Published on May 29, 2016
1. WETLAND DEGRADATION IN BANGLADESH BY- MD. INZAMUL HAQUE SAZAL SUSHANTA GUPTA JANNATUN NAYEM email@example.com
2. IDENTIFIED ENV. PROBLEM: WETLAND DEGRADATION IN BANGLADESH Wetlands in Bangladesh encompass a wide verity of dynamic ecosystems ranging from mangrove forest (about 577, 100 ha), natural lakes, man- made reservoir (Kaptai lake), freshwater marshes (about 400 haors), oxbow lakes (about 54488 ha, locally known as baors), freshwater depressions (about 1,000 beels), fish ponds and tanks (about 147, 000 ha), estuaries and seasonal inundated extensive floodplains (Akonda, 1989; cited in Akbar Ali Khan 1993 and DoF 1985). According to 'Ramsar' convention- • More than two thirds of Bangladesh may be classified as wetland • including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters”). • 6.7 percent of Bangladesh is always under water. • 21 percent is deeply flooded (more that 90 cm). • 35 percent experiences shallow inundation.
3. Almost 45% of the national wetlands have been disappeared o Ganges Brahmaputra-Meghna floodplain- 2.1million ha of wetlands (Khan et al., 1994). o Mangrove wetlands- around 45% wetland have been destroyed (Khan et al., 1994) due to.- -Anthropogenic influences on mangrove -Shrimp culture. o Dhaka city- Rivers and khals decreased significantly 76.67% and 18.72%respectively over the last 30 years. o Chalan Beel- -In the 19th century - 1,085 sq km -In 1909- 368 sq km by, of which only 85 sq km remained under water throughout the year. -Present- Only 26 sq km. o Northwest region- - During 1989 to 2000 about 25% of wetlands have been lost. - 2000 to 2010 about 4% wetlands are converted into other types of land. WETLAND DEGRADATION SCENARIO
4. WETLAND DEGRADATION SCENARIO
5. WETLAND DEGRADATION SCENARIO
6. IMPACTS OF WETLAND DEGRADATION • A serious reduction in fish habitat, fish population and diversity; • Many species of flora and fauna are threatened with possibility of extinction; • Indigenous varieties of rice are disappearing; • Increase in the recurrence of flashfloods; • Loss of natural soil nutrients; • Loss of natural water reservoirs and of their resultant benefits; and • Degeneration of wetland-based ecosystem, • Living conditions of local people are deteriorating as livelihoods, socio-economic institutions and cultural values are affected.
7. FLOOD WATER RETENTION SURFACE AND GROUND WATER RECHARGE WETLAND ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE AND PROCESSES HYDROLOGICAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS NUTRIENT RETENTION AND EXPORT SALINITY RETENTION IN SOIL AND WATER NURSERY AND HABITAT BIODIVERSITY, LANDSCAPES AND STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENIFITS Alternative flood protection Flood water storage reduce damage to property and resources. Supporting food chains Water supply Transport of Sediments Delicate balance. Improve water quality Medicinal plants & genetic Waste disposal Irrigation purpose Industrial and succession Purification and cleaning up. Fish breeding Ecosystem maintenance Fishing and grazing Shrimp culture Crops, fodder and fuel Settlements places Cultural and Tradition Aesthetic Values Spiritual, heritage values Eco-tourism & recreation Employment of the poor. IMPORTANCE OF WETLAND MANAGEMENT
8. According to the National Water Policy, 1999 the Ministry is responsible for formulation of a framework for institutional reforms to guide all water sector related activities. But later GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES The national wetlands policy has been drafted by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, but it still remains in the preliminary stage and yet not implemented. The main features of this policy include the following: # Maintenance of biodiversity and landscapes protection. # Maintenance of ecosystems functions and ensuring socioeconomic benefits. # Promotion of economical development and establishment of principles for sustainable resources utilization.
9. a) The Environment: More than 10 000ha of wetland habitat will be protected, conserved or rehabilitated b) The Community: Improved wetland habitat will result in more fish, birds, reptiles & other wildlife, wetland areas will be available for education & aesthetics c) Wetland Managers: Including CMAs, State & Local Government and others will be provided with maps, classes and priorities, allowing them to make informed decisions about the management of their wetlands d) State, Local Government and the CMAs will be able to rationalize & focus investment in wetland protection and condition improvement of identified priority wetlands Probable Beneficiary Sectors
10. Probable Solution of Wetland Degradation High rise buildings Strict Law and Regulation Hydroponics- Soil less agriculture Conceptual change of rice cultivation in rural scale Formation of Buffer zone around major wetlands for declaration of critical wetlands as protected areas. Structural Solution Effective negotiation with neighboring for withdrawal water . International actions for mitigating the impact of climate change Proper Leasing Management of Wetland Resource eutrophication abatement Implication of Geospatial technology e.g. GIS, RS for wetland monitoring and Management .
11. SUSTAINABLE WETLAND MANAGEMENT- AN INTEGRATED SOLUTION
12. FEASIBILITY OF THE PROPOSED SOLUTION A development work in any area starts based on an Environment impact assessment (EIA) report. In this case government authorities can play the most important role because development activities occur in a geographic field and only the government has rights to interfere this. So government authorities will have to corruption free unless no plan can be successfully implemented. So the proposed solutions are largely dependent on the government willingness. People willingness is also needed. By considering this it is feasible and eases to implement of for Bangladesh. •Strengths: characteristics of the management plan that give it an advantage over others. •Weaknesses: characteristics that place the project at a disadvantage relative to others •Opportunities: elements that the project could exploit to its advantage •Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the project
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