WG1 2 Piraeus 180406 Schmeidler Land Use and Autom

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Information about WG1 2 Piraeus 180406 Schmeidler Land Use and Autom
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Published on March 20, 2008

Author: Maitane

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Car dependency, Land Use and Transportation:  Car dependency, Land Use and Transportation Iva Hanzlíková, Karel Schmeidler CDV Brno, Czech Republic Slide2:  Land use and urban planning have a key and long lasting influence on the mobility need. This is especially true in areas with economic growth and on transportation of people and goods. There is also on influence on the environment and a strong economic impact. Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries affect the style and life quality of their inhabitants Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Pre industrial era: Natural settlement structure All the activities in the proximity No need to travel Low or (even none) mobility general theory of modern urban development (for example Berg, Drewett, Klaassen, Rosi, Vijveberg, 1982, Tosics 1988 or Cheshire and Hay, 1989). Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Industrial era - Phase 1: urbanisation: development of technology is a key factor influencing the development large industrial complexes are established in settlements and grow rather quickly mass production, distribution as well as consumption of goods Technological changes in one area are always accompanied by changes in a social and urban structure structure (Pavla Horská, Eduard Maur a Jiří Musil: Urban Development of Czech Countries and Europe, Prague 2002) Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Industrial era - Phase 1: urbanisation: residential development took place in the proximity of factories and centres usual form was that of a radial-concentric city - a star-shaped urban conglomeration the arms of which extend in the shape of roads Further up growth was experienced as a result of developing transport Industrial urban development culminated by establishing coherent urbanized areas Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Industrial era - Phase 1: urbanisation: In Central Europe and in Eastern Europe special features different from the general model: changes are often delayed by several decades transformation of the settlement structure is not so aggressive “socialist urban development” after the World War 2nd (commuting, undeveloped infrastructure, limit of urban growth) Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 2: Suburban development: new phase of the socio-economic evolution economic activities are shifted from the industrial production to services knowledge, skills and supply of information “economy of services”, (theories of Daniel Bell, John Kenneth Galbraith, Zbygniew Brzezinsky, Kenneth Boulding and Amitai Etzioni) Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 2: Suburban development: changes in the settlement structure attenuation of heavy industry and departure of workers to the tertiary area light industries producing on assembly lines requiring single-floor industrial halls with large areas high-tech operations are built in suburban areas where their construction does not cost so much Administrative and research parks thereby follow industrial parks Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 2: Suburban development: advantage of new, fast roads, cheaper construction plots and ample parking space Administrative parks represent cheap locations for companies that are not established yet and need cheap start-up conditions Shopping centres have grown almost spontaneously along outward-bound roads and motorways Cities are thereby chaotically extended at the expense of agriculturally utilized countryside Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 2: Suburban development: increasing numbers of population are leaving large cities (characteristic of richer population) living environment and infrastructure in the suburbs are improving (shops and facilities have followed people) People who have an opportunity to get means of individual transport change their places of living An increased use of cars enables greater groups of population to move quickly between their homes and workplaces these processes are usually not coordinated and occur independent of the existing transport system, distances are ever increasing, put pressure on the use of cars and disadvantage public transport (De Boer, 1976). Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 2: Suburban development: unhealthy social trends “social exclusiveness” of new locations increased concentration of socially similar groups uncontrolled growth of cities polluting the environment with exhalations collapsing transport system cities suffer from the fact that in many places cars have pushed out life represented by pedestrians Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 2: Suburban development: gradual process in which public transport looses its meaning and subsequently ceases As a result, numerous categories of population, senior citizens in particular, have an aggravated access to transport and their spatial mobility is decreasing living in the fresh country air near the nature but with a necessity to commute to the city is much less healthy than living in city centres Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : changing production technology Export articles are increasingly de-materialized; they consist of information, services or innovations Companies providing services also migrate to places with cheaper land and labor cooperating network of smaller operations, active in great distances from city centres This trend has instigated an immense development of distant transmission of information (faxes, mobile telephones, computers connected in networks, the Internet, telecommunication satellites, etc.). companies and financial operations can be controlled from more distant locations Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : not appropriate urban planning policy Due to traffic congestions inner parts of cities are becoming less accessible for their inhabitants non-regulated growth of cities, crises of transport systems and increased individual use of cars due to the construction of commercial shopping centres and residential zones, and sometimes due to non-coordinated residential building Shopping and cultural centres are also built outside the city in the proximity of motorways Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : Conditions for enabling the transport to become more intense are also established costly transport and parking facilities are built consequence - a massive mobility of people and devastation of the environment (even beyond the borders of the affected regions) “urban sprawl” Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : Historical centers problem has been created by ill-considered and non-regulated growth of administrative buildings in European city centres Adjacent historical squares then automatically became parking places damaged environment deteriorates construction of speedways connecting suburban developing locations with the central part of the city destruction of the central parts of the city by enhancing the dispersion of functions crucial for the centre (concentration of retail, light production, recreational, cultural and educational functions, vital for this part of the city) Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : negative attitude towards pedestrians increased use of cars dramatically damages the environment no space left for pavements – restrictions for seniors and handicaped great distances do not enable access other than by cars drawbacks of the city, such as bad quality of environment, crime, growing poverty in central areas and other negative phenomena tendency of inhabitants to leave cities is increasing as the cities become uninhabitable Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : discrepancy between the layout of the urban structure and the present-day requirements made