Published on May 27, 2008
Indoor Air Technologies Incwww.indoorair.ca toll free (800) 558-5892What is that black stuff?What is that black stuff?,$7)81*$/,19(67,*$7,216RXJODV 6 :DONLQVKDZ 3K 3(QJWood and dry-wall moisturecontents above18% supportmold growthFungal sporesamplingidentifies animportantcomponent offungal exposure Moisture meter RCS spore sampler
Microbial VOCsampling is animportant partof investigatingmold exposureSampling pump with sorbent volatileorganic compound sampling tube3 media VOC sorbent tube
POSSIBLE FUNGAL EXPOSURE HEALTHEFFECTSAllergic respiratory disease(nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing,conjunctivitis) or asthma (wheeze, chesttightness).Mycotoxic effects: eg. Stachbotrys chartarum(black or black green, wet conditions) can affectheart tissue, the immune system. P viridicatumaffects kidneys and nervous system.Atopic allergic/contact dermatitis.Mold healtheffects-allergens-irritants-mycotoxins-pathogens•Fungal colony
Case History # 1Flooded Finished BasementInitial finding (October)- 1,638 CFU/m3 including 675 toxigenicP. viridicatum - affects kidneys,P. brevicompactum - is teratogenic,mutagenic, immuno-suppressive)(outdoor air had 613 CFU/m3 with 0toxigenic).Problems:The open sumppit and thedrains leading toit, in addition tothe dampbasementfinishing , werealso a source ofmicrobialpropagules andVOCs
Flooded Finished Basement cont’dMarch: Basement stripped and disinfected- 63 CFU/m3 including 31 toxic spores(outdoor air had 0 CFU/m3)May: Basement sump sealed and vented- 144 CFU/m with 0 toxic spores(outdoor air had 169 CFU/m3including 25 pathogenic (A. fumigatus)and 64 toxigenic (A.versicolor) spores)Problems:The open sumppit and thedrains leading toit, in addition tothe dampbasementfinishing, werea source ofmicrobialpropagules andVOCs
Problems:- Improperlyventilated crawlspace,-Damp coldroom,-Mold source inHRVCase History # 2New Energy Efficient Model HouseFirst floor62 CFU/m3 Penicillium sp.Second floor25 CFU/m3 Alternaria, NSIBasement crawl space> 10,631 CFU/m3Basement cold room> 7,656 CFU/m3 Penicillium species, AspergillusVentilation air after HRV (with humidity wheel)1,294 CFU/m3 - Penicillium species(Outdoor air, March, 19 CFU/m3)
Problems:- wet finished basement- damp wall and manyplants in MBRCase History # 3House with Mold Throughout,especially in the BasementBasementMBRCrawlsp.AcceptableToxigenic speciesDominant speciesNon-phylloplane speciesAll species01002003004005006007008009001000Toxigenic fungiPenicilium viridicatum (soil smell; kidney disease)TNTC in basement, 70 CFU/m3 in MBRStachybotrys chartarum (lung disease, flu-like symptoms)20 CFU/m3 in MBRtoo numerous to count = 1000 CFU/m3
Problem:-Insufficientventilation for thehouse occupancyloadCase History # 4House with Mold ThroughoutIce damming had been suspected by occupantsas cause of mold growth.Found that the house ventilation rate was 1/3 ofthe minimum rate required under the buildingcode (carbon dioxide was > 2000 ppm when itshould be less than 1000 ppm)
Problems:- Improper useof poly tosupport floorinsulation,- animals nestingin the insulationunder thetrailers,- unvented roofinsulation- insufficientventilationCase History # 5Portables with mold problemsAcceptablePortable1Portable2Portable3Portable4Portable6ToxigenicDom inantNon-phylloplaneAll s pecies01002003004005006007008009001000CFU/m3
Case History # 5 cont’dPortables with mold problemsMicrobial VOCswere growing onthe poly and inanimal debris0102030405060708090100ug/m3M ic robial V O C s
ECHO System basement finishingThe ECHOSystem preventssoil andenvelope gasentry bydepressurization- not by aircirculation.It removesleakage waterby drainage andevaporation.
