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What On Earth: Geology and Wildflowers, Sudbury Ontario Area

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Information about What On Earth: Geology and Wildflowers, Sudbury Ontario Area
Education

Published on February 23, 2014

Author: andyfyon

Source: authorstream.com

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PowerPoint Presentation: Dr. Andy Fyon, Director, Ontario Geological Survey , Ontario Ministry of Northern Development & Mines Geolog ical History, Habitat and Flowering Plants Sudbury and Area Sudbury Horticultural Society, February 23 , 201 4 PowerPoint Presentation: Journey Today Great moments in Earth history – abridged version! Relationship between g eolog ical habitat and plants Geology creates habitats for plant communities! Wake Robin ( Trillium erectum ) PowerPoint Presentation: Not a biologist , botanist, or horticulturist Not an expert ; w ildflowers hobby Am a geologist by training Prefer not to discuss medicinal or culinary uses of plants Lots of questions, don't have all the answers, let’s try together PowerPoint Presentation: Sponsor’s Message - Ontario Geological Survey Ministry of Northern Development + Mines Energy: Geothermal Non-renewable rock Energy Process Landforms Glacial deposits Rocks Vibrant and Strong Communities A Plan for Jobs A Fair Society Minerals, Aggregate, Groundwater Natural Hazards Inorganic Geochemical Baseline 4 PowerPoint Presentation: 5 Economy Hazards, safety Protection Climate Change Infrastructure Environment, habitat Why document G eolog y? Health " Ontario beneath our feet" It matters to all of us! PowerPoint Presentation: 6 Geologic Time Scale (Ga) - Billions of Years Earth History Key Events Earth History – In The Beginning! PowerPoint Presentation: In the Beginning – Earth Born 4.54 Billion years Ago Proto-Sun: 4.56 Billion years ago Proto-Earth (Hadean (Hell like) Eon ) - molten metal and magma http://piq.codeus.net/picture/65726/the_hadean_eon http://astrobioloblog.wordpress.com/2011/10/10/how-the-earth-was-born/ Not a happy place for life as we know it! PowerPoint Presentation: Poisonous Atmosphere 4.5 – 3.5 Billion years Ago Shallow ocean. Small islands. Land was forming. Poisonous atmosphere: methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide, “no” oxygen. Not a happy place for life as we know it! http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/history_of_the_earth/Archean PowerPoint Presentation: 9 First Record of Life 3.5 Billion years Ago PowerPoint Presentation: First Record of Life – Blue-green Algae (cyanobacteria) - 3.5 Billion years Ago Shallow ocean. “Eat” sunlight to produce oxygen (photosynthesis). http://whyfiles.org/2011/breaking-the-cambrian-barrier/ Gunflint, Thunder Bay, 2 billion years old http://www.palaeocast.com/episode-16-multicellularity-in-cyanobacteria/#.UwijOIVvcYt PowerPoint Presentation: Early Life – Blue-green Algae (Cyanobacteria) - Oldest Stromatolites - 3.5 Billion Years Old Stromatolites. Oxygen produced by photosynthesis. http://www.arcadiastreet.com/cgvistas/earth/01_precambrian/earth_01_precambrian_2200b.htm Stromatolite cross-section, Thunder Bay PowerPoint Presentation: Continental Shield – 2.5 Billion Years Ago Volcanic islands. Granite “crust”. Continents. I see land in a soupy ocean! “A place to stand, a place to grow, Ontari-ari-ari-o" http://www.docstoc.com/docs/126548145/The-Precambrian-Era_-_The-most-important-era-ever_ PowerPoint Presentation: 13 Continent Erodes – 2.5 – 1.8 Billion Years Ago PowerPoint Presentation: Continent Erodes – 2.5 – 2.2 Billion Years Ago - Southern Province Sediments (Quartzite) Precambrian Shield Southern Province (Lorraine Quartzite) Shield erodes. Sand on a beach 1.1 billion years ago. Quartzite (eg La Cloche Mountains) PowerPoint Presentation: Continent Erodes – 2.5 – 2.2 Billion Years Ago - Southern Province Sediments – Lorrain Quartzite PowerPoint Presentation: 16 Great Oxidation Event - 2.4 Billion Years Ago http://theconversation.com/life-on-earth-was-nothing-but-slime-for-a-boring-billion-years-23358 PowerPoint Presentation: Great Oxidation Event - 2.5 to 2.4 Billion Years Ago Oxygen + iron in ocean reacted. Formed red iron oxide. Sedimentary banded iron formations. Ocean iron consumed. Atmospheric oxygen build up. World's great iron deposits. “What a (person) needs in gardening is a cast iron back, with a hinge in it” - Charles Dudley Warner - PowerPoint Presentation: 18 