to obey God's command, Abraham decided that his duty to God ultimately took precedence. He bound Isaac, laid him on the altar and drew his knife. At that moment an angel appeared and grasped Abraham's hand saying, "Now I know that you are a god-fearing man. You have not withheld from me your son." Greatly relieved, Abraham saw a ram caught in a thicket which he sacrificed instead. Moses:  Moses Hebrew prophet Founder of Israel Moses killed an Egyptian who murdered a Hebrew Moses renewed the covenant; binding agreement Moses led the Israelites in their escape from Egypt Jerusalem:  Jerusalem Arabic capital & largest city of Israel A holy city for three of the world’s major religions: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam Exile/ Diaspora:  Exile/ Diaspora The scattering of people Jewish communities outside Israel Jews outside Israel considered themselves in exile. Slide37:  Jewish holy book. Similar to Christian Bible. Slide38:  It influenced Christianity and Islam, two other major world religions Jews spread across the world and taught their faith Similarities between Christianity and Judaism Monotheistic-belief in one God Belief in the SAME God Same history/same prophets/Ten Commandments Slide39:  Drawings used to represent a word. The earliest writings were made of these. Slide40:  Egyptian form of picture writing. Used to keep important records in ancient Egypt. Slide41:  Cuneiform comes form Latin words Cuneus which means “wedge” and Forma which means “shape.” Pictograms, or drawings representing actual things, were the basis for cuneiform writing. Cuneiform was written on clay tablets, and then baked hard in a kiln. Cuneiform was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Sumerians and Assyrians to write their own languages and was used in Mesopotamia for about 3000 years . Cuneiform was created by the Sumerians. Slide42:  The Phoenicians created the first alphabet. Slide43:  Its yearly flooding provided the region with silt, or rich soil, from which it could grow crops. It also provided the Egyptians with a way to trade and travel. The Nile was also a key part of Egyptians religion. It was seen to give and take away life with its great floods. What cultural contributions did the Egyptians make?:  What cultural contributions did the Egyptians make? The Egyptians were polytheistic, They believed in an after life so they would mummify the dead and buried their dead with things they would need in the after life. They built pyramids for the pharaohs, so they would have everything they needed in the afterlife. The Egyptians had a system of writing called hieroglyphics. They made a form of paper called papyrus. They used medicine that we still use to day, they made a calendar. They also had statues, paintings, poems. How did Persia govern its empire?:  How did Persia govern its empire? They had a ruler who would make laws collect taxes. They split their empire into several different regions, each of which had its own governor. Cyrus the Great:  Cyrus the Great Conquered the largest empire, Persia was stretched from Asia minor to India, Turkey Iran, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Zoroastrianism:  Zoroastrianism A new religion that said there is one wise god named ahora Mazda he ruled the world. He was at constant battle with Ahriman the prince of lies and evil. Zoroaster taught that all individuals would be judged for their actions. Those who done good would enter paradise those who done bad would be condemned to eternal suffering. What was the most important contribution of the Babylonians?:  What was the most important contribution of the Babylonians? The Hanging Gardens which is known as one of the wonders of the ancient world. The gardens were probably made by planting trees and flowering plants on the steps of a huge ziggurat. According to legend, Nebuchadnezzar had the gardens built to please his wife, who was homesick for the hills where she had grown up. What physical geographic factors influenced the development of Indian civilization?:  What physical geographic factors influenced the development of Indian civilization? First of all, the Indian subcontinent is divided into three major zones: the well-watered northern plain, the dry triangular Deccan, and the coastal plains on either side of the Deccan. Plus, this fertile region is watered by mighty rivers like the Indus, which gives India’s its name, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. These rivers and their tributaries carry melting snow from the mountains to the plains, making agriculture possible. What impact did the Aryans have on India?:  What impact did the Aryans have on India? Due to the acculturation, the people shared a common culture rooted in both Aryan and Dravidian traditions. By this time, the Indian people had developed a written language called Sanskrit. Priests now began writing down the sacred texts. The Aryans, despite the new written language, they preserved a strong oral traditions. They continued to memorize and recite ancient hymns, as well as long epic poems. Describe the Caste System:  Describe the Caste System The caste system or social group is into which people are born and which they cannot change. Indians use the word jati to describe their social system. The Portuguese, who reached India in the late 1400’s used the word caste, which other Europeans adopted. How was the caste system central to the Indian culture?:  How was the caste system central to the Indian culture? The caste system was central to the Indian culture because it provided stability and order to their lives. Also, every caste member had their own place in society and believed that the law of karma determined their caste. People in the caste system depended on and helped one another, if they were in the same level of society. People with diverse customs lived side by side in harmony. What were the contributions of the Gupta Empire?:  What were the contributions of the Gupta Empire? The Gupta rule was a period of great cultural achievements. The system of Arabic numerals was developed and put into practice. Exports of cotton cloth, pottery, and metalware were abundant. Doctors and surgeons performed simple surgeries, set broken bones, began using herbs and other remedies to treat illnesses, and administered vaccinations for smallpox. What were the characteristics of the Hindu religion?:  What were the characteristics of the Hindu religion? Hindus believed in more than one God. The ultimate goal of existence for Hindus was to achieve moksha (a union with Brahman, a spiritual force). Hindus believed in reincarnation. Hindus believed that everything in existence had a rank or a status in life. A primary moral principle of Hinduism was ahimsa, or nonviolence. They believed that all people and things should be