Week 01. Introduction to UX Prototyping

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Information about Week 01. Introduction to UX Prototyping

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: dsdlab

Source: slideshare.net

Lecture 1 Introduction to User Experience Prototyping UX Prototyping / IID 2014 Spring Class hours : Fri 3 pm – 7 pm 7th March

Beginning of the Semester HELLO & WELCOME Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 2

Goals & Overview Design Thinking for Future Media and Experiences Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 3

Goals & Overview • Imagination to Design – Sketching and prototyping are the basic methods of design for many different purposes. For digital media, the methods are evolving to embrace effective idea generations, communications, iterations, and team creativity. The classes will overview the gradual steps of UX prototyping from observations to embodiments. – The designers’ role in the contemporary world becomes more and more diversified, and multifaceted. Designers are not only creators of products and services, but also leaders of the “zeitgeist,” the spirit of the age. To prepare the change and challenge, we will share the discussions over the designers’ role in the digital age. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 4

Class Operations • Workshops – The class workshops will greatly focus on UX prototyping, which will combine the phases of activities of design thinking. After lectures of each topic of sketching and prototyping, student will visualize their ideas in several different forms, such as drawings, images, videos, and animations. In the course, students can learn how to elicit, and develop their creative ideas. • Show & tell – The class will also focus on the design communication that will be taught by class presentations, and group activities of collaborative design. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 5

Evaluation • Homework 30 % • Midterm 30% • Final 30% • Attendance 10% Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 6

Textbooks – Buxton, B. (2007) Sketching User Experiences: Getting the Design Right and the Right Design, Morgan Kaufmann. – Saul Greenberg, et. al. (2012) Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook, Morgan Kaufmann. – Gaver, W., Dunne, A., & Pacenti, E., (1999) "Cultural Probes," Interactions 6(1), pp21-29. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 7

Design Theories this Course Will Cover Critical Design Dunne & Raby Cultural Probes William Gaver Design Fiction Auger & Loizeau diegetic prototypes to suspend disbelief about change Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 8

Design Fiction Figure 1. Alternative presents and speculative futures. At the origin is here and now—everyday life and real products available on the high street. The lineage of these products can be traced back to when the technology became available to iterate them beyond their existing states. In Figure 1, the technology element on the left hand side represents research and development work, the higher the line the more emergent the technology and the longer and less predictable its route to everyday life. As we move to the right of the diagram and into the future we see that speculative designs exist as projections of the lineage, developed using techniques that focus on contemporary public understanding and desires, extrapolated through imagined developments of an emerging technology. Alternative presents step out of the lineage at some poignant time in the past to re-imagine our technological present. These designs can challenge and question existing cultural, political and manufacturing systems. (Auger, 2013) Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 9

Microsoft Vision of 2019 http://youtu.be/P2PMbvVGS-o Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 10

Microsoft Productivity Future Vision http://youtu.be/a6cNdhOKwi0 Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 11

Project Tango http://youtu.be/Qe10ExwzCqk Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 12

A Research Example Relating to Tango : Wayfinding Machine Design in Spatial Computing Condition https://vimeo.com/41987762 Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 13

Lecture INTRODUCTION Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 14

The components of UX • User Experience – User experience is the totality of the effect or effects felt by a user as a result of interaction with, and the usage context of, a system, device, or product, including the influence of usability, usefulness, and emotional impact during interaction, and savoring the memory after interaction. – “Interaction with” is broad and embraces seeing, touching, and thinking about the system or product, including admiring it and its presentation before any physical interaction. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 15

The components of UX • Usability – Usability is the pragmatic component of user experience, including effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, ease-of-use, learnability, retainability, and the pragmatic aspects of user satisfaction. • Usefulness – Usefulness is the component of user experience to which system functionality gives the ability to use the system or product to accomplish the goals of work(or play). • Functionality – Functionality is power to do work(or play) seated in the non-user-interface computational features and capabilities. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 16

The components of UX • Emotional Impact – Emotional impact is the affective component of user experience that influences user feelings. Emotional impact includes such effects as pleasure, fun, joy of use, aesthetics, desirability, pleasure, novelty, originality, sensations, coolness, engagement, appeal and can involve deeper emotional factors such self-identity, a feeling of contribution to the world and pride of ownership. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 17

Ubiquitous Interaction • Desktop, Graphical User Interfaces, and the Web Are Still Here and Growing – The “old-fashioned” desktop, laptop, and network-based computing systems are alive and well and seem to be everywhere, an expanding presence in our lives. – Word processing, database management, storing and retrieving information, spreadsheet management. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 18

