Published on March 16, 2014
Lecture 3 Contextual Inquiry: Eliciting Work Activity Data UX Theory / IIT 2014 Spring Class hours : Monday 4 pm – 7 pm 17th March
Today’s Checklist • Personal Statement Presentation – Sung, Taehoon – Moon, Jinyoung – Park, Jihyeon – Lee, Changmin – Gouk, Donghyun (?) • Video in Time capsule • Github • VVVV Group • Classroom computer workshop setting & Laptop Setting Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 2
INTRODUCTION Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 3 Figure 3-1 You are here; in the contextual inquiry chapter, within understanding user work and needs in the context of the overall Wheel lifecycle template.
INTRODUCTION • Work – Work is the set of activities that people undertake to accomplish goals. Some of these activities involve system or product usage. This concept includes play, if play, rather than work per se, is the goal of the user. • Work Domain – The entire context of work and work practice in the target enterprise or other target usage environment. • Work Practice – Work practice is the pattern of established actions, approaches, routines, conventions, and procedures followed and observed in the customary performance of a particular job to carry out the operations of an enterprise. Work practice often involves learned skills, decision making, and physical actions and can be based on tradition, ritualized and habituated. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 4
INTRODUCTION • Work Activity – A work activity is comprised of sensory, cognitive, and physical actions made by users in the course of carrying out the work practice. • Contextual Inquiry – Contextual inquiry is an early system or product UX lifecycle activity to gather detailed descriptions of customer or user work practice for the purpose of understanding work activities and underlying rationale. The goal of contextual inquiry is to improve work practice and construct and/or improve system designs to support it. Contextual inquiry includes both interviews of customers and users and observations of work practice occurring in its real-world context. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 5
INTRODUCTION • Understanding Other People’s Work Practice – This chapter is where you collect data about the work domain and user’s work activities. This is not about “requirements” in the traditional sense but is about the difficult task of understanding user’s work in context and understanding what it would take in a system design to support and improve the user’s work practice and work effectiveness. – Why not just gather requirements from multiple users and build a design solution to fit them all? You want an integrated design that fits into the “fabric” of your customer’s operations, not just “point solutions” to specific problems of individual users. This can only be achieved by a design driven by contextual data, not just opinions or negotiation of a list of features. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 6
INTRODUCTION • Observing and Interviewing in Situ: What They Say vs. What They Do – Observing users and asking users to talk about their work activities as they are doing them in their own work context get them to speak from what they are doing, accessing domain knowledge situated “in the world” – Contextual inquiry in human–computer interaction (HCI) derives from ethnography, a branch of anthropology that focuses on the study and systematic description of various human cultures. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 7
INTRODUCTION Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 8 Figure 3-2 Observation and interviewing for contextual data collection.