Warm Ocean Covers Parts of Ontario – 0.48 – 0.35 Billion Years Ago PowerPoint Presentation: Warm Ocean Limestone 495-450 million-years ago Shallow warm seas. Limestone Hudson Bay, James Bay, Temiskaming ( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Coral Limestone and dolomite rocks: special habitat for plants! Brachiopod Young rocks formed in warm ocean PowerPoint Presentation: 20 Ice Sheet Covers Canada – 3 Million Years Ago PowerPoint Presentation: Ice Sheet Covers Canada – 3,000,000 to 10,000 Years Ago Coniglio et al. 2006 Ice covered Ontario. Shaped the land. Ended 10,000 yrs ago. Ice melts to north. Present landscape exposed. PowerPoint Presentation: 22 Fossil Plants – 0.45 Billion Years Ago First Fossil Land Plant 450-420 Million Years Ago: First Fossil Land Plant 450-420 Million Years Ago Cooksonia: Oldest known vascular plant: stem that moves water. Few cm tall. Transitional between primitive non-vascular bryophytes and vascular plants. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooksonia_%28plant%29 http://palaeos.com/plants/tracheophyta/cooksonia.html First Fossil Club Moss 325 million years ago: First Fossil Club Moss 325 million years ago Lepidodendron ( Lycopsid / Lycopod ): First club moss Vascular plants Up to 27 meters (90 feet) tall Swampy places Lycopsid : make up 70% of coal Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia http://unlobogris.deviantart.com/art/Lepidodendron-36414294 Fossil Club Moss and Modern Plant 325 million years ago: Fossil Club Moss and Modern Plant 325 million years ago Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia Club moss Lepidodendron : Lycopsid related to club moss Branches at crown of mature plant Spore reproduction First Fossil Calamites Horsetail 325 million years ago: First Fossil Calamites Horsetail 325 million years ago Calamites: First horsetails (tree-like). Up to 30 meters (100 feet) tall. Coal swamp understory. Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia, Ann Weiszmann Fossil Calamites Horsetail and Modern Plant 325 million years ago: Fossil Calamites Horsetail and Modern Plant 325 million years ago Calamites: Ancestor of Horsetail ( Equisetum ) Spore reproduction John Calder, Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia Woodland horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum) First Fossil Angiosperm Archaefructus sinensis - 125 million years old: First Fossil Angiosperm Archaefructus sinensis - 12 5 million years old First angiosperm: Oldest flowering plant. Now extinct. Shallow water habitat. Evolutionary to flowering plants . http://www.mnh.si.edu/museum/news/firstflower/ Gymnosperm: seed not enclosed in an ovule (like a pine cone; naked seed; conifer, cedars) Angiosperm: seed surrounded by ovule; deciduous oak, maple) PowerPoint Presentation: Geology Influence s Location and Type of Wildflower Communities Geological Habitats Landscape Plant Communities Geological Processes PowerPoint Presentation: Geology and Plants – Rock Desert Precambrian Quartzite - 2.5 to 2.2 Billion Years - La Cloche Mountains Glacia l erosion shapes land: special habitat for plants. PowerPoint Presentation: Rock Desert : Bristly Sarsaparilla ( Aralia hispida ) Deep roots Narrow leaves PowerPoint Presentation: Rock Desert : Pearly Everlasting ( Anapahlis margaritace ) D rought tolerant Narrow, silver leaves PowerPoint Presentation: “ Rock Desert” : Geology - Plant Summary Rock Desert Geology Little soil Few nutrients High solar Plant Response Leaf design (narrow, silver) Deep tap roots PowerPoint Presentation: Geology and Speciality Plants Limey vs Acid Soil Limestone: Limey Canadian Shield quartzite: Acidic PowerPoint Presentation: Geology and Speciality Plants Limey vs Acidic Soil Yellow Lady's-slipper ( Cypripedium calceolus ): Limey soil Pink Lady's-slipper ( Cypripedium acaule ): Acidic soil PowerPoint Presentation: Limestone Alvar : 450 Million Year Old Dolomite / Limestone - Harsh Geological Habitat Limestone, dolomite rock Little or no soil Low nutrient Limey groundwater + soil Open hot, sunlight Spring flooding, summer drought PowerPoint Presentation: Alvar Plant: Lakeside daisy / Manitoulin Gold ( Tetraneuris herbacea ) - Dry Alvar Plant: Cylindric Blazing Star (Liatris cylindracea) - Dry: 38 Alvar Plant: Cylindric Blazing Star ( Liatris cylindracea ) - Dry Feathery flower heads = common name gayfeather. The word “ cylindracea” refers to cylinder-shaped flower heads. Prairies, limestone