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Week One Esp101 What Is An Earthquake Clarakwan

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Information about Week One Esp101 What Is An Earthquake Clarakwan

Published on July 24, 2008

Author: Clara_kwan

Source: slideshare.net

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An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Focus and Epicenter Focus is the point within Earth where the earthquake starts. Epicenter is the location on the surface directly above the focus Faults Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Focus and Epicenter

Focus is the point within Earth where the earthquake starts.

Epicenter is the location on the surface directly above the focus

Faults

Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Elastic Rebound Hypothesis Most earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of elastic energy stored in rock that has been subjected to great forces. When the strength of the rock is exceeded, it suddenly breaks, causing the vibrations of an earthquake. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Elastic Rebound Hypothesis

Most earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of elastic energy stored in rock that has been subjected to great forces.

When the strength of the rock is exceeded, it suddenly breaks, causing the vibrations of an earthquake.

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Earthquake Waves Body Waves Identified as P waves or S waves P waves Are push-pull waves that push (compress) and pull (expand) in the direction that the waves travel 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Earthquake Waves

Body Waves

Identified as P waves or S waves

P waves

Are push-pull waves that push (compress) and pull (expand) in the direction that the waves travel

S waves Seismic waves that travel along Earth’s outer layer Shake particles at right angles to the direction that they travel Travel only through solids Slower velocity than P waves A seismogram shows all three types of seismic waves—surface waves, P waves, and S waves. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

S waves

Seismic waves that travel along Earth’s outer layer

Shake particles at right angles to the direction that they travel

Travel only through solids

Slower velocity than P waves

A seismogram shows all three types of seismic waves—surface waves, P waves, and S waves.

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Locating an Earthquake Earthquake Distance The epicenter is located using the difference in the arrival times between P and S wave recordings, which are related to distance. Earthquake Direction Travel-time graphs from three or more seismographs can be used to find the exact location of an earthquake epicenter. Earthquake Zones About 95 % of the major earthquakes occur in a few narrow zones. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Locating an Earthquake

Earthquake Distance

The epicenter is located using the difference in the arrival times between P and S wave recordings, which are related to distance.

Earthquake Direction

Travel-time graphs from three or more seismographs can be used to find the exact location of an earthquake epicenter.

Earthquake Zones

About 95 % of the major earthquakes occur in a few narrow zones.

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One Seismic wave behavior P waves arrive first, then S waves, then L and R Average speeds for all these waves is known After an earthquake, the difference in arrival times at a seismograph station can be used to calculate the distance from the seismograph to the epicenter .

Seismic wave behavior

P waves arrive first, then S waves, then L and R

Average speeds for all these waves is known

After an earthquake, the difference in arrival times at a seismograph station can be used to calculate the distance from the seismograph to the epicenter .

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Three seismograph stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake A circle where the radius equals the distance to the epicenter is drawn The intersection of the circles locates the epicenter 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

Three seismograph stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake

A circle where the radius equals the distance to the epicenter is drawn

The intersection of the circles locates the epicenter

1.bugnardo.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/08 earthquakes _and_earths_interior.ppt - 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

1.bugnardo.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/08 earthquakes _and_earths_interior.ppt -

The End 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One

The End

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