Drained &depressurizedwall & sub-slabDrained &depressurizedwall & Sub-floorDepressurizedwalls and sub-floors solvethe finishedbasement moldproblem
Crawl spaces canbe strong sourcesof mold emissionsinto the livingspace.Exhaust ventilationdehumidifies and warms thespace with house air, while itdepressurizes it.
Cracks such asthis had beenfilled with a“Water Proofing”grout butcontinued tobleed wheneverit rained. Thisbasement wassubsequentlyfinished with anECHO System,with cracks leftto leak.
Mold growthwas found inthe corners ofthis basementwhen theinsulation wasremoved.The basementwas subsequentlyfinished with anECHO System.
SummaryFungal exposure health effects• allergies, asthma•flu-like symptoms, headaches, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, heart andkidney disease...• contact dermatitisSources of moisture/mold Amplification site• Soil in contact with foundation Basement finishing, carpets, crawlspaces, cold rooms• Sump pits Slime, weeping tile• Indoor humidity (winter) dry wall in corners, closets• Ambient humidity (summer) Basement finishing, carpets• Unvented insulation Vapour barrier• Animal habitation Crawl spaces, attics
AppendixSome Toxigenic Fungi which have been found in Indoor AirAspergillus fumigatusMycotoxin producing pathogen. Can cause infections in wounds and mayattack cardio-vascular, brain and lungs. Can cause asthma, rhinitis,extrinsic alveolitis (farmers’ lung), aspergillosis and aspergilloma withpneumonia-like symptoms. MVOCs include: aromadendrene, camphene,a-copaene, a-farnesene, trans b-farnesene, 2,4,5-trimethyl-phenol-like, 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-pryazin. Found in bird and bat feces, mouldy hay,wood chips, leaf litter, compost, wet insulation.Aspergillus versicolorMycotoxin producing moderate xerophile. Causes eye, nose and throatmucosal irritation. Metabolites produced include sterigmatocystin whichis toxic and carcinogenic. Musty, earthy odour. MVOCs iclude,depending upon substrate: isoprene, 3-methyl furan, 2-methyl 1-propanol,3-methyl 2-pentanone, 1,3-octadiene, octadiene isomer, 3-hexanone, 2-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-hexanone, mycrene, octatriene isomer, camphene,B-pinene, limonene, b-phellanderone, 3-octanone, 2-octen-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, a-terpinolene, 5-ethyl-4-methyl-3-heptanone, C15H22 terpene, 7C15terpenes. Found on damp wood, wallboard, condensation under vinylwall coverings, and other organic substrates.
Appendix, cont’dSome Toxigenic FungiPenicillium auranteogrisium (P. cyclopium, P. polonicum, P. viridicatum)Grows from 0 to 35o C. Possible agent in Balkan endemic nephropathy(disease or an abnormality of the kidney. Unpleasant smell suggestive ofsoil. Produces terpenoid VOCs, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-ethylhexanal. Foundon materials and fabrics undergoing degradation. Eg. WallboardPenicillium brevicompactumA moderate xerophile, it produces brevianimide A and mycophenolic acidmycotoxins. The former toxin is known to be teratogenic. The latter is anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, mutagenic, immonosuppres-sive andantimurigenic. MVOCs include: 2-heptanone, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol. Itis a primary colonizer, growing on moist chip board, wallboard & otherorganic substances.
Appendix, cont’dSome Toxigenic FungiStachybotrys chartarum (S. Atra)Black sooty hydrophilic fungus. Grows from 2-40o C only on wet substrate.Causes flu like symptoms, pulmonary haemorrhage/ hemosiderosis ininfants and lung diseases in adults. Contact dermatitis. Non viable sporesremain toxigenic and allergenic. Found on heavily wetted cellulose such aswall board, in floor drain traps, dead plant material, soil, textiles.Trichoderma viride (harzianum)Hydrophilic soft rot fungus. Grows between 6-32o C. Widespread soilfungi. Destroys cellulose in wood. Distinct coconut smell. Produces aketone (6-pentyl--pyrone), chrysophanol. In damp houses found on paper,wood, tapestry, unglazed ceramics. Allergy is rare. Inhalation of VOCs orconidae may cause S. Chartarum-like symptoms
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