outcrops, bluffs, barrens, marl. PowerPoint Presentation: Alvar Plants: C alcicole, C alciphyte or C alciphile M oist Lime-rich Conditions Fringed Gentian ( Gentiana procera ) Kalm's Lobelia ( Lobelia kalmii ) PowerPoint Presentation: Alvar Plants: C alcicole, C alciphyte or C alciphile Moist lime-rich Conditions False-Asphodel ( Tofieldia glutinosa ) Bird`s-eye Primrose ( Primula mistassinica ) PowerPoint Presentation: Alvar Plant: Wild Chives ( Allium schoenoprasum ) Wet Lime-rich Conditions PowerPoint Presentation: Alvar Plant: Creeping Juniper ( Juniperus horizontalis ) - Dry PowerPoint Presentation: Alvar Plant Summary Narrow-leaved Vervain ( Verbena simplex ) Geology Limestone / dolomite Lime c onditions Plant adaptation Calcium- and magnesium-tolerant plants Heat + drought tolerant plants PowerPoint Presentation: Glaciation – Last Ice Age 2,500,000 to 20,000 years ago Coniglio et al. 2006 Ice covered Ontario. Melted about 10,000 yrs ago. PowerPoint Presentation: Glacial Lake Bottom: 10,000 - 4,000 years ago http://home.cogeco.ca/~geoheritagenipissing/ Light blue = glacial lake discharge Dark blue - present water Lake bottom - special habitat for plants (Fertile soil) PowerPoint Presentation: Glacial Lake Bottom Deposits Fertile Soil: Farm Land Flat, fertile land = lake bottom = farm; “Valley” and Noelville PowerPoint Presentation: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Former lake bottom - rich, fertile soil PowerPoint Presentation: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich fertile soil Wake Robin ( Trillium erectum ) White trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum ) PowerPoint Presentation: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile soil Carolina spring beauty ( Claytonia caroliniana or Claytonia Virginica ) PowerPoint Presentation: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile soil. Dutchman's Breeches ( Dicentra cucullaria ) PowerPoint Presentation: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile soil Broad-leaved Toothwort ( Cardamine diphylla ) Trout Lily ( Erythronium americanum ) PowerPoint Presentation: Geology Glaciation Ancient glacial lake Fertile lake sediments Moist rich soil Plant adaptation Rapid blooming Ephemeral Summary Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat White trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum ) PowerPoint Presentation: G lacier: Deranged Drainage Fen and Bog Plants Isolated, acidic, poor nutrients . Fen: Sedges, heaths Bog: sphagnum moss . Bog – Plant Survival Tactics: Bog – Plant Survival Tactics Carnivorous Non-carnivorous Mycorrhizal fungal and plant roots Grass-pink Orchid PowerPoint Presentation: Australian National Botanic Gardens Fungi Web Site Acidic bog: metal poisons, like zinc, copper, aluminum. Symbotic association with soil fungi Fungi: transfer organic nitrogen to plant-friendly amino acids Block poisonous metal uptake by plant. G lacier: Deranged Drainage Fen and Bog Plants Glacier: Deranged Drainage Fen Plants: G lacier: Deranged Drainage Fen Plants Sheep Laurel Flowers old wood Bog Laurel Flowers new wood Glacier: Deranged Drainage Bog Plants: G lacier: Deranged Drainage Bog Plants Cloudberry ( Rubus chamaemorus) Bake-apple, Headberry, salmonberry Bogs Delicious fruit – excellent jelly! Glacier: Deranged Drainage Fen and Bog Plants: 58 G lacier: Deranged Drainage Fen and Bog Plants Large Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) Edible – commercial cranberry cultivated from this species PowerPoint Presentation: G lacier: Deranged Drainage I nsectivore Bog Plants Leaves - “soup” + hairs Drowned insects Digestive enzymes Pitcher Plant ( Sarracenia purpurea ) PowerPoint Presentation: G lacier: Deranged Drainage I nsectivore Bog Plant Secretions Trap insects Nutrients Sundew ( Drosera rotundifolia ) PowerPoint Presentation: Geology Glaciation Poor drainage S phagnum moss A cidic conditions Plant adaptation I nsectivore Bog: Geology - Plant Summary PowerPoint Presentation: 4.54 Billion years of Earth History PowerPoint Presentation: Geology Influence s Location and Type of Wildflower Communities Geological Habitats Landscape Plant Communities Geological Processes PowerPoint Presentation: Dr. Andy Fyon (Geology Hat) Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.facebook.com/OGSgeology or (Wildflower Hat) www.ontariowildflower.com www.facebook.com/Andy.wildflowers E-mail: Andy.fyon@ontario.ca

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