Ubiquitous Interaction • The Changing Concept of Computing – Computer systems are being worn by people and embedded within appliances, homes, offices, stereos and entertainment systems, vehicles, and roads. – Computation and interaction are also finding their way into walls, furniture, and objects we carry (briefcases, purses, wallets, wrist, watches, PDAs, cellphones) – Most of the user-computer interaction attendant to this ubiquitous computing in everyday contexts is taking place without keyboards, mice, or monitors. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 19

Ubiquitous Interaction • The Changing Concept of Interaction – With an obviously enormous market potential, mobile communications are perhaps the fastest growing area of ubiquitous computing with personal devices and also represent one of the most intense areas of designing for a quality user experience. – Interaction, however, is doing more than just reappearing in different devices such as we see in Web access via mobile phone. Weiser (1991) said “. . . the most profound technologies are those that disappear.” – Russell, Streitz, and Winograd (2005) also talk about the disappearing computer—not computers that are departing or ceasing to exist, but disappearing in the sense of becoming unobtrusive and unremarkable. They use the example of electric motors, which are part of many machines we use daily, yet we almost never think about electric motors per se. They talk about “making computers disappear into the walls and interstices of our living and working spaces.” Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 20

Ubiquitous Interaction • The Changing Concept of Interaction – When this happens, it is sometimes called “ambient intelligence,” the goal of considerable research and development aimed at the home living environment. In the HomeLab of Philips Research in the Netherlands (Markopoulos et al., 2005), researchers believe “that ambient intelligence technology will mediate, permeate, and become an inseparable common of our everyday social interactions at work or at leisure.” – In these embedded systems, of course, the computer only seems to disappear. The computer is still there somewhere and in some form, and the challenge is to design the interaction so that the computer remains invisible or unobtrusive and interaction appears to be with the artifacts, such as the walls, directly. So, with embedded computing, certainly the need for a quality user experience does not disappear. Imagine embedded computing with a design that leads to poor usability; users will be clueless and will not have even the familiar menus and icons to find their way! Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 21

SKIN : Emotional Sensing(2008) http://youtu.be/WRX-3DDBow0 Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 22

Intimacy 2.0 (2011) Interactive fashion by Studio Roosegaarde https://vimeo.com/29952304 Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 23

From Usability to User Experience • The Traditional Concept of Usability – Usability is that aspect of HCI devoted to ensuring that human–computer interaction is, among other things, effective, efficient, and satisfying for the user. So usability includes characteristics such as ease of use, productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, learnability, retainability, and user satisfaction (ISO 9241-11, 1997). Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 24

From Usability to User Experience • Misconceptions about Usability – First, usability is not what some people used to call “dummy proofing.” – Usability is not equivalent to being “user-friendly.” – To many not familiar with the field, “doing usability” is sometimes thought of as equivalent to usability testing. – Finally, another popular misconception about usability has to do with visual appeal. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 25

From Usability to User Experience • The Expanding Concept of Quality in Our Designs – The field of interaction design has grown slowly, and our concept of what constitutes quality in our designs has expanded from an engineering focus on user performance under the aegis of usability into what is now widely known as user experience. – Thomas and McCredie (2002) call for “new usability” to account for “new design requirements such as ambience or attention.” – At a CHI 2007 Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting (Huh et al., 2007), the discussion focused on “investigating a variety of approaches (beyond usability) such as user experience, aesthetic interaction, ambiguity, slow technology, and various ways to understand the social, cultural, and other contextual aspects of our world.” Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 26

From Usability to User Experience • Is Not Emotional Impact What We Have Been Calling User Satisfaction? – Some say the emphasis on these emotional factors is nothing new—after all, user satisfaction, a traditional subjective measure of usability, has always been a part of the concept of traditional usability shared by most people, including the ISO 9241-11 standard definition. – Technology and design have evolved from being just productivityenhancing tools to more personal, social, and intimate facets of our lives. Accordingly, we need a much broader definition of what constitutes quality in our designs and quality in the user experience those designs beget. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 27

From Usability to User Experience First Apple store opened in the Netherlands on 3rd March 2012. It has an amazing spiral staircase, a trademark like those in all other Apple stores. • Functionality is Important, but a Quality User Experience Can Be Even More So – The iPod, iPhone, and iPad are products that represent cool high technology with excellent functionality but are also examples that show the market is now not just about the features—it is about careful design for a quality user experience as a gateway to that functionality. – To users, the interaction experience is the system. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 28