INTRODUCTION:MUTTS Case Study • MUTTS – Middleburg University Ticket Transaction Service • The current business process suffers from numerous drawbacks – All customers have to go to one location to buy tickets in person. – MUTTS has partnered with Tickets4ever.com as a national online tickets distribution platform. However, Tickets4ever.com suffers from low reliability and has a reputation for poor user experience. – Current operation of MUTTS involves multiple systems that do not work together very well. – The rapid hiring of ticket sellers to meet periodic high demand is hampered by university and state hiring policies. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 9
INTRODUCTION:MUTTS Case Study • Organizational context of the existing system – The supervisor of MUTTS wishes to expand revenue-generating activities. – To leverage their increasing national academic and athletic prominence, the university is seeking a comprehensive customized solution that includes integration of tickets for athletic events (currently tickets to athletic events are managed by an entirely different department). – By including tickets for athletic events that generate significant revenue, MUTTS will have access to resources to support their expansion. – The university is undergoing a strategic initiative for unified branding across all its departments and activities. The university administration is receptive to creative design solutions for MUTTS to support this branding effort. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 10
THE SYSTEM CONCEPT STATEMENT • What is it? – A system concept statement is typically 100 to 150 words in length. – It is a mission statement for a system to explain the system to outsiders and to help set focus and scope for system development internally. – Writing a good system concept statement is not easy. – The amount of attention given per word is high. A system concept statement is not just written; it is iterated and refined to make it as clear and specific as possible. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 11
THE SYSTEM CONCEPT STATEMENT • An effective system concept statement answers at least the following questions: – What is the system name? – Who are the system users? – What will the system do? – What problem(s) will the system solve? (You need to be broad here to include business objectives.) – What is the design vision and what are the emotional impact goals? In other words, what experience will the system provide to the user? This factor is especially important if the system is a commercial product. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 12
THE SYSTEM CONCEPT STATEMENT • Example: System Concept Statement for the Ticket Kiosk System Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 13 The Ticket Kiosk System will replace the old ticket retail system, the Middleburg University Ticket Transaction Service, by providing 24-hour-a-day distributed kiosk service to the general public. This service includes access to comprehensive event information and the capability to rapidly purchase tickets for local events such as concerts, movies, and the performing arts. The new system includes a significant expansion of scope to include ticket distribution for the entire MU athletic program. Transportation tickets will also be available, along with directions and parking information for specific venues. Compared to conventional ticket outlets, the Ticket Kiosk System will reduce waiting time and offer far more extensive information about events. A focus on innovative design will enhance the MU public profile while Fostering the spirit of being part of the MU community and offering the customer a Beaming interaction experience. (139 words)
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING • To do your user work activity data gathering you will: – prepare and conduct field visits to the customer/user work environment, where the system being designed will be used – observe and interview users while they work – inquire into the structure of the users’ own work practice – learn about how people do the work your system is to be designed to support – take copious, detailed notes, raw user work activity data, on the observations and interviews Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 14
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING • Before the Visit: Preparation for the Domain-Complex System Perspective – Learn about your customer organization before the visit – Learn about the domain – Issues about your team – Lining up the right customer and user people – Get access to “key” people Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 15
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING • Before the Visit: Preparation for the Domain-Complex System Perspective – What if you cannot find real users? – Setting up the right conditions – How many interviewees at a time? – Preparing your initial questions – Before the visit: Preparation for the product perspective – Anticipating modeling needs in contextual inquiry: Create contextual data “bins” Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 16
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING • During the Visit: Collecting User Work Activity Data in the Domain- Complex System Perspective – When you first arrive – Remember the goal – Establish trust and rapport – Form partnerships with users – Task data from observation and interview – Recording video – Note taking – Use a numbering system to identify each point in data Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 17
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING • During the Visit: Collecting User Work Activity Data in the Domain- Complex System Perspective – How to proceed • Be a listener; in most cases you should not offer your opinions about what users might need. • Do not lead the user or introduce your own perspectives. • Do not expect every user to have the same view of the work domain and the work; ask questions about the differences and find ways to combine to get the “truth.” • Capture the details as they occur; do not wait and try to remember it later. • Be an effective data ferret or detective. Follow leads and discover, extract, “tease out” and collect “clues.” Be ready to adapt, modify, explore, and branch out. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 18
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING • During the Visit: Collecting User Work Activity Data in the Domain- Complex System Perspective – Pay attention to information needs of users – What about design ideas that crop up? – What about analyst and designer ideas that crop up? – Questions not to ask • Do not ask about the future. • Do not ask for design advice, how they would design a given feature. • Do not ask a question by trying to state what you think is their rationale. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 19
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING • During the Visit: Collecting User Work Activity Data in the Domain-Complex System Perspective – Collect work artifacts – Other forms of data collection • Copious digital pictures of the physical environment, devices, people at work, and anything else to convey work activities and context visually. Respect the privacy of the people and ask for permission when appropriate. • On-the-fly diagrams of workflow, roles, and relationships; have people there check them for agreement. • On-the-fly sketches of the physical layout, floor plans (not necessary to be to scale), locations of people, furniture, equipment, communications connections, etc. • Quantitative data—for example, how many people do this job, how long do they typically work before getting a break, or how many widgets per hour do they assemble on the average? Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 20
USER WORK ACTIVITY DATA GATHERING Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 21 Figure 3-3 Examples of work artifacts gathered from a local restaurant.