respected. Reincarnation:  Reincarnation The Egyptians thought the soul transmigrated from body to body and this was a reason why they embalmed the body in order to preserve it so that it could journey along with ka, an animating force that was believed to be counterpart of the body, which would accompany it in the next world or life. Ka might be considered equivalent to the term of soul. Reincarnation… continued :  Reincarnation… continued The belief is thought to have been an necessity among primitive peoples. Certainly long before ancient Egypt peoples believed in transmigration of the soul. If they were not sophisticated enough to understand the concept of a soul, then they may have simply called it life. An individual or object which moved had life, and the one which did not, did not have life. This is analogous to the belief of animism. Reincarnation….continued #2:  Reincarnation….continued #2 Gradually the concept of a soul developed with a further realization that the soul departed the body at death and entered the body at birth. Soon it was thought the soul leaving a dead body would seek another body to enter, or enter an animal of a lower life form. It was also thought the soul left the body during sleep. This soul was pictured as vapors that entered and left through the nostrils and mouth. Karma:  Karma In Buddhist teaching, the law of karma, says only this for every event that occurs, there will follow another event whose existence was caused by the first, and this second event will be pleasant or unpleasant according as its cause was skillful or unskillful.' A skillful event is one that is not accompanied by craving, resistance or delusions; an unskillful event is one that is accompanied by any one of those things. (Events are not skillful in themselves, but are so called only in virtue of the mental events that occur with them.) Karma:  Karma Therefore, the law of Karma teaches that responsibility for unskillful actions is born by the person who commits them. Let's take an example of a sequence of events. An unpleasant sensation occurs. A thought arises that the source of the unpleasantness was a person. (This thought is a delusion; any decisions based upon it will therefore be unskillful.) A thought arises that some past sensations of unpleasantness issued from this same person. (This thought is a further delusion.) This is followed by a willful decision to speak words that will produce an unpleasant sensation in that which is perceived as a person. Karma:  Karma Have you ever heard someone say it's there karma, or they have bad computer karma? They are referring to the sum of there actions in the past working out in the present. Karma can be accumulated and takes time to bear fruit. When you plant a seed it usually takes some time for it to grow into a fruit-bearing tree. Another aspect is that the tree bears many fruit. So there is a delay in time and a multiplication in result. Karma also works on multiple levels. Your emotions and thoughts also cause effects on a emotional and mental level. When looking at a situation karmaically this should also be taken into account. Vedas and Upanishads :  Vedas and Upanishads The word Veda means knowledge, and the Vedas are considered the most sacred scripture of Hinduism referred to as sruti, meaning what was heard by or revealed to the rishis or seers. The most holy hymns and mantras put together into four collections called the Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva Vedas are difficult to date, because they were passed on orally for about a thousand years before they were written down. More recent categories of Vedas include the Brahmanas or manuals for ritual and prayer, the Aranyakas or forest texts for religious hermits, and the Upanishads or mystical discourses. Vedas and Upanishads:  Vedas and Upanishads The hymns of the Rig Veda are considered the oldest and most important of the Vedas, having been composed between 1500 BC and the time of the great Bharata war about 900 BC. More than a thousand hymns are organized into ten mandalas or circles of which the second through the seventh are the oldest and the tenth is the most recent. The Hindu tradition is that even the Vedas were gradually reduced from much more extensive and ancient divine revelations but were perverted in the recent dark age of Kaliyuga. As the only writings from this ancient period of India, they are considered the best source of knowledge we have; but the ethical doctrines seem to have improved from the ancient hymns to the mystical Upanishads. Vedas and Upanishads:  Vedas and Upanishads The Sama Veda contains the melodies or music for the chants used from the Rig Veda for the sacrifices; almost all of its written verses are traceable to the Rig Veda, mostly the eighth and ninth books and most to Indra, Agni, or Soma. These are considered the origin of Indian music and probably stimulated great artistry to make the sacrifices worthwhile to their patrons who supported the priests. The Sama Veda helped to train the musicians and functioned as a hymnal for the religious rites. Vedas and Upanishads:  Vedas and Upanishads Though also following many of the hymns of the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda deviates more from the original text in its collection of the ritual formulas for the priests to use in the sacrifices, which is what yaja means. It explains how to construct the altars for new and full-moon sacrifices and other ceremonies. The Yajur Veda has two collections or samhitas called White and Black, the latter being more obscure in its meanings. Vedas and Upanishads:  Vedas and Upanishads The latest and fourth Veda is in a different category. For a long time many referred to only three Vedas, by which complete ceremonies could be conducted with the Rig hotr reciting, the Sama udgatri singing, and the Yajur adhvaryu performing the ritual. Even later the Atharvan Brahmin's part was often performed unaccompanied by the other three priests. Also much of it draws from the customs and beliefs of pre-Aryan or pre-Vedic India. The Atharva Veda is much longer than the Sama and Yajur and only about a sixth of it is from the Rig Veda. Slide66:  How did Hinduism influence Indian Society? Hinduism has had a long and continuous evolution and in the process has influenced all other major world religions. Indian or Hindu civilization has been molded and shaped in the course of its history more by religious than by political, or economic, influences. The fundamental principles of social, political, and economic life were welded into a comprehensive theory which is called Religion in Hindu thought. Slide67:  What are the Characteristics of Buddhism? The first characteristic of Buddhism is Karma. Karma- action or deed, any moral or immoral violation. This is the most important doctrine and