From Usability to User Experience • Functionality Is Important, but a Quality User Experience Can Be Even More So – Hassenzahl and Roto (2007) state the case for the difference between the functional view of usability and the phenomenological view of emotional impact. People have and use technical products because “they have things to do”; they need to make phone calls, write documents, shop on-line, or search for information. – Hazzenzahl and Roto call these “do goals,” appropriately evaluated by the usability and usefulness measures of their “pragmatic quality.” Human users also have emotional and psychological needs, including needs involving self-identity, relatedness to others, and being satisfied with life. – These are “be goals,” appropriately evaluated by the emotional impact and phenomenological measures of their “hedonic quality.” Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 29

From Usability to User Experience • A Good User Experience Does Not Necessarily Mean High-Tech or “Cool” – The best user experience requires a balance of functionality, usability, aesthetics, branding, identity, and so on. (eg. Microsoft Vista Package) – In addition to user experience not just being cool, it also is not just about technology for technology’s sake. (eg. University Figure 1-1 A new Microsoft software packaging design Conference Call system) Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 30

From Usability to User Experience • Design beyond Just Technology – Design is about creating artifacts to satisfy a usage need in a language that can facilitate a dialog between the creator of the artifact and the user. That artifact can be anything from a computer system to an everyday object such as a door knob. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 31

From Usability to User Experience • Components of a User Experience – The newer concept of user experience still embodies all these implications of usability. How much joy of use would one get from a cool and neat-looking iPad design that was very clumsy and awkward to use? Clearly there is an intertwining in that some of the joy of use can come from extremely good ease of use. – The most basic reason for considering joy of use is the humanistic view that enjoyment is fundamental to life. (Hassenzahl, M., Beu, A., & Burmester, M. (2001). Engineering joy. IEEE Software, 18(1), pp. 70–76.) – As a result, we have expanded the scope of user experience to include: • effects experienced due to usability factors • effects experienced due to usefulness factors • effects experienced due to emotional impact factors Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 32

From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Is (Mostly) Felt Internally by the User – User experience, as the words imply, is the totality of the effect or effects felt (experienced) internally by a user as a result of interaction with, and the usage context of, a system, device, or product. – Here, we give the terms “interaction” and “usage” very broad interpretations, as we will explain, including seeing, touching, and thinking about the system or product, including admiring it and its presentation before any physical interaction, the influence of usability, usefulness, and emotional impact during physical interaction, and savoring the memory after interaction. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 33

From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Cannot Be Designed – A user experience cannot be designed, only experienced. You are not designing or engineering or developing good usability or designing or engineering or developing a good user experience. – There is no usability or user experience inside the design; they are relative to the user. Usability occurs within, or is revealed within, the context of a particular usage by a particular user. The same design but used in a different context—different usage and/or a different user— could lead to a different user experience, including a different level of, or kind of, usability. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 34

From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Cannot Be Designed – We illustrate this concept with a non-computer example, the experience of enjoying Belgian chocolates. Because the “designer” and producer of the chocolates may have put the finest ingredients and best traditional processes into the making of this product, it is not surprising that they claim in their advertising a fine chocolate experience built into their confections. – However, by the reasoning in the previous paragraph, the user experience resides within the consumer, not in the chocolates. That chocolate experience includes anticipating the pleasure, beholding the dark beauty, smelling the wonderful aromas, the deliberate and sensual consumption (the most important part), the lingering bouquet and after-taste, and, finally, pleasurable memories. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 35

From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Cannot Be Designed – When this semantic detail is not observed and the chocolate is marketed with claims such as “We have created your heavenly chocolate experience,” everyone still understands. – Similarly, no one but the most ardent stickler protests when BMW claims “BMW has designed and built your joy!” In this book, however, we wish to be technically correct and consistent so we would have them say, “We have created sweet treats to ensure your heavenly chocolate experience” or “BMW has built an automobile designed to produce your ultimate driving experience.” Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 36

From Usability to User Experience Figure 1-2 User experience occurs within interaction and usage context Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 37

User’s Mental Models : The Very Ideas • Book – Stephen J. Payne, “User’s Mental Models : The Very Ideas” in John M. Carroll, (2003) HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks : Toward a Multidisciplinary Science, CA : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 135-156. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 38

Design Philosophy • Herb Simon: “Engineers are not the only professional designers. Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones. The intellectual activity that produces material artefacts is no different fundamentally from the one that prescribes remedies for a sick patient or the one that devises a new sales plan for a company or a social welfare policy for a state.” – Herbert A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, 1969 (p.129 of 1981 MIT press 2nd edition) Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 39

