week 5 05

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Education

Published on April 24, 2008

Author: Vilfrid

Source: authorstream.com

Inferences re N of Montr Clubs:  Inferences re N of Montr Clubs Tremendous linear gr of sport Of all of these, most lasted only a few years then died out But, the more permanent ones were some 16 clubs who played major role in org of Cdn sport Montreal and Power in Sport: the MAAA::  Montreal and Power in Sport: the MAAA: Of the 16 permanent clubs in 6 sports, MAAA rep in 4 sports Founding sport was snowshoe club Will use snowsh to look at transformation of sport and MAAA power Slide7:  Song of the Montreal Snowshoe Club Pass the bottle and fill your glasses, Now that each has munched his grub, We’ll drink success to the pretty lasses, Whose lovers belong to the Snow Shoe Club. Yes tonight we’ll all unite To success to the Snow Shoe Club At racing, we challenge all creation, Let them be prepared for a very hard rub, If among the picked men of any nation, Some think they can beat the Snow Shoe Club Then to-night, with all our might, We’ll drink success to the Snow Shoe Club All pretty girls take my advice, On some vain fop don’t waste your lub, But if you wish to hug something nice, Why marry a boy of the Snow Shoe Club Then each night, with wild delight, You’ll sing success to the Snow Shoe Club. Montreal: Setting the Foundation for Amateur Sport Control:  Montreal: Setting the Foundation for Amateur Sport Control Montreal Lacrosse Club Montreal Snow Shoe Club Montreal Bicycle Club 1881 The Montreal Amateur Athletic Association Montreal Amateur Athl Assoc:  Montreal Amateur Athl Assoc Like any power group, MAAA grew out of an idea/system that led to an assertive group w initiative > formal organization and therefore position of power McD’s, Bombardier, lobby groups no different [ The Tipping Point ] MAAA Stated Purpose:  MAAA Stated Purpose “the promotion of physical and mental culture among, and the providing of rational amusements and recreation for, its members” Earliest Ideals of Amateurism ?:  Earliest Ideals of Amateurism ? Greek, “free-born” citizen Males Not slaves Affluent Romans > sport = entertainment, not an issue Renaissance “Football” [Calcio, or Florentine f-bal]:  Renaissance “Football” [Calcio, or Florentine f-bal] “Moreover, even as every kind of man was not admitted to the Olympic Games, but only men of standing in their native cities & kingdoms, so, in the Calcio, all kinds of rapscallions are not to be tolerated, neither artificers, servants nor low-born fellows, but honorable soldiers, gentlemen, lords and princes” What is the issue ? British Henley amateur defn::  British Henley amateur defn: “One who is not, among other things, by trade or employment a mechanic, artisan or laborer” Who then, IS an amateur ? What do you suppose is happening in sport ? Am not an issue til democratization of sport by opportunity Roots of Amateurism:  Roots of Amateurism Sport as Sport Diversion for Profit Traditional Amateur concept Traditional Pro concept ? Canada in early 19th Century:  Canada in early 19th Century Recall values of Gr Britain important Recall the types of sports: hunting, cricket, curling Social first, athletic 2nd British garrison officers ~ soldiers arrested for habit drunk Horseracing and tent cities, gambling > cancel ( Halifax ) or move out of city Early examples of EXCLUSION:  Early examples of EXCLUSION 1835 Newark Turf Club “No black man shall be allowed to compete under any pretext whatsoever” Snowshoe race categories: Open, for cups, trophies; Indian races for $$, open to whites too; Green races; Races for host members Keraronwe and Thomas in 1873 MSSC race, T wins, thereafter “Open, (Indians barred)” – skill & inferiority Early examples of EXCLUSION:  Early examples of EXCLUSION 1863 Toronto Bay Rowing Regatta & William Berry William Berry (coloured) Black Bob Berry Western Canadian of African descent “coloureds are barred” til 1868 1860s and sport expansion ~:  1860s and sport expansion ~ As “lower classes” got into sport, upper classes moved into exclusive sports At issue was winning ( vs fair play ideal ) and social class preservation and equality in sporting competition First ‘amateur’ defn in Canada: 1873 Montreal Pedestrian Club:  First ‘amateur’ defn in Canada: 1873 Montreal Pedestrian Club “An amateur is one who has never competed in any open competition or for public money, or for admission money, or with professionals for a prize, public money or admission money, nor has ever, at any period of his life taught or assisted in the pursuit of Athletic exercises as a means of livelihood or is a labourer or an Indian” Scenario was becoming…:  Scenario was becoming… Amateur as simon-pure, competes for love of sport, process