the most difficult. It is also the one to be easily misunderstood. The second characteristic of Buddhism is conditioned Genesis. Condition Genesis- unchangeable truth of life and the universe. Conditioned Genesis is based on the Law of Cause and Effect. The third Characteristic of Buddhism is Sunyata. Sunyata- emptiness. Sunyata is used by Mahayanist to explain the existence of this world and universe. The fourth Characteristic of Buddhism is the Three Dharma Seals. Three Dharma Seals- three characteristics of existence. Slide68:  Siddhartha Guatemala Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Guatemala. He lived in Northern India from 560 B.C to 480 B.C. After his death a cult formed and they focused on stupas and holy sites. After he died 500 monks were held at the Rajagrha and all the Buddha sermons and the rules of the decibel we remembered and recited. In century 2 A.D. they made a school called the Madhyamikc School. Four Noble Truths:  Four Noble Truths The Four Noble Truths: The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha) The Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Samudaya) The Truth of the End of Suffering (Nirodha) The Truth of the Path Leading to the End of Suffering (Marga) Eightfold Path to Enlightenment:  Eightfold Path to Enlightenment Though the Eightfold Path is the supreme method of achieving enlightenment and to becoming a better person, it is very difficult for a normal person to be able to practice without this necessary aspect of Buddhism. It is organized into three categories: wisdom, virtue, and concentration What was Asoka’s role in spreading Buddhism?:  What was Asoka’s role in spreading Buddhism? Asoka was the grandson of Chandragupta who was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty Asoka adopted the peaceful aspects of Buddhism and declared that there forth his conquests should be conquests of religion. From then on Asoka spread the word of the Buddhist religion throughout the empire and into China. Why was the Great Wall of China built?:  Why was the Great Wall of China built? During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, separate walls were built between Chinese regions which were fighting with each other. The walls were also built to protect China from outside invaders. Emperor Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty thought of the idea of the Great Wall and ordered his workers to connect the old walls with new ones to protect them from invasions (mainly the Mongols) Silk Roads:  Silk Roads There was a network of market towns along the road and since silk was in such high demand, many other trade routes connected and/or branched off of the Silk Road. The Silk Road wasn’t the safest place (mountains, robbers, desserts) but it allowed new ideas to spread from place to place such as paper and glass making The Silk Road was the most important trade route before the discovery of the sea route to India. It stretched along the edges of deserts and mountains from China to Rome, connecting China to the west. Mandate of heaven:  Mandate of heaven The concept that the king’s rule was based on the blessing of heaven and that if a king rules unwisely, heaven would not like it and give the mandate to someone else. This concept was first used on the Zhou dynasty in China. Contributions of China to Civilization:  Contributions of China to Civilization The Chinese developed a smallpox vaccine, invented the spinning wheel, and pioneered in the use of arches in bridge building. What is Confucianism?:  What is Confucianism? Confucians believe that in society there are five key relationships: Father to son, elder brother to young brother, husband to wife, ruler to subject, and friend to friend. They also believed that had certain duties and responsibilities they had to stay with, like how superiors should care for their inferiors while inferiors show loyalty to their superiors. What is Confucianism?:  What is Confucianism? Confucianism spread because his ideas and philosophies were used in everyday life Chinese rulers relied on it to pick Confucian scholars as officials and the Confucian emphasis in filial piety bolstered traditional customs What is Daoism:  What is Daoism Daoism was not concerned with bringing order to human affairs.Instead Daoists sought to live in harmony with nature.Daoists rejected conflict and strife.They wanted to end the conflict between human desires and the simple ways of nature.Daoists thought the best government was the one who governed the least. Yin/Yang:  Yin/Yang Gained control of a corner of northern China, along the Huang He. During this period, Chinese civilization first took shape. Kings led other noble warriors in battle. Social classes were royal families, noble warriors, artisans and merchants, then peasants Yin and Yang were opposite forces that worked to balance each other. Impact of Confucianism and Taoism on Chinese Society:  Impact of Confucianism and Taoism on Chinese Society Confucianism and Taoism changed the whole view of Chinese society. It influenced people to become more educated. More than a third of the world’s population came under the influence of these ideas. Chinese civilizations spread, hundreds of millions of people in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam accepted these beliefs. Mountains and Seas helped Greek political and social development:  Mountains and Seas helped Greek political and social development Mountains divided Greece into parts which made up the Greek city-states. The seas provided great harbors for ships. Which was for trade. Greeks became skilled sailors, carrying cargoes of olive oil, wine, and marble around the eastern Mediterranean. Mountains and seas led to the expansion of Greece. Trade help build a better economy GREEK CITY-STATES:  GREEK CITY-STATES First people to settle in Greece was the Minoans in 1750B.C. The Mycenae took over Greece in about 1400B.C. Settled on the Balkan peninsula The Greeks who farmed the valleys or settled on inlands did not create a very large empire Were not very united because of the many mountains any seas that they had to cross to get to each other The two major city states were Athens and Sparta The city states steadily disappeared at the end of the Peloponnesian war Their economies were formed around ship building, trade, and the growth of a few agricultural products that could be grown on their land (olives, grapes) FEATURES OF GREEK CITY STATES:  FEATURES OF GREEK CITY STATES Were very successful sailors Thrived through sea trade with each other Was also successful fishermen Had many deposits of silver, gold, iron, and marble Raided olive oil, wine, marble, gold and other materials that was in there cities Architects made many magnificent buildings Mainly the Parthenon ATHENS:  ATHENS Athens moved from monarchy to