weps 11

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Published on March 6, 2008

Author: Nellwyn

Source: authorstream.com

Military Explosives and Warheads:  Military Explosives and Warheads Naval Weapons Systems Lesson 11 NS 202 Explosion:  Explosion Definition: A reaction that produces a change in the state of matter that results in a rapid and violent release of energy. Types: - Mechanical - Chemical - Nuclear Explosive :  Explosive Definition: A material (chemical or nuclear) that can be initiated to undergo a very rapid, self propagating decomposition, resulting in: a. formation of more stable materials b. the liberation of heat c. development of a sudden pressure effect d. initiation of a reaction Characteristics of Military Explosives:  Characteristics of Military Explosives Availability & Cost Sensitivity (impact, friction & heat) Stability (chemical constitution, sun, temperature) Power (or performance) Brisance Density Volatility Hygroscopicity Toxicity Chemical Explosive Reaction For a chemical to be an explosive, it must exhibit all of the following::  Chemical Explosive Reaction For a chemical to be an explosive, it must exhibit all of the following: Formation of Gases Evolution of Heat Rapidity of Reaction Initiation of Reaction Categories of Explosives:  Categories of Explosives Low Explosives Normally employed as propellants. Burn rapidly (up to 400 m/s). High Explosives Detonate (1000 - 8500 m/s). Differentiated by Sensitivity: Primary - Extremely sensitive to impact, friction & heat. Secondary - Less sensitive. (May burn in small, unconfined quantities; otherwise will detonate.) No sharp line of demarcation between low & high explosives. Nuclear Explosives:  Nuclear Explosives Atoms of heavy unstable isotopes are split by high speed neutrons. Split nucleus releases energy and more neutrons. These neutrons go on to split more nuclei. Reaction also produces heat and radiation. Energy released is much greater than with chemical explosives (per weight of explosive). Energy From a Nuclear Air Burst:  Energy From a Nuclear Air Burst Functional Parts of Simple Warhead:  Functional Parts of Simple Warhead Basic purpose of a warhead is to deliver destructive power to the intended target. Basic warhead consists of: Fuze Explosive Fill Warhead Case All make up what is known as the “Explosive Train.” High Explosive Train:  High Explosive Train The explosive train is a series of actions designed to make a stable material unstable through a given sequence. Combination of High and Low explosives. DETONATOR BOOSTER MAIN CHARGE Initiating Force BANG! Aux. Explosive Sensitivity less MORE Warhead Characteristics:  Warhead Characteristics Damage Volume Defines the destructive effectiveness of a given payload. Attenuation A function of distance from the origin of the blast, as the blast travels outward, the energy given off is dispersed over a greater area. Propagation How energy released from the blast spreads. Isotropic & Non-isotropic WARHEAD TYPES:  WARHEAD TYPES Blast Conventional Underwater Nuclear Fragmentation Shaped Charge Continuous Rod Special Purpose Blast Warheads:  Blast Warheads Designed to achieve best results from the blast. Initial blast produces heat and overpressure. Followed by a suction or underpressure. Push/Pull causes the intended target to explode from the external pressure, similar to the effects caused by a tornado. Blast Warheads Cont.:  Blast Warheads Cont. Two types of blasts: Isotropic - Blast propagates equally in all directions. Non-Isotropic - Blast propagates in a specific direction. Mach Effect - A third wave resulting from the reflected wave overtaking the original shock wave. Where the three waves combine is called the “Triple Point.” Triple Point can increase a blast weapon’s effectiveness/radius range. Fragmentation Warheads:  Fragmentation Warheads Blast energy is translated to the fragments of the weapons casing. Approximately 30% of energy used to frag warhead, providing frags w/ KE. Fragments propelled at very high velocities. Exceeds the radius of a blast weapon. Allows for greater inaccuracies in weapon use. Shaped Warhead: Penetrates materials using pressures >>> yield strength of mat’l...:  Shaped Warhead: Penetrates materials using pressures >>> yield strength of mat’l... Weapon impacts tgt, fuze at rear of weapon ignites apex of metal cone liner. Cone collapses from apex forward. Collapse results in the ejection of a high-velocity molten jet of liner material. Pressure of jet>>>armor yield strength. The jet is followed by a slug. The jet liquifies some armor (spalling). Continuous-Rod Warheads:  Continuous-Rod Warheads Used to damage aircraft in the event of a near miss. Series of rods connected and folded so that the series expands circularly. Doesn’t produce as much destructive energy as the average fragmentation weapon. Special Purpose Weapons:  Special Purpose Weapons Thermal Weapons Used to start fires. Napalm, etc. Biological & Chemical Weapons Used to kill with a minimal amount of destruction. Bio - microbes (Anthrax, Ebola, Plague) Chem - (Nerve Agents, Mustard Gas) Special Purpose Weapons:  Special Purpose Weapons Radiation Weapons (e.g.- Neutron Bomb) Pyrotechnic Warheads Flares (for lighting or signaling). Smoke Anti-Personnel Warheads Designed to maim troops. Projectile loaded with steel darts or wire. Cluster Bombs (CBU) - Used for soft targets over a wide area. Special Purpose Weapons (cont.):  Special Purpose Weapons (cont.) Mines Offensive and Defensive Torpedoes - Homes on intended target Mission / Mobility Kill - Hits ships screw Hard Kill - explodes under ships hull Anti-Tank Warheads Large diameter shaped charges. KE defeat mechanism (“cookie cutter”). Plastic defeat mechanism (massive spalling for lighter armor).

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