Week 3 -- An Open World

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Information about Week 3 -- An Open World

Published on January 24, 2008

Author: matthewjetthall

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Discussion of open source, intellectual property, and licensing

CS 292: Beyond the One Way Web Matthew Jett Hall, Spring 2008 http://beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com

What is Open Source? Philosophy Licensing Operating Systems Applications Application Development Tools Intellectual Property Open Content Chapter 2 Summary CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

What is Open Source?

Philosophy

Licensing

Operating Systems

Applications

Application Development Tools

Intellectual Property

Open Content

Chapter 2 Summary

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Source Code : Human readable code Compiled Code : Machine readable code Software development principle / philosophy rejects secrecy and centralized control of creative work in favour of decentralization, transparency, and unrestricted (“ open ”) sharing of information. Facilitates extensive peer review CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com) open source . ( 2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January  18,  2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9389944

Source Code : Human readable code

Compiled Code : Machine readable code

Software development principle / philosophy

rejects secrecy and centralized control of creative work in favour of decentralization, transparency, and unrestricted (“ open ”) sharing of information.

Facilitates extensive peer review

License : to give permission, with or without terms or restrictions, to use a property Commercial Freeware Shareware Public Domain GNU GPL Many variations of the above CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

License : to give permission, with or without terms or restrictions, to use a property

Commercial

Freeware

Shareware

Public Domain

GNU GPL

Many variations of the above

Use : the right or limitation of rights to use Derivative Work : a work based upon another work – is a Mashup a derivative? Redistribution: act of making a copy and distributing it to others Attribution : Giving credit to the original author CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Use : the right or limitation of rights to use

Derivative Work : a work based upon another work – is a Mashup a derivative?

Redistribution: act of making a copy and distributing it to others

Attribution : Giving credit to the original author

THE CATHEDRAL Centralized Secret Slow Hierarchy THE BAZAAR Decentralized Transparent Openness Peer review CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com) “ Given a sufficiently large number of eyeballs, all [computer] bugs are shallow.” open source . ( 2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January  18,  2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-256445

THE CATHEDRAL

Centralized

Secret

Slow

Hierarchy

THE BAZAAR

Decentralized

Transparent

Openness

Peer review

OPEN / FREEWARE Bazaar Free Code is published Uncertain Authorship Motives vary Profit through products, support and services May restrict use May restrict derivative works CLOSED / COMMERCIAL Cathedral Not Free Code is held by the producer Known authorship Generally for profit or advantage Profit from licensing, support, and services Probably restricts use Probably restricts derivative works CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

OPEN / FREEWARE

Bazaar

Free

Code is published

Uncertain Authorship

Motives vary

Profit through products, support and services

May restrict use

May restrict derivative works

CLOSED / COMMERCIAL

Cathedral

Not Free

Code is held by the producer

Known authorship

Generally for profit or advantage

Profit from licensing, support, and services

Probably restricts use

Probably restricts derivative works

Apache Server Linux Perl Emacs GCC Firefox CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Apache Server

Linux

Perl

Emacs

GCC

Firefox

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Linus Torvald: University of Helsinki, Finland Goal Unix operating system for the PC Internet as a means to collaborate on the project “ Linux was the first major Internet-centred open-source project.“ CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Linus Torvald: University of Helsinki, Finland

Goal

Unix operating system for the PC

Internet as a means to collaborate on the project

“ Linux was the first major Internet-centred open-source project.“

Source code repository Source code search engine Facilitates Aggregation Distribution Collaboration Version Management Project management Bug tracking CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Source code repository

Source code search engine

Facilitates

Aggregation

Distribution

Collaboration

Version Management

Project management

Bug tracking

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Advanced BASIC: simple disk-based BASIC interpreter written by Microsoft for PC-DOS. It does not run on non-IBM PCs and even on later IBM models, since those lack the requisite ROM BASIC. My first interpreter CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Advanced BASIC:

simple disk-based BASIC interpreter written by Microsoft for PC-DOS.

It does not run on non-IBM PCs and even on later IBM models, since those lack the requisite ROM BASIC.