aristocracy to democracy to a tyrant Males were the only ones able to participate in government There were tens of thousands of slaves throughout Athens yet Athens offered the most freedom in the Greek city states Boys were the only ones who could go to school and that was only if there family could afford it Men received military training ‘ten golden years’ were the years after the Persian wars when Athens made many of their lasting cultural contributions. The end of Athens, in terms of real power, was a century or so after the Peloponnesian war Slide85:  Spartans were Dorians who had conquered Laconia They lived in the Peloponnesus, the southern part of Greece They had helots, which were people who were state-owned slaves – they made them work the land Spartans felt a need for a strong military state because they feared a possible revolt from the helots who greatly outnumbered the Spartans. Government included two kings and a council of elders who advised these monarchs. They also had an assembly of all citizens who approved major decisions. Spartan assembly of citizens – male, native born Spartans, and over the age of 30. Assembly also elected five ephors – officials who held real power and ran day-to-day affairs. Slide86:  Continually prepared for military state future mothers were required to be healthy to have a healthy child. newborns were examined at birth, the sickly were left to die. At the age of 7, boys began their training. they moved into barracks where they were allowed a course diet, hard exercise and rigid discipline. They were given only one piece of clothing to wear year round and they were made to sleep outside on the hard ground. they developed cunning to supplement their diets because they were encouraged to steal food – if they were caught, they were beaten At the age of 20, men could marry but still had to live in the barracks for 10 more years and eat there for another 40 years. At the age of 30, men would endure more training and then enter the assembly. Girls also had a hard upbringing They were expected to produce healthy sons for the army so they were required to exercise to strengthen their bodies. Women had to obey fathers or husbands and were treated fully with their rights, like that they were able to inherit property. Women ran the family estates while the men were occupied with war. Sparta isolated itself from other Greeks. They did not like trade or wealth . They forbade citizens to travel They had little use for new ideas or the arts. There were no other city-states that put to use military skills as much as Sparta did. Slide87:  By 750 B.C., rapid population growth forced many Greeks to leave their valleys and head overseas. Scattered colonies started to take root around the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt. Before 750 B.C., the Greeks were already living near many seas and had become skilled sailors by carrying cargo across the eastern Mediterranean. Slide88:  - Stories of gods and goddesses helped to explain the values and way of life of the Greek people. - Each of their gods was said to preside over a certain field of nature or human affairs. - For example, their god Zeus presided over the affairs of all gods and humans. - Aphrodite controlled the love affairs of humans, Ares was the god of war, and Athena was the goddess of wisdom. - Later, some Greeks thinkers came to believe that the universe was regulated and not controlled by these gods. They believed that the universe has natural laws. Slide89:  Alexander the Great founded many new cities in which Greek soldiers, traders, and artisans settled. They built Greek temples and filled them with Greek statues that portrayed their gods and goddesses. Local people then started coming to the cities and absorbed all these Greek ideas. The Romans shared the Italian peninsula with other people such as the Greeks and Etruscans (who actually controlled them). The Romans adopted the idea of having gods and goddesses. - Like the Greek god Zeus, the Romans had Jupiter. The Roman goddess Juno was like the Greek goddess Hera. The Roman god Neptune resembled the Greek god Poseidon and instead of the Greek god Ares, the Romans worshipped Mars. Zeus:  Zeus Zeus was the youngest son of Cronus and Rheia. He was the supreme ruler of mount Olympus. Zeus (like his father before him) deposed his aged father from the throne of eternity. As Kronos was about to slay his father, Uranus, he was warned that his own son would someday depose him. Kronos swallowed the first of his children, but Rheia was smart and tricked Kronos substituted a stone for the infant and Kronos swallowed it down. Zeus was hidden and raised in secret until he was old enough to fulfill his destiny. One day he ambushed Kronos while out hunting. Zeus kicked Kronos in the stomach so hard the aged god vomited up the stone and the five divine, undigested gods and goddesses. In gratitude, and bowing to destiny, Zeus was unanimously declared leader of the immortals. Zeus made his domain the mountain tops and clouds, where he could survey and vitalize all creation. Zeus married his sister Hera. She was jealous and vengeful of her husbands affections Apollo:  Apollo Apollo was the sun of Zeus and Leto. Apollo was the god of music, arts, archery, and divination. He represents order, harmony, and civilization in a way that most other Olympian deities cannot quite equal. Apollo is most often associated with the cultivated arts of music and medicine. His role as the leader of the Muses establishes him as a patron of intellectual pursuits. Apollo was the son of the Olympian Zeus. The brother of the goddess Artemis. Daphne was Apollo's first love. Apollo, as with Zeus his father, had many love affairs with goddesses and mortals. The most famous mortal loves of Apollo was Hecuba, she was the wife of Priam, the king of Troy. Asclepius, the god of healing, was also Apollo's offspring Apollo also, as did his father Zeus, fall in love with one of his own gender, Hyacinthus, a Spartan prince. According to one legend, it was Apollo who helped either Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. Hera:  Hera The queen of the Olympian deities She is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea, and wife and sister of Zeus. Hera was mainly worshipped as a goddess of marriage and birth. The children of Hera and Zeus are Hephaestus, Hebe, Ares. Thus they were born, not out of love but out of lust and hatred. Hera was constantly being jealous of Zeus's various amorous affairs. She punished her rivals and their children, among both goddesses and mortals, with implacable fury. She placed two serpents in the cradle of Heracles Sometimes when he got angry, he chained her to the mountain of Olympus by fastening anvils to her feet. He either hid his illegitimate children, or he changed them