What is Open Access? An Introduction to OA

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Information about What is Open Access? An Introduction to OA
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Published on October 23, 2014

Author: aclobridge

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An introduction to Open Access: What is Open Access? Why Open Access? Open Access Journals (Gold OA), Open Access Repositories (Green OA), Open Access Policies, Discoverability of OA content through Metadata, Interoperability, and the Open Knowledge Environment

1. Clobridge ConsultingLinking people with information & knowledge www.clobridgeconsulting.com What is Open Access? Open Access 101: Unlocking the power of scientific research Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access? (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

2. Open Access 101 The Open Knowledge environment Discoverability through Metadata Interoperability for an e-research infrastructure Open Access Repositories Open Access Journals Why Open Access? What is Open Access? Open Access Policies Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com open

3. What is Open Access? Introduction to Open Access OPEN ACCESS is: Scholarly research that isDIGITAL, Free to ACCESS & Free to USE with minimal restrictions Open Access (OA) is the free, unrestricted access via the internet to knowledge in the form of research outputs –so research is free to access and includes full re-use rights. Making knowledge both free to access and free to use, re-use, and build upon is critical for international development, innovation, and progress. Science builds on itself and requires collaboration and the exchange of ideas, but individuals must be able to access and fully use this knowledge base in order to engage. Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com

4. Why Open Access? Introduction to Open Access Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com INCREASED ACCESS, EXPOSURE, & USAGE Global Access Global Visibility Global Exposure Private sector, practitioners, policy makers, students have access to research Public access to publicly-funded research Increased citations Increased usage Faster time from research to application Research & discovery through open licenses –legal re-use, adaptations, remixing Sparks innovation & creativity

5. Open Access Journals Introduction to Open Access “Gold” OA: Authors publish in Open Access journals, i.e. scholarly journals which are: peer-reviewed, free to access, and free to use Open Access journals* are: •Free to access •Free to use: at a minimum, the journals allow users to “read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full text of articles” •Scholarly in nature: these journals exercise peer-review or editorial quality control •Immediate access: no embargo or delay on open status Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com *Based on the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of Open Access and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) criteria for inclusion in DOAJ database. More details: https://doaj.org/about

6. Open Access Journals Introduction to Open Access Myth: all Open Access journals charge author fees. Reality: While some do levy Article-Processing Charges (APCs) or publication fees, many don’t. Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com “Hybrid” journals: Subscription-based/closed access journals (not Open Access) but offer authors the option to make their articles openly accessible for a price. “Diamond” Open Access Journals: Open Access without APCs Article-Processing Charges (APCs): Usually range from $99 to $3500, but wide differences between journals and publishers.

7. Open Access Journals Introduction to Open Access Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com Open Access and the digital environment have led to new types of publishing and a changing scholarly ecosystem. MegaJournals New type of journal. Journals accept all submissions within scope that are based on sound science and publish as articles areavailable, not on a set printing schedule. Examples: PLoSOne, BMJ Open, Peer J,SAGE Open Cross-disciplinary journals Cross-disciplinary journals: Stronger support for interdisciplinary journals and others which cross traditional boundaries which were not sustainable in traditional models. Library as publisher Publisher: Increasingly, more libraries are hosting journals and serving in the role of publisher. By using the open-source platform Open Journal Systems (OJS), libraries are working with university presses or individual editors and hosting peer-reviewed journals. Altmetricsand Article-LevelMetrics Different types of metrics to measure and gauge access to research. The digital environment has made it possible to begin tracking downloads, page views, and social media references to a particular item at the article level, rather than at the journal level.

8. Open Access Repositories Introduction to Open Access “Green” Open Access: 1)Authors publish in scholarly journal, AND 2)Deposit manuscript into an Open Access repository Interoperable, standards-compliant repositories to collect, describe, disseminate, and preserve open content Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com COLLECT Check self-archiving permissions in SHERPA/RoMEOdatabase DEPOSIT Deposit appropriate version & metadata into repository DISSEMINATE Disseminate via Open Access Repositories 1 2 3

9. Open Access Policies Introduction to Open Access -Organizational OA policies by funding agencies -National policies -Universities with institutional policies Examples of National and Research Funders’ OA & Related Policies Mandate Open Access through: -Argentina (national policy) -Australia Research Council -Autism Speaks -CGIAR -European Commission -Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) -Germany (national policy) -Spain (national policy) -UK Department of International Development (DFID) -United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) -White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, covering top US federal funding agencies -US National Institutes of Health -WellcomeTrust -World Bank Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com

10. Metadata Introduction to Open Access Metadata: “Data about data” In order for Open Access research to be usable, it must first be discoverable. Rich metadata makes it possible for search engines and other systems to find Open Access scholarship. Since most Open Access content is accessed via search engines, it is critical that materials are discoverable. Metadata can include details such as: •Authors’ names and institutional affiliations •Subject matter •Abstract or short description of the research •Publication details: journal title, volume, issue •Intellectual property rights •Publication dates •Embargo dates •Administrative details Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com

11. Interoperability Introduction to Open Access “Interoperability is the technical ‘glue’ that makes possible an emerging open science infrastructure –an infrastructure that connects a global, de-centralisednetwork of repositories and other tools. While technology exists to make possible this integration, the landscape around interoperability is complex, and continually evolving.” –The Case for Interoperabilityby The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com

12. Interoperability Introduction to Open Access Interoperability & adoption of international standards make it possible to develop new tools to support repositories and connect repositories to build a global e-research infrastructure. Metadata harvesting -OAI-PMH Protocols for transferring content between systems -SWORD: Deposit once, push content to multiple systems -DataverseAPIs Author identifiers, data identifiers -ORCID, AuthorID, PersID Article-level metrics (ALMs) and altmetricsfor repositories -Impact Story, Almetrics.org, Plum Analytics -PLOS Article-Level Metrics API Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com

13. Open Knowledge Introduction to Open Access •Open Data •Open Education •Open Educational Resources (OERs) •Open Licenses •Open Scholarship / Open Peer-Review •Open Science •Open Source Software open Open Access to research is one component of the growing Open Knowledge environment: Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access?: Open Access 101 (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com

14. Linking people with information & knowledgewww.clobridgeconsulting.com Clobridge Consulting | What is Open Access? (2014) | www.clobridgeconsulting.com This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License Knowledge Management | Information Management | Open Knowledge Clobridge Consulting CONTACT US Abby Clobridge, Principal Consultant Phone: +1 (919) 408-7766 Email: info@clobridgeconsulting.com Web: www.clobridgeconsulting.com CONNECT WITH US Sign up for the Clobridge Consulting Newsletter www.clobridgeconsulting.com/newsletter Follow us on LinkedInwww.linkedin.com/company/clobridge-consulting

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