of sport is everything, prize or winning a distant 2nd Professional as an athletic prostitute, sells his services to highest bidder, prize is everything & means to attain prize are irrelevant In Team sports, lacrosse:  In Team sports, lacrosse By 1880, tremendous popularity of lacrosse But club managers importing good players, giving them jobs esp Indians So, in 1880, banned Indians since everyone knew Indians only competed for $$ Amateurism as a concept by 1880 ::  Amateurism as a concept by 1880 : Amateur = gentleman (cl excl) Amateur = gentleman, non-bl, non-Ind (class & ethnic excl) Amateur = gentlem, n-bl, n-Ind, non-laborer, non profit Tie of $$$ to amateur ideal ~ Case of Rowing:  Tie of $$$ to amateur ideal ~ Case of Rowing So many problems by early 70s with shamateurs in rowing that Tor Argo Rowing Cl suspended its regatta in 1872 because of the “dissatisfaction regarding the monopoly held by professionals” Resumed in 1876 with categs for Ams and Pros, tho no wr distinct Tie of $$$ to amateur ideal ~ Case of Rowing:  Tie of $$$ to amateur ideal ~ Case of Rowing Hanlan and his attitude to rowing in late 70s To control for hanlans, CAAO penned its am defn in 1880 [ handout ] ~ very powerful org Main points & Note last line Virtually wiped out prof rowing MAAA, Power & formation of CAAA in 1884:  MAAA, Power & formation of CAAA in 1884 Problems in lacr (MAAA losing) and in tr and field with Caledonian circuits, fixed outcomes ~ so, Am good, pro bad said strongest Cdn sport org Note 1884 CAAA aim … not foster, not promote but POLICE or REGULATE CAAA am defn is vintage am defn – look at its implications 80s and 90s:  80s and 90s Issues were always social, TIME, and payment of players CAAA very successful; curbed semi-pro as a middle class value; set up track and field as premier sport w nat’l chpships & all affiliated clubs to CAAA had to host at least 1 T&F comp/yr 80s and 90s:  80s and 90s So, pro is a shit-disturber and all-encompassing term for inferior person, that is, not conforming to wh, m-class value CAAA works to solicit member clubs in all sports from Ont to Marits CAAA tireless in banning pros for life and if accused, you had to prove innocence 1896 CAAU:  1896 CAAU Note last line of 96 defn Change to Union in 98 to tie in w US name AAU of US However, 1896 a pivotal year in Canada, huge prosperity and huge immigr 00-20 Changes:  00-20 Changes Sifton and immigr policies > 2.5 million new Cdns Settlement of the west w ¼ sect with immed cash sale for crops & no forests to clear Wheat was everything > new railway lines Soft-wood forests in N Ont Mining of gold, silver etc in Porcupine, Kirkland Lake > hockey 00-20 Changes:  00-20 Changes Telephone cut down vastness of land re communication/org Newspapers expanded with wire services > unifying w national focus & devel of sports page Radios after ’20, same w planes; early devel of car 00-20 Changes:  00-20 Changes WW I very important for ~demonstr of Br loyalties ~Fr-Engl rivalry incr w conscr ~stimulation of economy Labour unions formed; women’s suffrage beg in ’18; movie houses opened; alcohol prohib in ‘18 and flu epidemic of ’18 Women’s skirts 14 cm off ground 1902 Defn:  1902 Defn For sport, “outbreak” of Profs in lacr, tr and field, hockey and f-ball Huge addenda to the 02 am defn Shows what was happening in transition of sport to its own institution CAAU strong with teams, leagues, regional sp gov bodies, nat’l sp gov bodies (11 by ’00) Athletic War of 1907-09:  Athletic War of 1907-09 Chaos in sport devel in early 20th century MAAA could not succeed with semi-pros & pros, so proposed rule change in 1906 to allow ams to compete WITH &/or AGAINST pros without losing am status Split from CAAU to form AAF of C Athletic War of 1907-09:  Athletic War of 1907-09 Used same CAAU defn except W or Ag pros clause Upshot was Quebec clubs affiliated w AAF of C, all others w CAAU Came to a head in 08 Ol Games when AAF of C accused Longboat of being pro New AAU of C in 1909:  New AAU of C in 1909 Result of protracted war was weakening of AAF bec IOC and CdnOC sided with CAAU In 1909, two sides joined forces to become AAU of C and the guardian of amateurism in Canada Re-entrenched amateur IDEAL George Goulding:  George Goulding Consummate amateur whose story is microcosm of what was happening in Cdn sport Competed from 1904-16 Dominated race-walking (Cptn Allardice, 1807 1000 miles in 1000 hours for 1000 guineas) Story from slides Summary re Amateurism:  Summary re Amateurism Huge discriminator Product of m-class value system Tied to concept of prof as prostit Trend in sport might be toward excellence and professional in true sense of word Sisyphian resoln to Athl War Reinforced by Olympic Ideal

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