Published on February 4, 2014
Introductions / HTML pt1 22-3375 Web Design I // Columbia College Chicago
shawncalvert.com/webdesign-1 ! TO DO download assignments folder, type out answers to ex1/questions.txt
Q. Name Major HTML/CSS experience What are some things you hope to accomplish this semester (outside this class)?
Why you should want to succeed in this class: “Graphic Design” is not media-specific Build on your existing skills Difficulty of learning these skills outside of a structured environment More jobs, better pay It really is fun and empowering to code!
How you will succeed this class: Take it week-by-week Be an active learner: don’t just copy and paste, ask lots of questions, make sure you understand the underlying concepts, and be open to changing your assumptions about web design and coding If you miss classes, be serious about contacting me (or classmates) and catching up on your work Allow yourself time to get frustrated and start over on your assignments
A global network of interconnected computers.
! The web is just one service of the internet. ! It is system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
URL / DNS / IP / HTTP
User types a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) into a browser, e.g., www.amazon.com ! The URL is sent to a DNS (Domain Name Service), which translates the URL into an IP address, e.g., 188.8.131.52 ! The correct server is found through the IP address, which is sent an HTTP request (get), and returns the requested html pages, images, etc, back to the browser !
Server-side / Client-side
Rich Text to Plain Text Just as with InDesign, when you receive text from someone that has already been formatted (e.g. from Word), you should always paste that text into TextEdit, and convert to plain text.
Rich Text to Plain Text In TextEdit, go to ‘Format’ to ‘Make Plain Text.’
Rich Text to Plain Text Copy and paste the plain text into your HTML and start typing in tags to recreate the document structure.
Let’s get started!
Hyper Text + Markup Language
Markup Language A markup language is a set of markup tags. The purpose of the tags are to describe page content.
Markup Language Without any markup to give your content structure, the browser renders unformatted and unstyled text, also known as “plain text”.
Markup Language HTML tags give structure and meaning to your content. “Semantic markup” refers to the use of meaningful tags to describe content (e.g. using header tags for header content).
Markup Language Once your content is marked up, the browser applies built-in default styles to the tags. While you can override these styles with css, your marked up, non-css styled document should be readable and have a clear hierarchy.
Anatomy of an Element <tag>Content</tag> An HTML element includes both the HTML tag and everything between the tag (the content).
Anatomy of an Element <tag>Content</tag> The element tag gives the content structure and meaning.
Anatomy of an Element <tag>Content</tag> Tags normally come in pairs. The first tag is the start tag, and the second tag is the end tag.
Anatomy of an Element <h1>Main Headline</h1> HTML has a defined set of tag names (also called keywords) that the browser understands.
Anatomy of an Element <html lang=”en”></html> Most elements can have attributes, which provides additional informatin about the element.
Anatomy of an Element <div class=”left-nav”></div> Attributes always follow the same format: name=”value”. You can use either single or double quotes.
Tags: Basic Structure
doctype html head body
EXCEPTION <!DOCTYPE html> The doctype is not actually a tag, but a declaration, telling the browser what kind of html you are using. The doctype above declares HTML 5.
<html></html> The <html> element defines the whole HTML document.
<head></head> The <head> element contains special elements that instruct the browser where to find stylesheets, provide meta info, and more.
<html lang=”en”></html> The <html> element should have a “lang” attribute to tell the browser what language your page is written in.
<body></body> The <body> element contains the document content (what is shown inside the browser window).
Nesting The use of our first three tags (html, head and body), introduces and important concept: Nesting, which is when tags “wrap” other tags. When you create markup, you should indicate nesting by indenting the nested tags with 2 spaces (preferred) or a tab.
Document Hierarchy: Parents, children and siblings Just as in a genealogy tree, the family hierarchy is described in terms of relationships. All elements in the document have a parent (up to ‘document’, which is at the top), and may have children (nested inside) or siblings (placed alongside). <parent x> <child and sibling y> </child and sibling y> <child and sibling z> </child and sibling z> </parent x>
Tags: Head Tags
title base meta link script style
<title></title> The title element: • defines a title in the browser toolbar, • provides a title for the page when it is added to favorites • displays a title for the page in search engine results.