into animals. This was to keep Hera from hurting them. Peloponnesus, where she was worshipped as the town goddess. The peacock and the cow are her sacred animals. Hera is portrayed as a majestic, solemn woman. Her Roman counterpart is Juno. Slide93:  Artemis In earlier times Artemis was identified as the earth goddess, now she is normally referred to as the goddess of wild life and the patroness of hunters Of all the animals her most sacred was the bear. She is symbolized by a bow and a deer, even though her favorite animal was the bear. Slide94:  Athena Athena was the goddess of crafts, domestic arts, and those of war. Now she is regarded as the goddess of wisdom. She was the patron goddess of Athens, Greece. Her symbol is the owl. Slide95:  Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility. She is also known as the protector of sailors. This beautiful goddess is often associated with a dove or a goose. Aphrodite How did democracy develop in Athens?:  How did democracy develop in Athens? The principle of democracy all started in Athens when Aristotle’s Constitution of the Athenians was written. From the base of this constitution we wrote our constitution, with the principles of Aristotle’s constitution. Pericles was the main person who instituted democracy in Athens. Direct Democracy:  Direct Democracy Direct democracy is about “originating” ideas as much as it is about “approving” them. In parliamentary democracy, people are never asked for their own ideas - they are only asked to “approve” or “disapprove” of ideas already prepared for them. In a direct democracy everyone participates. Pericles:  Pericles Pericles was born in Athens in about 495 BC to a family of wealth and position He opened Athenian democracy to the ordinary citizen, he built the magnificent temples and statues on the Acropolis, and he created the Athenian empire. Oligarchy:  Oligarchy Early form of government where the civilization is ruled by the small elite, usually from the business class of merchants and artisans. How were the societies of Athens and Sparta different? :  How were the societies of Athens and Sparta different? Athens is known for being the major city of education and democracy in Greece while Sparta was more military based. The boys were taken at a young age to start training. The citizens feared revolts from their state owned slaves called helots. Spartan women held more rights than Athens women, Spartan women had the right to own land and had to be physically fit. Athens was known for its excellent navy and trade was a major part of their economy while Sparta was known for its excellent military or on land combat. Solon:  Solon Athenian ruler who also helped in the development of democracy. He extended citizenship rights to more people, outlawed debt slavery, gave people more power and brought economic reforms Draco:  Draco Athenian ruler who helped in the development of democracy He was responsible for codifying the laws of Greece for the first time they were called draconian laws. Slide103:  What were the three stages of government before democracy spread in Athens? Monarchy- a government where a king or a queen has essential power. Aristocracy- a government where elite landowners ruled. Oligarchy- a government where a small group usually in the business class holds the most power. Slide104:  What was the importance of the Persian Wars to the development of Greek culture? Victory in the Persian Wars brought Athens to be one of the most powerful city-states. They eventually formed the Delian League. Which brought all of the Greek city-states to an alliance in defense. Athens dominated the league and other Greek city-states did not like Athens having all of the power. When the other city-states protested, Athens came back with force. Eventually Sparta and Persia took over Athens and the other city-states and that lead to the downfall of Greece. So Greek culture developed through the Persian Wars by coming together and joining as one to form the Delian League and later down falling. Slide105:  At Marathon, Darius I sent an astounding force from Aegean to punish Athens. The Persians landed at Marathon in 490 B.C. Even though the Persians out numbered the Athenians greatly, Athens ended up crushing Persia in hand to hand combat. Also after the battle of Marathon a man ran from the battle scene the equivalence of a Marathon to Athens. Once he got there to share the news he collapsed. The Battle of Salamis:  The Battle of Salamis Part of the Persian wars ( Persians vs. Athenians ) Athenians pulled Persian navy into the Salamis straight, one year later the Persian boats sank; on land the Greeks defeated the Persians The last major battle of the Persian wars What effect did the Peloponnesian wars have on Greek power and influence?:  What effect did the Peloponnesian wars have on Greek power and influence? Athens was not totally destroyed, but it was severely weakened Sparta was even too weak to hold off attacks from outsiders This begins the decline of Greece Parthenon:  Parthenon Ancient Greek temple dedicated to the Greek goddess *Athena* Parthenos Doric Columns Built under the leadership of Pericles (447-432 BC) Stands on the Acropolis, high above Athens, Greece Aeschylus:  Aeschylus Creator of Greek theatre/drama Wrote many playwrights He fought in the at Athens in the “Marathon” to defeat Persia. His earliest work was “The Persians” He added two characters, whereas, before there had only been one, and he could show intrigue and conflict. He was born of a noble family He wrote tragedies. Courtesy of Meredith <3 Sophocles:  Sophocles He made his first appearance at the City Dionysia in 486 B.C. when he was at the mere age of 28. Born in Athens 495 B.C. He was the son of a wealthy merchant. He wrote over 120 plays He won 18 times at the City of Dionysus He preformed in many of his own plays Despite his great playwrights, he did do other things, he served for many years as an ordained priest. He added the third actor He wrote Antigone, a great work which is still used today He died at 91. Courtesy of Meredith <3 Homer:  Homer He was born on an island in Asia Minor He was a Greek poet He wrote the Iliad, which was the story of the siege of Troy. He wrote the Odyssey—The romantic tale of Odysseus struggling to get home from the war. He is believed to be born around 850 B.C. He went from village to village telling his stories orally. Courtesy of Meredith <3 Herodotus:  Herodotus Often called the father of history Herodotus was the Greek historian who chronicled the Persian wars, which involved the Greek city-states Vs. Persia. Wrote the History, provides accurate details about other civilizations of the time. Thucyidides:  Thucyidides Born in 460 B.C and died in 400 B.C The Greek historian who chronicled the Peloponnesian wars in which he