My first interpreter

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

d. intellectual property (Law), a general name for property (such as patents, trademarks, and copyright material) which is the product of invention or creativity, and which does not exist in a tangible, physical form. “ intellectual property, n. 2 &quot; The Oxford English Dictionary . 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online . Oxford University Press. 4 Apr. 2000 <http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/00181778>. CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

d. intellectual property (Law), a general name for property (such as patents, trademarks, and copyright material) which is the product of invention or creativity, and which does not exist in a tangible, physical form.

“ intellectual property, n. 2 &quot; The Oxford English Dictionary . 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online . Oxford University Press. 4 Apr. 2000 <http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/00181778>.

A patent for an invention is the grant of a property right to the inventor , issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Generally, the term of a new patent is 20 years from the date on which the application for the patent was filed in the United States… http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/index.html#patent CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

A patent for an invention is the grant of a property right to the inventor , issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Generally, the term of a new patent is 20 years from the date on which the application for the patent was filed in the United States…

http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/index.html#patent

LZW Patent Information License Information on GIF and Other LZW-based Technologies Unisys U.S. LZW Patent No. 4,558,302 expired on June 20, 2003, the counterpart patents in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy expired on June 18, 2004, the Japanese counterpart patents expired on June 20, 2004 and the counterpart Canadian patent expired on July 7, 2004.  Source: Unisys Web Site CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

LZW Patent Information

License Information on GIF and Other LZW-based Technologies

Unisys U.S. LZW Patent No. 4,558,302 expired on June 20, 2003, the counterpart patents in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy expired on June 18, 2004, the Japanese counterpart patents expired on June 20, 2004 and the counterpart Canadian patent expired on July 7, 2004. 

Source: Unisys Web Site

A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or device that is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others.… Scrabble and Facebook… CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com) http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2008/01/16/scrabble_facebook_face_off/5061/ http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/index.html#patent

A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or device that is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others.…

Scrabble and Facebook…

Copyright is a form of protection provided to the authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical , artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished. The 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to reproduce the copyrighted work , to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, or to display the copyrighted work publicly. http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/index.html#patent CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Copyright is a form of protection provided to the authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical , artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished.

The 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to reproduce the copyrighted work , to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, or to display the copyrighted work publicly. http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/index.html#patent

1998: Amended Copyright Act of 1976 -- Public Law 105–304 “ 1201 . Circumvention of copyright protection systems” “ 1203 . Civil remedies” Minimum Damage per infringement -- $750 per CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

1998: Amended Copyright Act of 1976 -- Public Law 105–304

“ 1201 . Circumvention of copyright protection systems”

“ 1203 . Civil remedies”

Minimum Damage per infringement -- $750 per

“ DULUTH, Minnesota -- Jammie Thomas, a single mother of two, was found liable Thursday for copyright infringement  in the nation's first file-sharing case to go before a jury. Twelve jurors here said the Minnesota woman must pay $9,250 for each of 24 shared songs that were the subject of the lawsuit, amounting to $222,000 in penalties. “ CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com) http://blog.wired.com/27bstroke6/2007/10/riaa-jury-finds.html Images.google.com

“ DULUTH, Minnesota -- Jammie Thomas, a single mother of two, was found liable Thursday for copyright infringement  in the nation's first file-sharing case to go before a jury.

Twelve jurors here said the Minnesota woman must pay $9,250 for each of 24 shared songs that were the subject of the lawsuit, amounting to $222,000 in penalties. “

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

“ Creative Commons defines the spectrum of possibilities between full copyright — all rights reserved — and the public domain — no rights reserved.” http://creativecommons.org/ CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

“ Creative Commons defines the spectrum of possibilities between full copyright — all rights reserved — and the public domain — no rights reserved.”

http://creativecommons.org/

Open Source / Free Software movements Perceptions and ideas of ownership of intellectually property Tolerance toward expensive software licenses Willingness of consumers to make digital copies of content without the owner’s permission  thus ignoring licensing Create greater demands for code transparency CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

Open Source / Free Software movements

Perceptions and ideas of ownership of intellectually property

Tolerance toward expensive software licenses

Willingness of consumers to make digital copies of content without the owner’s permission  thus ignoring licensing

Create greater demands for code transparency

CS 292-1: Beyond the One Way Web (beyondtheonewayweb.wordpress.com)

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