Week2 (STSP)

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Information about Week2 (STSP)

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: johnhudson

Source: slideshare.net

Description

The State, Technology & Social Policy (Week 2)

The State, Technology & Social Policy Week 2 - Introduction

Session Overview Introductions Module Content Lecture Practical Session

Introductions

Module Content

Lecture

Practical Session

Module Format Lectures discussion/interaction Seminar Presentations two per week Virtual Seminar week 2 to 8 weekly summary/discussion in class week 9 off in lieu of face-to-face work

Lectures

discussion/interaction

Seminar Presentations

two per week

Virtual Seminar

week 2 to 8

weekly summary/discussion in class

week 9 off in lieu of face-to-face work

Module Format Technology Think Tank small groups work on policy issues agenda set by virtual seminar brief report (2-4 pages) present at conference

Technology Think Tank

small groups work on policy issues

agenda set by virtual seminar

brief report (2-4 pages)

present at conference

End of Module Conference (King’s Manor) 10 Think Tank Preparations Cyberspace 9 Technology & Social Divisions 4: Risk and Online Communities A/EW/105 8 Technology & Social Divisions 3: Cybercrime A/EW/105 7 Technology & Social Divisions 2: Surveillance and Social Sorting A/EW/105 6 Technology & Social Divisions 1: Is There a Digital Divide? A/EW/105 5 Technology & Society 3: Are ICTs Changing the Nature of Government? A/EW/105 4 Technology & Society 2: Are ICTs Transforming Contemporary Society? A/EW/105 3 Virtual Seminar Technology & Society 1: Do We Control Technology or Does It Control Us? A/EW/105 2 Topic Location Wk

Core Reading Diverse topics – no single text Lengthy reading list Module web site – ‘virtual reader’ Electronic sources academic journals – new research news media – contemporary debates think tanks – new policy thinking

Diverse topics – no single text

Lengthy reading list

Module web site – ‘virtual reader’

Electronic sources

academic journals – new research

news media – contemporary debates

think tanks – new policy thinking

Allocation of Work Tasks Seminar Presenters Weekly Virtual Seminar Leaders

Seminar Presenters

Weekly Virtual Seminar Leaders

Technology and Society I Do we control technology or does it control us?

Session Objectives explore issues about the ‘power’ of technology explore issues around the ‘control’ of technology to ask ‘do we control technology or does it control us?’

explore issues about the ‘power’ of technology

explore issues around the ‘control’ of technology

to ask ‘do we control technology or does it control us?’

The ‘Power’ of Technology The ‘power’ of technology is a long standing conundrum in social sciences Some (e.g. Dowding) argue that inanimate objects cannot have power BUT: existence of technology makes a difference Pandora’s Box type effect Irrespective of issue of power a question of control is important

The ‘power’ of technology is a long standing conundrum in social sciences

Some (e.g. Dowding) argue that inanimate objects cannot have power

BUT:

existence of technology makes a difference

Pandora’s Box type effect

Irrespective of issue of power a question of control is important

The Luddites Who were they? Early working class movement (1812) Industrial Revolution – textile industry Notts, Lancs, Yorks Resisted specific technological deployments Destroyed machines threatening trades

Who were they?

Early working class movement (1812)

Industrial Revolution – textile industry

Notts, Lancs, Yorks

Resisted specific technological deployments

Destroyed machines threatening trades

The Luddites Chant no more your old rhymes about bold Robin Hood His feats I but little admire I will sing the achievements of General Ludd Now the Hero of Nottinghamshire The guilty may fear, but no vengeance he aims At honest man's life or Estate His wrath is entirely confined to wide frames And to those that old prices abate

Chant no more your old rhymes about bold Robin Hood His feats I but little admire I will sing the achievements of General Ludd Now the Hero of Nottinghamshire

The guilty may fear, but no vengeance he aims At honest man's life or Estate His wrath is entirely confined to wide frames And to those that old prices abate

The Luddites ‘ All these demands looked forwards, as much as backwards; and they contained within them a shadowy image… of a democratic community, in which industrial growth should be regulated according to ethical priorities and the pursuit of profit be subordinated to human needs’ EP Thompson

‘ All these demands looked forwards, as much as backwards; and they contained within them a shadowy image… of a democratic community, in which industrial growth should be regulated according to ethical priorities and the pursuit of profit be subordinated to human needs’

EP Thompson

The Luddites Ended on the scaffold Defeat inevitable? Crushed by technology or state? Any human agency?

Ended on the scaffold

Defeat inevitable?

Crushed by technology or state?

Any human agency?

Technology out-of-control Frankenstein’s Monster human invention improve Frankenstein’s life develops life of its own master or servant?

Frankenstein’s Monster

human invention

improve Frankenstein’s life

develops life of its own

master or servant?

Autonomous Technology Winner: Autonomous Technology Technology out of control Humans have no choice of direction of change Frakenstein’s monster “ the belief that somehow technology has gotten out of control and follows its own course independent of human direction” (Winner). “ a relentless and constant pressure for change [that] affords no opportunity to decide how” (Street 1992).

Winner: Autonomous Technology

Technology out of control

Humans have no choice of direction of change

Frakenstein’s monster

“ the belief that somehow technology has gotten out of control and follows its own course independent of human direction” (Winner).

