Published on January 3, 2008
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: Ramsar Convention on Wetlands “Wetlands and Water: supporting life sustaining wetlands” Kampala, Uganda, 8-15 November Final Presentation Task Group: Sean Mandel, Aimee Barnes Megan Stouffer, and Emily Capello Summary of the Presentation: Summary of the Presentation Definition of a Wetland and the Ecological Services Wetlands Provide Drivers of Wetland Degradation Wetlands Problems Introduction to Ramsar and the COP 9: Resolution IX.4 Annex Solutions Proposed by COP 9 Controversies of the Proposed Solutions Monitoring and Measurements of Success What is a Wetland?: Wetlands are difficult to define: Range of hydrological conditions Great variation in size, location, and human influence Distinguishing features of wetlands: Presence of standing water Unique wetland soil Vegetation adapted to or tolerant of saturated soils What is a Wetland? Why Protect Wetlands?: Why Protect Wetlands? Healthy wetlands provide important services: Ecological Recreational Scientific Cultural Economic Photos: www.ramsar.org Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands: Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands Public Perception Urban/Suburban Development Agriculture Aquaculture Photo: www.nrcs.usda.gov/ wetlands/wildrice.jpg Photo: US Fish and Wildlife Service: http://www.fws.gov/midwest/saginawNRDA/restore.html Photo: http://www.ecopix.net/natresmanage/natresmanage.htm Photo: Oyster leases at Wallis Lake, NSW (photo by Dave Ryan) http://www.ozestuaries.org/indicators/aqua_pressure.jsp Problem: Loss and Fragmentation of Wetlands: Problem: Loss and Fragmentation of Wetlands Development, agriculture, and aquaculture lead to habitat fragmentation Barriers for water provision and irrigation redirect water Fish cannot reach spawning grounds or food sources Habitat destruction and fragmentation is the number one cause of declining fish populations Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation: Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation Decreased ecological integrity and services: Loss of groundwater reserves Shoreline erosion Loss of spawning and feeding grounds for fish Decline in commercial/noncommercial populations Photo: http://www.coastal.crc.org.au/wetlands/images/riparian2.gif Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation: Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation Loss of storm protection services: Storm surge protection through friction and absorption Wave height reduction by causing waves to touch bottom earlier and break Soil retention by lowering water velocities Photo: http://www.katrinahelp. com/hurricane-katrina-2.jpg Photo: http://www.ruggedelegantliving.com/a/images/Hurricane.Katrina.Help.jpg Photo:http://www.rotary5470.org/IMupload/yaht%20club.jpeg Implications of Loss of Storm Protection Services: Implications of Loss of Storm Protection Services Decreased natural barrier against extreme weather events Increased flooding Increased destruction due to storms Destruction of fisheries and their infrastructure Photo: http://www.foxnews.com/photo_essay/photoessay_566_images/katrina_redcross_450.jpg Problem: Pollution: Problem: Pollution Development, agriculture, and aquaculture lead to: Discharge of excess nutrients (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) from sewage, soaps and detergents, and agricultural runoff Sediments from soil erosion Toxins (heavy metals and organic compounds like mercury and PCBs) Improperly managed wetlands cannot effectively filter pollutants Implications of Pollution: Implications of Pollution Decreased water quality Bioaccumulation of toxins in wetland species Decline in native plant, fish, and waterfowl populations Eutrophication of wetlands Photo: http://www.midwestadvocates.org/media/advocacyupdates/2004/Advocacy%20Update%20August%202004/fishkillpicture.jpg Slide12: So What Happens? Mission of Convention: Mission of Convention "the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world." (Cop7 1999, San Jose, Costa Rica) Key Data : Key Data Current sites: 1608 wetland sites Number of parties: 152 nations Surface area: 345 million acres Categories: Marine & Coastal, Inland, & Human-Made Encompasses 42 wetland types Photo: David Trilling (2006) Iraq Legislation vs. Agreement: Legislation vs. Agreement Legislation is law Mandates and enforces behavior Passed by a governing body Agreements or treaties