Intro Figure 1 (adapted from Norman (1988) p. 16): The problem of ensuring that the user's mental model corresponds to the designer's model arises because the designer does not talk directly with the user. The designer can only talk to the user through the "system image" - the designer's materialised mental model. The system image is, like a text, open to interpretation. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 40

Users • Mental Models – User’s knowledge about the system they use. • Bounded Rationality (Simon, 1955) – People often have to act too quickly to allow full consideration of all their relevant knowledge – they do the best they can to achieve their goals according to the knowledge they can bring to mind, and the inferences that knowledge supports, in the time allowed. – “Bounded rationality” : rationality that is bounded by the environmental constraints on their performance, interacting with their limits on access to knowledge and the limits on their performance, interacting with their limits on access to knowledge and the limits on their ability to process relevant information. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 41

Mental Models • Idea 1. Mental Content vs. Cognitive Architecture : Mental Models as Theories – Bounded Rationality : the general limits of the human information-processing system – the constrains on attention, retrieval, and processing. – Human information-processing architecture : theories of the structure of the mind. – Contents of the mind : what do people believe about an aspect of the world, what is the relation between these beliefs and reality, and how do the beliefs affect their behavior? Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 42

Cognitive Architecture A model of the user based on an information processing metaphor Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 43

Mental Models • Idea 2. Models vs. Methods : Mental Models as Problem Spaces – Mental models of machines can provide a problem space that allows more elaborate encoding of remembered methods, and in which novice or expert problem solvers can search for new methods to achieve tasks. – Stepping through a sequence of states in some mental models of a machine, is often called “mental simulation” in the mental-models literature, and the kind of model that allows simulation is often called “surrogate” – Reasoning is performed by sequential application of completely domainspecific rules and thus is knowledge bounded rather than architecture bounded. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 44

Kissenger brings digital love to the real world http://youtu.be/oSckuNlzQdM http://kissenger.lovotics.com/ Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 45

Mental Models • Idea 3. Models vs. Descriptions : Mental Models as Homeomorphisms – Mental models are a special kind of representation, sometimes called an analog representation – one that shares the structure of the world it represents. – Example • The spoon is to the left of the fork  spoon fork • The knife is to the left of the spoon  knife spoon fork – Such a model allows deductive inferences to be “read off” Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 46

Social Game : Farm Ville Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 47

Mental Models • Idea 4. Models of Representations : Mental Models Can Be Derived from Language, Perception, or Imagination – Mental models can be constructed by processing language, but the same models might also, in principle, have been constructed through interaction with and perception of the world. Therefore a mental model provides a way of mapping language to perception. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 48

Interactive landscape 'Dune 4.2' http://youtu.be/TsnBo0CZMRk Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 49

'Dune 4.2' Dune 4.2 is a new, permanent interactive landscape by artist Daan Roosegaarde besides the river Maas in Rotterdam, NL. This public artwork of 60 meters utilizes less than 60 Watts while intuitively interacting with the behavior of its visitors; rendering it a sustainable as well as cutting-edge concept. Here the people of Rotterdam have a daily 'walk of light'; in this collective experience between humans, technology and landscape. www.studioroosegaarde.net Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 50

Mental Models • Idea 5. Mental Representations of Representational Artifacts – The yoked state space hypothesis(Payne, Squibb, & Howes, 1990) • To construct a conceptual model of a device, the user must conceptualize the device's representation of the task domain. This knowledge can be represented by three components: a device-based problem space, which specifies the ontology of the device in terms of the objects that can be manipulated and their interrelations, plus the operators that perform the manipulations; a goal space, which represents the objects in terms of which user's goals are expressed; and a semantic mapping, which determines how goal space objects are represented in the device space. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 51

Mental Models • Idea 6. Mental Models as Computationally Equivalent to External Representations – If structure-sharing is taken to be an important property of mental models, then a mental model derived from text shares the structure of the situation, not of the text. – However, it is not clear that this distinction extends to mental models derived from “reading” other representational artifacts, such as maps, or diagrams. Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 52

Homework 1 Make Blog 2 3 Upload Personal Statement Upload Portfolio Make a personal blog Your Blog Post #1 Your Blog Post #2 - Blogger - Wordpress - Tumblr - Length : 1,000 words or less - Who I am, and What I have been through - Things that I like - What I like to Learn from the course - My dreams - Upload images of your works - Pick your Favorite - Tell us why the work is your favorite Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Thur. 13th March Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 53

Contacts • Email – digital.sd.lab@gmail.com • Class Blog – http://uxprototyping.tumblr.com/ Lecture #1 IID_UX Prototyping 54

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