What is Biopsychology, Anyways?

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Information about What is Biopsychology, Anyways?
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Published on November 23, 2008

Author: wessellr

Source: authorstream.com

Welcome to Biopsychology : Welcome to Biopsychology Spring 2009 What is Biopsychology, Anyways? : What is Biopsychology, Anyways? Chapter 1 Four Major Themes : Four Major Themes 1. Thinking about biopsychology Becoming a critical thinker Becoming a creative thinker 2. Clinical implications Study of diseased or damaged brains leads to new knowledge New knowledge leads to new treatments Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Four Major Themes (continued) : Four Major Themes (continued) 3. The evolutionary perspective Environmental pressures on human evolution Comparative approach (other species) 4. Neuroplasticity Brain growth and restructuring Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 What Is Biopsychology? : What Is Biopsychology? Psychology: the scientific study of behavior “The scientific study of the biology of behavior” Also called psychobiology, behavioral biology, behavioral neuroscience ` Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 What Is Biopsychology? (continued) : What Is Biopsychology? (continued) Hebb (1949) proposed that psychological phenomena might be produced by brain activity Biopsychology takes an eclectic approach based on experiments, case studies, observation, and inference ` Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Biopsychology and Other Disciplines of Neuroscience : Biopsychology and Other Disciplines of Neuroscience Knowledge from other disciplines of neuroscience is applied to the study of behavior Each discipline studies a different aspect of the nervous system that informs our understanding of what produces and controls behavior Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Other Disciplines of Neuroscience : Other Disciplines of Neuroscience Neuroanatomy Structure of the nervous system Neurochemistry Chemical bases of neural activity Neuroendocrinology Interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Other Disciplines of Neuroscience (continued) : Other Disciplines of Neuroscience (continued) Neuropathology Nervous system disorders Neuropharmacology Effects of drugs on neural activity Neurophysiology Functions and activities of the nervous system Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Biopsychological Research: Three Major Dimensions : Biopsychological Research: Three Major Dimensions Human and nonhuman subjects Experiments and nonexperiments Pure and applied research Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Human and Nonhuman Subjects : Human and Nonhuman Subjects While some questions about behavior can only be addressed using human subjects, much can be learned from studying the brains of other species Species differences are more quantitative than qualitative Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Human and Nonhuman Subjects (continued) : Human and Nonhuman Subjects (continued) Why use nonhumans? Simpler brains makes it more likely that brain-behavior interactions will be revealed Comparative approach – gain insight by making comparisons with other species Fewer ethical restrictions than with humans Why use humans? They can follow instructions They can report their introspections They’re cheaper Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Experiments and Nonexperiments : Experiments and Nonexperiments Experiments involve the manipulation of variables In nonexperiments, the researcher does not control the variables of interest Quasiexperimental studies Case studies Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) : Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) The difference between the conditions is the independent variable The effect of the independent variable is the dependent variable Must avoid confounded variables that affect the dependent variable Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) : Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) Example: control of confounded variables—the Coolidge effect The confounded variables: A female hamster may be more receptive to a new partner due to novelty or to his vigor (compared to the fatigued former partner) Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Slide 16: Lester & Gorzalka (1988) solve confounded variable problem with a clever experimental design: a third male Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) : Quasiexperimental studies – studies of groups of subjects exposed to conditions in the real world Not real experiments as potential confounded variables have not been controlled Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) : Case studies focus on a single individual, such as Jimmie G. Usually more in-depth than other approaches, but may not be generalizable Generalizability – the degree to which results can be applied to other cases Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Pure and Applied Research : Pure and Applied Research Pure research – conducted for the purpose of acquiring knowledge Applied research – intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind Some research projects may have elements of both Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Divisions of Biopsychology : Divisions of Biopsychology Six major divisions Physiological psychology Psychopharmacology Neuropsychology Psychophysiology Cognitive neuroscience Comparative psychology Each has a different approach, but there is much overlap Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) : Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) Physiological psychology Neural mechanisms of behavior Direct manipulation of the brain Psychopharmacology Effects of drugs on the brain and behavior Neuropsychology Psychological effects of brain damage in humans Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) : Psychophysiology Relation between physiological activity and psychological processes Example: visual tracking in schizophrenics Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Slide 23: Cognitive neuroscience – the neural bases of cognition Functional brain imaging is the major method of cognitive neuroscience Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) : Comparative psychology Comparing different species to understand evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behavior Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Slide 25: Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Converging Operations : Converging Operations Using multiple approaches to address a single question Korsakoff’s syndrome – a condition characterized by severe memory loss and most commonly seen in alcoholics Is Korsakoff’s the result of the toxic effects of alcohol on the brain? Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Converging Operations (continued) : Converging Operations (continued) Jimmie G. – an alcoholic with Korsakoff’s syndrome Korsakoff’s is also seen in malnourished persons who had little or no alcohol Thiamine-deficient rats exhibit memory deficits Alcohol accelerates the development of brain damage in thiamine-deficient rats Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Converging Operations (continued) : By exploring the possible causes of Korsakoff’s using multiple approaches, or converging operations, findings are more accurate Korsakoff’s syndrome is the result of thiamine deficiency, but the damage is accelerated by alcohol Converging Operations (continued) Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Scientific Inference : Scientific Inference The empirical method that biopsychologists use to study the unobservable Scientists measure what they can observe and use these measures as a basis for inferring what they can’t observe Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Daily Quiz 1 : Daily Quiz 1 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of humans as subjects in biopsychological research. Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008 Daily Quiz 1 : Daily Quiz 1 50% for the advantages they have human brains; they are often less expensive; they can communicate verbally 50% for the disadvantages their brains and behavior are particularly complex; there are strict ethical constraints; research that focuses totally on humans lacks a comparative perspective Ch 1: What is Biopsychology, Anyways? 11/23/2008

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