Contractual agreement Can be binding or prescriptive Photo: www.ramsar.org Slide16: Conference of Parties (COP) 9: Resolution IX.4-Annex: The Ramsar Convention and Conservation, Production and Sustainable Use of Fisheries Resources Solutions of COP 9 Resolution IX.4 Annex: Solutions of COP 9 Resolution IX.4 Annex Sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheries Increased international cooperation Improvements to information on the status of fisheries in Ramsar sites Photo: www.corila.it/images/ligneCWC3.jpg 1. Sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheries: 1. Sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheries “Wise use” and maintenance of ecological structure of wetlands Photos: www.ramsar.org Implementation: “Wise Use” Framework: Implementation: “Wise Use” Framework The Ramsar Toolkit 14 handbooks on how to implement the Ramsar Convention Photos: www.ramsar.org 2. Increased International Cooperation: 2. Increased International Cooperation Salmon migration: Chum Chinook Sockeye Source: www.sookesalmonenhancementsociety.com 3. Improvements to information on the status of fisheries in Ramsar sites: 3. Improvements to information on the status of fisheries in Ramsar sites Salmon Indicators at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge—1st U.S. RAMSAR site Important salmon spawning ground Require pure, well-oxygenated cold water Indicators: abundance genetic diversity geographic distribution stage of lifecycle Photo: www.mms.gov Controversies Related to Wetland Destruction/Ramsar COP 9 Policies: Controversies Related to Wetland Destruction/Ramsar COP 9 Policies Mitigated wetlands Cross-border cooperation on ecological goals Photo: www.ramsar.org 1. Mitigation of Wetlands: 1. Mitigation of Wetlands Do constructed wetlands have the same quality as natural wetlands? Can compensate for wetland loss and restore formerly impacted wetlands Can require management for several decades Quality sacrificed for quantity Mitigated wetland might not reflect the characteristics of the natural wetland it is replacing Past Losses and Mitigation : Past Losses and Mitigation Image: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/ConservationAndEnvironment/images/WETLANDLOSS.gif 2. Cross-Border Resource Management: 2. Cross-Border Resource Management 5 of 22 US Ramsar sites span state or international borders Map: Microsoft Encarta Measuring the Success of COP 9 Resolution IX.4: Measuring the Success of COP 9 Resolution IX.4 Indicator Criteria Simple and pragmatic Capable of distinguishing the difference made by the Ramsar Convention Reflective of multiple variables Related to readily available information Serviceable by wide popular audiences Photo: www.dorf.rwth-aachen.de Priority Indicators2006-2008: Priority Indicators 2006-2008 Overall conservation status of wetlands Water-related indicator(s) Overall population trends of wetland taxa Source: www.ramsar.org Future Monitoring: Future Monitoring Finalization of current indicators Status and trends report: 2008 & 2011 Inclusion of more indicators Wise use policy Wetland services for humans Additional water-related indicators Photo: www.nationalgeographic.com Conclusion: Conclusion Wetlands provide important ecological and socio-economic services Degradation limits their ability to provide these services COP 9 of Ramsar proposes several solutions to reduce wetland destruction and promote wetland conservation for sustainable fisheries Implementation of U.S. wetland conservation measures in conjunction with existing policy has improved management and monitoring of our nations wetlands Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements The RAMSAR Group Aimee Barnes, Emily Capello, Matthew Ebright, Emily Gaskin, Lauren Kell, Megan Stouffer, Rebecca Smith, Sean Mandel, Whitney Blake, Helen Morris , Flora Lee …and congratulations to all our fellow classmates for making it through the summer term! Slide31: Thank You Professor Cook! Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands: Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands Public Perception Urban/Suburban Development Agriculture Aquaculture Photos: http://www.ozestuaries.org/indicators/aqua_pressure.jsp http://www.ecopix.net/natresmanage/natresmanage.htm http://www.fws.gov/midwest/saginawNRDA/restore.html http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wetlands/wildrice.jpg
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