by the volume of traffic Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : Historical centres image of city centres is aggravating “crisis of cities”, “decline”, “pathology”, “alienation” and decreasing investments in these areas Changed accessibility and deteriorated quality of the environment (noise, air pollution, vibrations, etc.) may induce migration People of higher status move out of these locations because they feel that they are becoming less inhabitable Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 3: Urban de-development : population is quickly declining; the same applies to the number of job opportunities transformation Some parts of the city lose their function or become inhabited by groups of lower status consequently, social problems start to occur, social polarization in urban residential areas: they are considerably socially fragmented and segregated Need to rehabilitate the living areas that are becoming redundant Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development ideal would be to have a compact city with the mobility protecting the living environment adopting legislative measures slowing down the suburban de-development, cooperation among managers, new approaches, cooperation and mediation Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development prevention and restriction of social exclusiveness restoring central parts and evener distribution of job opportunities in the city structure decreasing volume of transport (micro-electrotechnics) Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development Urban development - a tool for making the cities more attractive for business, investments and tourism restoring street systems, urban avenues, embankments and squares building new and restoring old parks, or building shopping streets and parking areas Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development revitalization, gentrification, renewal - when the transformation of the negative, “dead”, “poor” and “non-productive” environment into something positive, “live”, is emphasized; the quality of the environment Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development The renewed cities Impact on urban ecology given preference to humans over cars supported and developed public transport, restricted individual transport, effective public transport which can decrease the volume of private transport by up to 20-30% Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development The renewed cities building intra-city optimised transport routes, good quality city public transport constructing cycling routes and pedestrian zones Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development Compact urban structure mobility protecting the environment higher economic effectiveness city centres more attractive; costs of infrastructure, such as transport routes, will also decrease Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development Compact urban structure the denser the population within the city, the lower the requirements for transport and the greater space for free countryside and wild nature Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development Compact urban structure principal recommendations for urban and regional planning by European Transport and Environment Federation Various surveys of power consumption in transport have shown an unambiguous link between the population densities, distances between places of activities, individual cities and power consumed in transport Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development Compact urban structure “... the need for travelling sharply declines if the population density of a given place increases to 50 persons per hectare. If the population density is lower than 30 persons per hectare, the dependence on cars seems to be inevitable... (Greening Urban Transport, 1999). Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries :  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Phase 4: Urban re-development Compact urban structure The cities with the population density of 17 persons per hectare and with the most decentralized residential structure use 70% more power than cities with 33 persons per hectare and with high concentration of flats” (Greening Urban Transport, 1999). Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries:  Essential changes in the settlement structure of European countries Interactions between land use, traffic and public transport networks :  Interactions between land use, traffic and public transport networks Concepts for a sustainable land use in different European regions and cities. increase the share of public transport, walking and cycling, decrease the use of cars, and reduction of traffic volume, saving green spaces for … This should also include transport demand and its interactions with land use and public transport networks. Land use and traffic in cities and regions – integrated planning :  Land use and traffic in cities and regions – integrated planning there is a need for: ü      An analysis of the cost of urban sprawl and of external framework (traffic priority, city centre parking, road pricing…) in relation with the public transport ü      An analysis of the relationships between land use planning, urban development and development of traffic. ü      Understanding mechanism influencing people and firms preferences for places ü      Impact of commercial activities inside public transport networks: how to improve economic balance and attractiveness of public transport? ü      Public transport planning and settlements choices: how to take one another into account Travel modes and space consumption Impact of public transport on social equity :  Impact of public transport on social equity Public transport is generally considered as brining a social service to people that needs it. Does public transport really play this role? It is to be checked. Fare systems are often in favour of people living in inner cities - meaning financially able to live there. Compared to revenues, transport cost is often very high for those living in far suburbs. The social impact of urban sprawl and the way to bring more social equity through the organization of the network and its fare system should therefore be much more studied. Why people like to use cars?:  Why people like to use cars? Psychological aspects of car dependency Why people like to use cars?:  Why people like to use cars? Study of Stradling et al. (1999) – investigation of motives for car use 2 main emotional benefits: feeling of independence and personal identity Linda Steg et al. (2000): car can increase subjectively perceived quality of life (ASI project), senior citizens – when give up driving? Symbolic value of a car:  Symbolic value of a car Connection to social and personal identity of an individual Represents driver´s status, lifestyle, values Symbolic value of a car:  Symbolic value of a car 3 basic functions: instrumental, symbolic and emotional Role of needs, values, motives, preferences and attitudes (internal factors) But also infrastructure conditions, sociodemographical factors (external factors) Symbolic value of a car:  Symbolic value of a car Steg (2003): correlation between car usage and feelings of control and power desire to be able to reach any point by car, which often relates to the feeling of freedom Influence of social motives – social comparison, self-prezentation, privacy in the car (compared with the public transport) Focus on comfort and mobility Theory of self-concept:  Theory of self-concept Reed (2002) – based on a concept of material-self: people have strong emotional feelings to different material object and these feelings are tightly connected to their self-concept Campaigns on using public transport:  Campaigns on using public transport Campaigns should be based on what people think is normal (Harland et al., 1999) Focus on personal norms – altruistic behaviour, environmental friendly Accent on traffic safety Racional arguments Thank you for your attention:  Thank you for your attention Schmeidler@cdv.cz

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