himself fought in. His book,The History of The Peloponnesian War, provides accurate views on battles, historical names, and more. Phidias:  Phidias Born in 500, died in 432. Lived during the “classic” age of Greece under Pericles. A famous Athenian sculptor who made the statue of Athena in the Parthenon in Athens. Also made the huge statue of Zeus in the Temple of Zeus in Olympia. Doric Columns:  Doric Columns The simplest form of the columns. NO scrolls, and NO flowers or any decoration Shorter and wider than other columns with flat tops Buildings include the Parthenon. Ionian Columns:  Ionian Columns The second most decorative of the columns. Ionic columns are taller, and more slender than Doric columns. They are characterized by having scrolls at the tops of them. Corinthian Columns:  Corinthian Columns The most decorated of the columns. Contains decorated scrolls at the top along with flowers. Slide118:  He was a Greek mathematician, physicist, and inventor. He made inventions that applied to the principles of physics. He used the lever and pulley. He is famous for his work in geometry on the circle, sphere, cylinder, and parabola. He is also well known for his work in physics, mechanics, and hydrostatistics. He developed Archimedes’ principle and Archimedes’ screw. He worked on creating a mathematical expression to express extremely large numbers. He also worked on calculating the value of π. Slide119:  Lived around 400 B.C. He was a Greek physician who studied illnesses and looked for cures. He created the Hypocratic oath which set the ethical standards for doctors and is still in use today. Doctors promise to “ help the sick according to my ability and judgment but never with a view to injury and wrong” and to protect the patient’s privacy. Hellenistic mathematician that wrote The Elements, a book that became the basis for modern geometry. Slide120:  Hellenistic mathematician that devised the Pythagorean Theorem (a²+b²=c²). This formula is used to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle. Socrates:  Socrates 469-399 B.C. Wrote nothing Most of what we know about him comes from Plato Plato was his student Thought knowledge was a living, interactive thing Philosophy was to question people Socrates:  Socrates Elenchus-method of questioning (cross-examination) Dialect-idea that truth needs to be pursued by examining a person’s position through questioning Unconcerned with physical or metaphysical questioning (Sophist) Plato:  Plato Socrates most famous student Founded his own school “The Academy” in 385 (most famous school at the time) Most famous pupil was Aristotle Wrote dialogues between Socrates Examined basic ethical issues Formed his own philosophy (more teaching) Plato:  Plato “The Republic” is his most famous dialogue Deals with how to live a good life, justice in the Senate, and justice for an individual Divides human beings into innate intelligence, strength, and courage Believed in aristocracy (rule by the best) Different societies (Producers, Auxiliaries, Guardians) Aristotle:  Aristotle Teacher was Plato Taught Alexander the Great Opened his own school the “Lyceum” Studied there for twelve years Disagreed on everything with Plato Wrote about poetics, rhetoric, ethics, politics, meteorology, embryology, physics, mathematics, analogy, etc Aristotle:  Aristotle Evidence-examined what people said, wrote, or did to solve a problem Studied over five hundred species of plants and animals Read one hundred and fifty eight constitutions of different governments Inductive reasoning-to observe as many possible examples of a specific subject Aristotle:  Aristotle Categorized knowledge by their objects and relative certainty Knowledge is characterized by precise explanations or probability Thought that everything was always moving and changing What Effect Did Major Greek Thinkers Have on Western Philosophy?:  What Effect Did Major Greek Thinkers Have on Western Philosophy? Major Greek thinkers used methods to find truth, accepting nothing less than that, and also had opinions about society, making Western philosophy similar. Romans thought highly of the Hellenistic philosophy. Hellenistic Culture:  Hellenistic Culture During the Hellenistic age many cultures blended together, which led to new schools of thought, advances in learning and medicine. Schools of thought-Zeno founded Stoicism which urged people to avoid desires and disappointments by accepting calmly whatever life brought. Stoicism later influenced many Roman and Christian thinkers. Advances in learning- Pythagoras developed a formula to calculate the relation ship between sides of right triangles, Euclid wrote the elements which became the basis for modern geometry, Aristarchus argued that the earth rotated on an axis and orbited the sun which was a theory of heliocentric. Archimedes applied principles with physics and developed the pully. Medicine- Hippocrates developed cures for illnesses and his oath set ethical standards for doctors to come. During the Hellenistic period Rome emerged as a powerful new state after its conquest of Asia minor and replaced Greece and the Dominant power in the Mediterranean world King Phillip II of Macedonia:  King Phillip II of Macedonia Philip II of Macedonia ruled from 359-336 B.C.E. Without the military and political efforts of Philip, Alexander would never have been as successful as he was. Philip came to power in 359 B.C.E. after the Macedonians had just suffered a defeat at the hands of the Illyrians. Macedonia was in political and military turmoil, and Philip immediately set about bringing the people of Macedonia under his control. After exacting revenge on the Illyrians by defeating them in 358 B.C.E., Philip sought to bring all of Upper Macedonia under his control and make them loyal to him. His primary method of creating alliances and strengthening loyalties was through marriage. The most important marriage for Philip was to Olympias, from the royal house of Molossia. By 357 B.C.E., they were married, and she gave birth to Alexander the next year. Alexander the Great:  Alexander the Great Alexander was 20 years old when he became king. Alexander’s empire extended from Greece to Egypt and Macedonia to Persia. His greatest achievement was the spread of Greek and Hellenistic culture and he did that by conquering other countries. The Growth of the Roman Empire:  The Growth of the Roman Empire Rome is located in the middle of the Mediterranean, on the Italian Peninsula. Because of it’s location, Rome was connected to all the major trade routes around the Mediterranean Being in the middle of the Mediterranean, Rome’s strategic location contributed to its rise in wealth and power. What was Roman mythology based on?:  What was Roman mythology based on? Greek Zeus= Roman Jupiter Greek Hera= Roman Juno Greek Poseidon= Roman