“ a relentless and constant pressure for change [that] affords no opportunity to decide how” (Street 1992).

Autonomous Technology Claims technological development has its own logic Doesn’t matter who works on projects Simultaneous inventions human values over-ridden by logic Argues technological solutions always triumph

Claims technological development has its own logic

Doesn’t matter who works on projects

Simultaneous inventions

human values over-ridden by logic

Argues technological solutions always triumph

Autonomous Technology Has distopian overtones: ‘ all protest is senseless, and the individual who would insist on freedom would become a crank. There is no personal escape from the apparatus which has mechanised and standardised the world. It is a rational apparatus, combining utmost expediency with utmost convenience, saving time and energy, removing waste, adapting all means to ends...’ (Marcuse).

Has distopian overtones:

‘ all protest is senseless, and the individual who would insist on freedom would become a crank. There is no personal escape from the apparatus which has mechanised and standardised the world. It is a rational apparatus, combining utmost expediency with utmost convenience, saving time and energy, removing waste, adapting all means to ends...’ (Marcuse).

Technological Determinism A moderate ‘cousin’ Sees technology as a key driver of change ‘makes no particular claims about the ideological rationale provided by technology or about the extent of its impact’ (Street).

A moderate ‘cousin’

Sees technology as a key driver of change

‘makes no particular claims about the ideological rationale provided by technology or about the extent of its impact’ (Street).

Technological Determinism Argues technology poses ‘questions’ for society people can choose to resist change resistance will lead to disadvantage Hobson’s choice More positive outlook than autonomous technology

Argues technology poses ‘questions’ for society

people can choose to resist change

resistance will lead to disadvantage

Hobson’s choice

More positive outlook than autonomous technology

Technological Determinism Hard & Soft views of determinism Hard view discredited? ‘ not a good candidate as a theory of social change’ MacKenzie and Wajcman (1999: 4) Causes of change are complex rather than direct

Hard & Soft views of determinism

Hard view discredited?

‘ not a good candidate as a theory of social change’ MacKenzie and Wajcman (1999: 4)

Causes of change are complex rather than direct

Social Shaping of Technology Generally accepted that technological change is socially shaped Human decisions impact on: direction of development nature of deployment who has access Technology itself is only one variable

Generally accepted that technological change is socially shaped

Human decisions impact on:

direction of development

nature of deployment

who has access

Technology itself is only one variable

Social Shaping of Technology POLITICS military technology nuclear weapons chemical weapons ICTs in government policy networks resist change social security officials v medics nurses v doctors

POLITICS

military technology

nuclear weapons

chemical weapons

ICTs in government

policy networks resist change

social security officials v medics

nurses v doctors

Social Shaping of Technology ECONOMICS & BUSINESS information technology Microsoft music and video technology Betamax video control of supply chain

ECONOMICS & BUSINESS

information technology

Microsoft

music and video technology

Betamax video

control of supply chain

Social Shaping of Technology SOCIAL RELATIONS reproductive technologies male dominance of medical profession built environment bridges in Florida

SOCIAL RELATIONS

reproductive technologies

male dominance of medical profession

built environment

bridges in Florida

Technological Determinism Soft view still popular Complexity of social change does not rule out technology as key driver of change Mobile phones Cars Winner: Somnambulism

Soft view still popular

Complexity of social change does not rule out technology as key driver of change

Mobile phones

Cars

Winner:

Somnambulism

Methodological Issue Difficulty of distinguishing cause & effect Methodological Luddism Complex – many factors more than one social factor technology can make a difference

Difficulty of distinguishing cause & effect

Methodological Luddism

Complex – many factors

more than one social factor

technology can make a difference

Actor-Network Theory re-promotes technology as a key variable accepts social relations impact on technology... ...vice-versa also true

re-promotes technology as a key variable

accepts social relations impact on technology...

...vice-versa also true

Actor-Network Theory humans and technologies have impact ‘actors’ ‘principle of symmetry’ connected together in ‘networks’ shape, constrain, enable action

humans and technologies have impact

‘actors’

‘principle of symmetry’

connected together in ‘networks’

shape, constrain, enable action

Actor-Network Theory ‘ it is mistaken to think of technology and society as separate spheres influencing each other: technology and society are mutually constitutive’ (MacKenzie and Wajcman )

‘ it is mistaken to think of technology and society as separate spheres influencing each other: technology and society are mutually constitutive’

(MacKenzie and Wajcman )

Actor-Network Theory Cars Information Technology

Cars

Information Technology

Conclusion: Complex Interactions Complex process of continuous interactions Giddens: Structuration Theory Agents shape structures Structures shape agents Reflex, iterative process No different from any social change?

Complex process of continuous interactions

Giddens: Structuration Theory

Agents shape structures

Structures shape agents

Reflex, iterative process

No different from any social change?

Conclusion: Complex Interactions Distinguishing cause and effect is difficult Truth is complex Answer to original question? we have choices we have power power unevenly distributed technological change can impact on power

Distinguishing cause and effect is difficult

Truth is complex

Answer to original question?

we have choices

we have power

power unevenly distributed

technological change can impact on power

Finally... Practical Workshop Virtual Seminar Set-Up & Training Coffee Break First Meet in D/114 at 15.15

Practical Workshop

Virtual Seminar Set-Up & Training

Coffee Break First

Meet in D/114 at 15.15

 

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