DATA-DRIVEN VS. MODEL-DRIVEN INQUIRY • Data-Driven Inquiry – Data-driven inquiry is led entirely by the work activity data as it presents itself, forestalling any influence from the analyst’s own knowledge, experience, or expectations. The idea is to avoid biases in data collection. • Model-Driven Inquiry – In model-driven inquiry, contextual data gathering is informed by knowledge and expectations from experience, intelligent conjecture, and knowledge of similar systems and situations. The idea is to be more efficient by using what you know, but it comes at the risk of missing data due to biases. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 22
HISTORY • Roots in Activity Theory – Scandinavian work activity theory (Bjerknes, Ehn, & Kyng, 1987; Boker, 1991; Ehn, 1988) – the impact of computer-based systems on human labor and democracy within the organizations of the affected workers. • Roots in Ethnography – anthropology (LeCompte & Preissle, 1993) – The goal is to study and document details of their daily lives and existence. • Getting Contextual Studies into HCI – The foundations for contextual design in HCI were laid by researchers at Digital Equipment Corporation (Whiteside & Wixon, 1987; Wixon, 1995; Wixon, Holtzblatt, & Knox, 1990). • Connections to Participatory Design – participatory design and collaborative analysis of requirements and design developed by Muller and associates (1993a, 1993b) and collaborative users’ task analysis (Lafrenie`re 1996). Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 23
Next Week Reading List • Download From YSCEC > User Experience > Books & Papers > Week 04 Reading – Sabanovic, S., Reeder, S. & Kechavarzi, B. (2014). Designing Robots in the Wild: In situ Prototype Evaluation for a Break Management Robot, Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2014, pp. 70-88. – Bowen, S., & Petrelli, D. (2011) Remembering today tomorrow : Exploring the human- centred design of digital mementos, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 69, pp. 324-337. • Textbook – Chapter 4. Contextual Analysis : Consolidating and Interpreting Work Activity Data Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 24
Exercise 3-1: System Concept Statement for a System of Your Choice • Goal: Get practice in writing a concise system concept statement. • Activities: – Write a system concept statement for a system of your choice. – Iterate and polish it. The 150 or fewer words you write here will be among the most important words in the whole project; they should be highly polished, which means that you should spend a disproportionate amount of time and energy thinking about, writing, reading, editing, discussing, and rewriting this system concept statement. • Deliverables: Your “final” system concept statement. • Schedule: Given the simplicity of the domain, we expect you can get what you need from this exercise in about 30 minutes. Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 25
Homework Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 26 Readings And Critiques Complete System Concept Statement Exercise Complete the Online Survey 1 2 3 Your Blog Post #3 - Summarize the papers - Add your critiques for each paper Your Blog Post #4 - 150 words or fewer Google Doc Survey - Background Information for Team-ups - https://docs.google.com/forms /d/1phvvuDydK- 6QYPxXMmoQ3aR0mEOn2_Xtw9TiXi5 sk3E/viewform Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 23rd March
GITHUB SETTING Homework #3 Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 27
Github Set up • Setup Github Account • Follow/Watch/Star – Libraries you are referencing • Send an email informing your github address – www.github.com/yourid Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 28
VVVV Learning • Online Learning – http://everyware.kr/home/category/lectures/vvvv-basics/ – https://github.com/elliotwoods/VVVV.Tutorials.Fundamentals – http://vvvv.org/contribution/dont-panic-the-noobs-guide-to-vvvv – http://vvvv.org/documentation/documentation Lecture #3 IIT_UX Theory 29
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