Neptune Greek Ares= Roman Mars What impact did Roman mythology have on later civilizations?:  What impact did Roman mythology have on later civilizations? Roman mythology played a huge role in developing culture and traditions in later civilizations. The art and literature based on this mythology later influenced writers and artists who created many paintings and sculptures to represent important mythological figures. A good example is the Byzantine empire that occurred shortly after the fall of the Rome. The Byzantine empire was extremely influenced by the traditions of ancient Roman mythology. It has inspired many to write poems, plays, and even operas. Without the heavy influence of Roman mythology, the world would be a very different place. Jupiter:  Jupiter The supreme god in Roman mythology - equivalent to the Greek god Zeus Was originally the God of storms, thunder, and lightning Gradually became the highest God and the protector of the Roman people The protector of the state and its laws Had a temple on the capitol Generals honored Jupiter with sacrifices “God of Light and Sky” Juno:  Juno The wife and sister of the God Jupiter - equivalent to the Greek God Hera The protector of women especially marriage and childbirth A special counselor and protector of the Roman state Special festival called Matronalia was held on March 1st and dedicated to her Month of June may have been named after her “Queen of Olympia” Apollo:  Apollo The son of Zeus and Leto The God of agriculture and cattle and of light and truth The powers and functions of the sun God Helios were given to him An excellent musician, especially on the lyre A swift athlete, said to be the first winner of the Olympic games His twin sister Artemis was the protector of young women, while he was the protector of young men “God of agriculture and of light and truth” Slide138:  122. Diana - Roman goddess of hunting and childbirth. 123. Minerva - Roman goddess of wisdom, learning, war, and crafts. 124. Venus - Roman goddess of love and beauty. 125. Patricians - members of the land-holding upper class of Rome. Plebeians:  Plebeians The farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the bulk of the population. they had little influence The efforts of the plebeians to gain power shaped politics in the early republic The plebeians protested that citizens couldn’t know the laws, because they were not written down. How did one become a citizen of Rome?:  How did one become a citizen of Rome? Must live in Rome Must be a member of the upper or middle class Or emperor could grant you citizenship How did the Roman republic become more democratic in its decision making?:  How did the Roman republic become more democratic in its decision making? It granted citizenship rights to more people. The Senate granted more power to bodies that represented the common people. 129-131:  129-131 129:Roman Senate- In the early republic the most powerful part of the government was the senate. All of the members were patricians- people of the landholding upper class. Each year two consuls were elected by the senate. In the event of war the senate would elect a dictator to take complete control of the government. 130:Consuls- Once a year the senate elected two consuls. The consuls job was to supervise the business of the government and command the armies. Consuls could only serve one term. The consuls had to consult with the senate, thus giving the Roman gov’t a system of checks on power in the gov’t. 131:Twelve Tables of Rome- The plebians protested to the Roman gov’t that they could not know the laws because they were not written down. The gov’t then put the laws on 12 tablets and put in the marketplace. .:  . Rome’s victories in the Punic Wars allowed Rome to extend there land in the Mediterranean by defeating Carthage who held onto Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. They were the only strong power in the region. Hannibal- A Carthaginian general who let Carthage to invade Italy and be defeated in 2/3 of the Punic Wars Gaul- A land that was taken over in one of Caesar’s conquests. Gaul is present day France. Gaul:  Gaul Present day France Julius Caesar set out on a conquest to conquer this area in 59 B.C and after nine years he completed his conquest In 486 Clovis conquered Gaul Later became part of Charlemagne’s empire Why did the Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar?:  Why did the Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar? Julius Caesar was very powerful and the Republic was already in decline He was popular among the people because of his many victories With a strong army under his command, he was able to defeat Pompay and his supporters Slide146:  Rome gained control over busy trade routes Conquered people became slaves and slave labor increased Farmers went into debt and were forced to sell their land because their productivity rate was not as great as that of the slaves’ on the latifundia Conquests gave Rome control over trade routes that brought many new riches to the city New class of wealthy Romans emerged Romans built mansions and enjoyed new luxuries Economic Social How did military conquests alter economic and social life in Rome? What were some causes of the decline of the Roman Republic?:  What were some causes of the decline of the Roman Republic? Civil wars erupted due to disagreements over whether the senate or a political leader should hold the most power Slave uprisings and revolts Soldiers gave their first loyalty to their commanders Julius Caesar rose to power Julius Caesar-”Veni, vidi, vici”:  Julius Caesar-”Veni, vidi, vici” Dictator and absolute ruler of Rome He kept senate and other features of the republic after he conquered Rome Reforms Public works Granted more citizenship New calendar—Julian calendar Stabbed to death in March 44BC Octavian—Caesar Augustus:  Octavian—Caesar Augustus Absolute Power End of the republic Government reforms Stabilized government Had civil service to enforce laws Allowed self-government to cities and provinces of Rome Economic reforms Census for better taxing Postal service New coins for easier trading Marc Antony:  Marc Antony Julius Caesar’s chief general Joined with Octavian to find Caesar’s murderers The two quarreled for power 31 BC—Octavian defeated Antony and his powerful ally, Queen Cleopatra of Egypt What was Pax Romana?—”Roman Peace”:  What was Pax Romana?