EXAMPLE <title>My Portfolio</title>
<meta> The <meta> tag provides metadata about the HTML document. Metadata will not be displayed on the page, but will be machine readable.
EXAMPLE <meta charset="utf-8"> The <meta> is a single tag — it does not require a closing tag.
<link> The <link> tag defines the relationship between a document and an external resource. It is a single tag.
EXAMPLE <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheet.css"> In the example above, the <link> tag has three attributes: rel (relationship), type, and href (hypertext reference).
<h1></h1> through <h6></h6> The header elements are block-level tags that give you the ability to assign semantic weight (importance) to your headlines.
<img> The <img> element is a single, inline tag that works anywhere in the body to insert a jpg, png, svg or gif file.
NOTE The <img> tag is empty; it requires a src (source) attribute to “pull in” the image into the page. It does not require an “alt” tag, but if the image is essential to the content (e.g. not a background or decorative element), it should have one.
EXAMPLE <img src="images/logo.gif" alt=”Acme Corp”> All <img> tags should also contain an alt attribute. This is “alternate” text that will appear if for some reason the image link is broken or the file is unavailable.
<p></p> The <p> element is a block-level tag that contains default space-before and space-after properties (making indention unnecessary.)
<ul> <ol> <dl>
NOTE List tags are always used in nested pairs. ! The wrapping tags define the list type, and indicate where the list series begins and ends.
<ul> <li></li> </ul> The <ul> (unordered list) element is a block-level tag that wraps a series of <li> (list item) elements. The default property for the list items is a bullet.
<ol> <li></li> </ol> The <ol> (ordered list) element is a block-level tag that wraps a series of <li> (list item) elements. The default property for the list items is decimal (1, 2, 3).
Tags: Anchors (linking)
<a></a> The <a> element is an inline tag that works anywhere in the body to create a hyperlink.
EXAMPLE <a href="aboutme.html">About Me</a> <a href="http://www.colum.edu">My school</a> <a> tags are always used in pairs, wrapping the content you want to activate as a link. If you use an absolute URL, it must start with “http://”.
Relative vs Absolute links Whenever you link to a file with an ‘href‘ (hypertext reference ) or ‘src’ (source) attribute, you are providing the browser and address to the resource. That address can be relative or absolute. root directory (www.mysite.com) index.html images logo.png report.pdf stylesheet.css !
Relative vs Absolute links A relative link is relative to the resource’s location in its directory. It is like saying “the restaurant is 2 blocks away.” In the example below, if ‘logo.png‘ were linked from the homepage (index.html), the tag would be: <img src=”images/logo.png”> root directory (www.mysite.com) index.html images logo.png report.pdf stylesheet.css
Relative vs Absolute links An absolute link is the full address to the resource’s location in the entire web. It is like saying “the restaurant is at 222 West Grand, Chicago IL 60625.” <img src=”http://www.mysite.com/images/logo.png”> root directory (www.mysite.com) index.html images logo.png report.pdf stylesheet.css
Where did those text styles come from? All browsers have what is called a “client stylesheet” that applies formatting to your html elements, such as text size, font, color, margins, line-height, and much more. Your custom css overrides some of these default styles.
But it is ugly! Before we begin learning how to add visual design to our pages, it is crucial that we understand how to create a foundation of solid structural design.
File Transfer Protocol Local (your computer) Host (www)
FTP Software All premium code editors have ftp built in, which allows you to sync your project files to the server easily. You will often need to post or download files from the server manually. For this you can use dedicated ftp software: Fetch, Transmit and FileZilla & Fireftp (both free) are all good choices for Mac.
WALKTHROUGH: Set up a project in bbedit
CMS A Content Management System (CMS) is a computer program that allows publishing, editing and modifying content on a web site as well as maintenance from a central page.
Dynamic CMS index.php database
WALKTHROUGH: Set up a theme in Wordpress
WALKTHROUGH: Create a post in Wordpress
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