Published on March 15, 2014
What makes AWS invincible? Haruka Iwao, 2014/03/15
Before talking about AWS
About myself Haruka Iwao (@Yuryu) DevOps Engineer at FreakOut, Inc. Lived in Osaka, Tsukuba, Yokohama. Now in Tokyo. Playing FFXIV ARR
Me Final Fantasy XIV ARR Status: Cleared the Coil Turn 5. Got my Allagan Weapon.
Kindle Publishing Publishing Kindle books about the Linux Kernel Search “Yuryu Linux”
About FreakOut, Inc. Not about freaking out :p Advertisement company Established in 2010 “Real-time Bidding”
Real-time bidding SSP Supply-side Platform DSP Demand-side Platform DSP Demand-side Platform DSP Demand-side PlatformRequest a page Read an ad tag Call for bids DSP decides the best ad for the user and page
Real-time bidding (2) SSP Supply-side Platform DSP Demand-side Platform DSP Demand-side Platform DSP Demand-side Platform Bid Auction Return the winning ad
Real-time bidding (3) http://londoncreative.com/real-time-bidding-spending-to-significantly-increase/
Our motto 50ms or die. Return a response within 50ms or lose an auction automatically. Latency matters. Literally.
How we use AWS
Our system at a glance http://aws.amazon.com/jp/solutions/case-studies/freakout/
Mix of on-premise and AWS On-premise in Japan AWS in North America Starting small Scaling well No need to visit a DC
Latency matters Latency is important for our service 1ms = 1/50 of processing time
Latency between servers Freedom to build an arbitrary network ... Gives you an arbitrary latency
Longer latency in AWS On-premise time=0.063 ms time=0.083 ms time=0.077 ms time=0.070 ms time=0.092 ms time=0.069 ms time=0.077 ms AWS, extreme case time=1.88 ms time=1.96 ms time=2.60 ms time=3.72 ms time=2.46 ms time=1.05 ms time=2.37 ms
Longer latency in AWS (2) Hard to see? Let’s make a graph...
Longer latency, illustrated 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 On-premise AWS RTT(ms) RTT(ms)
Longer latency in AWS (3) This is not always true Just an extreme case This applies to intra-AZ “Option” to group servers in near racks would be great
Placement groups Placement groups are not enough Only available to cluster compute instances Guarantees bandwidth, not latency
Possible workarounds Assume the latency Design your app accordingly Use persistent connections Put hot data on local Still, lower latency gives “extra” room
Infrastructure as Code
The “Awesome” Console
... So awesome to make mistakes easily...
AWS is Programmable.
Thou hast SDK. Python
Thou hast CLI. CLI
Thou hast CloudFormation. AWS CloudFormation
SDK + CLI + CloudFormation You can “code” your infrastructure Infrastructure becomes “reproducible” and “reusable”
Always use CLI Always use CLI to make changes “Review” the commands Less chance of “oops” But...
CLI is hard to understand!
VS aws ec2 run-instances --image-id ami-xxxxxxxx -- count 1 --instance-type t1.micro --key-name MyKeyPair --security-group-ids sg-xxxxxxxx --subnet-id subnet-xxxxxxxx
Record & Play “Record” instructions on the Web Console “Playback” them using CLI In other words...
Converted to aws ec2 run-instances --image-id ami-xxxxxxxx -- count 1 --instance-type t1.micro --key-name MyKeyPair --security-group-ids sg-xxxxxxxx --subnet-id subnet-xxxxxxxx
With “playback” You could review changes beforehand You could record changes and reuse them Easier than writing CLI commands by hand
A very famous quote about “code”
All your code are belong to test
Testing is Important Every program has bugs “Infrastructure as Code” is no exception
How do you test?How do you test?
Bugs can be fatal A bug can destroy your whole system What if you accidentally Terminate an instance Set a wrong route table Delete RR from Route53
“Sandbox” for testing VPC is (sometimes) not enough Test 100% bootstrap in a safe environment Register IAM accounts Add Route53 zones Set up S3 buckets, etc…
Framework for testing Test-kitchen to test your Chef cookbooks Serverspec to test your server setups How do you verify your changes to AWS?
Possible workarounds Use a separate account Maybe we need more environments in the future? Costs money CloudFormer converts environments to configuration
Scenario #1 You add a new rule to your security group aws ec2 authorize-security-… You want to make sure a port is open or closed between particular hosts How?
Workaround #1 Create a new VPC Apply the new rule Launch two instances Check connectivity
Scenario #2 You set up Route53 Health Checks Now you want to test if it actually fails-over How?
Workaround #2 Set up two ELBs / instances Stop instances registered to one ELB Query to R53 until it fails- over
Need a solution! A “common language” to verify AWS configuration Want to run tests cheaper, quicker and safer Even the requirements are not yet clear…
In the end of the presentation…
What makes AWS invincible? Lower latency Giving options or hints to EC2 “Playback” feature Generate CLI commands using simple UI Testing methodology
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