—”Roman Peace” The 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended with Marcus Aurelius Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity from the Euphrates River to Britain This when most of Rome’s cultural contributions were made. Social, Economic, and Political Impacts of the Pax Romana:  Social, Economic, and Political Impacts of the Pax Romana Social-People moved with the Roman Empire, spreading ideas and knowledge. Ideas from Greece and Judea had an impact on Rome Economic-Trade spread throughout lands in Africa and Asia. Egyptian farmers in the Nile Valley gave grain to the Romans. Ivory and gold came from other parts of Africa. Political-Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands in the Euphrates river into Britain. Constantine and Theodosius:  Constantine and Theodosius Emperor Constantine continued Diocletian’s reforms. He granted toleration to Christians. He built a new capital named Constantinople. Constantinople made the eastern portion of the empire the center of power. Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. How did Christianity become rooted in the Roman Empire?:  How did Christianity become rooted in the Roman Empire? Many religions were practiced in the Roman Empire. Christianity was one that appealed to many of the citizens of Rome. Peter and the other disciples preached to the city of Rome about Christianity. As Christian churches were established throughout Rome, more people started to convert. By A.D. 395, Christianity became Rome’s official religion. What are the beliefs and traditions of Christianity?:  What are the beliefs and traditions of Christianity? One God. Jesus Christ was the Son of God. Promised spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who believed Jesus was the Son of God. Taught the need for justice, morality, and service to others. “Love your neighbor with all your heart, with all your mind, and with all your soul.” Jesus of Nazareth:  Jesus of Nazareth Jesus was born about 4 B.C. in Bethlehem. He was a descendant of King David of Israel. Mary give birth to Jesus. Jesus worked as a carpenter until he was 30. He preached his message until he was 33. Jesus recruited 12 apostles to aid him in his mission. One of which was Peter. Slide157:  149. How did Christianity spread? Jesus disciples and some of his followers spread from Jerusalem teaching people about Jesus, his teachings, and his crucifixion and resurrection. 150. What was the impact Christianity had on the late Roman Empire? Emperor Constantine declared Christianity as the major religion of the Roman Empire. When the empire split into the Byzantine and the Holy Roman Empire life was centered around the church. The main political power and social center was the church. It then spread to Asia and Eastern Europe to the Islamic countries. Slide158:  151. Pantheon A domed temple in Rome that had altars for many of the gods they worshipped. 152. Colosseum A large round building which consisted of three levels of arches in the Roman Forum where gladiators fought each other and executions were held as entertainment for the people of Rome. Aqueducts and Ptolemy :  Aqueducts and Ptolemy Aqueducts man-made conduit for carrying water. In a more restricted sense, aqueducts are structures used to conduct a water stream across a hollow or valley. In modern engineering "aqueduct" refers to a system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and supporting structures used to convey water from its source to its main distribution point. Ptolemy was the Macedonian general who, as one of the Diadochi, or Successors, of Alexander, acquired Egypt. From him was established the Ptolemaic Dynasty that ruled for three centuries, until the murder of Caesarian (Ptolemy XV), the 17 year old son of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar, by order of Octavian in 30 B.C. Although Ptolemy and his successors were and remained Greeks, they adopted many Egyptian customs, ruling in the tradition of the ancient Egyptian Pharaohs. They also involved themselves in incestuous marriages in a like manner of the Pharaohs. The Ptolemaic kings, all fifteen of whom were named Ptolemy, often married their sisters, who were commonly named Cleopatra, from the Greek kleos patris meaning famous parents. www.crystalinks.com/romeaqueducts.html & http://www.keyway.ca/htm2003/.htm Slide160:  The Western Roman Empire fell because of no strong ruler. There was power but no strong ruler to unite all the land. The attacks by the Huns from Mongolia pushed people into the empire that the government did not want and made it hard to defend the empire because they never new who was in the empire borders. Their economy was weak; the tax burden was too heavy for the people to carry. Slide161:  The Roman Empire was split into and eastern and western half. The empire was split because it was thought to make it cheaper and easier to govern because of its large size. Virgil- wrote The Aeneid which told Rome’s past. Latin and Romance Languages:  Latin and Romance Languages Every great Western society sees itself as better for having held on to inherited Roman traditions. As well as having served as the language of an empire that once ruled over a fourth of the world's population, today, the variant named Church or Ecclesiastical Latin is the official language of the Vatican, and language instructors the world over hold onto it as though it were still very much alive. Its vocabulary has been borrowed into every major European language, and its roots are the basis of scientific and technological vocabulary. One noticeable characteristic of Latin is the heavier reliance on inflections to convey the meaning and use of a word than seen in its daughter languages. The Romance languages are a group of closely related vernaculars descended from the LATIN LANGUAGE, a member of the Italic branch of INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES.  The designation Romance is derived from the Latin phrase romanica loqui, "to speak in Roman fashion," which attests to the popular, rather than literary, origins of the languages. The Romance languages that have acquired national standing as the official tongues of their countries are French, with approximately 98 million speakers living principally in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, and parts of Africa;  Italian, with 65 million speakers in Italy, Switzerland, and parts of Africa;  Portuguese, with 137 million speakers in Portugal, Brazil, and parts of Africa and Asia;  Spanish, with 231 million speakers in Spain, Latin America, and parts of the Caribbean;  and Romanian, with 25 million speakers in Romania and other parts of the Balkans. http://www.angelfire.com/md/Orastie/Romance.html Slide163:  How did the location of Constantinople lead to its development as a major city? Constantinople became a major city by its close location to the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. It was a major city that held trade routes to Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa. Because of its excellent harbors and close location, Constantinople was a bustling marketplace for centuries. The harbors also make it rich in man

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